Skip header and navigation

Refine By

48 records – page 1 of 5.

The 2015 National Canadian Homeless Youth Survey: Mental Health and Addiction Findings.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature291013
Source
Can J Psychiatry. 2017 07; 62(7):493-500
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
07-2017
Author
Sean A Kidd
Stephen Gaetz
Bill O'Grady
Author Affiliation
1 Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario.
Source
Can J Psychiatry. 2017 07; 62(7):493-500
Date
07-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Canada - epidemiology
Female
Homeless Youth - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Male
Mental Health - statistics & numerical data
Sex Factors
Sexual and Gender Minorities - statistics & numerical data
Stress, Psychological - epidemiology
Substance-Related Disorders - epidemiology
Suicide, Attempted - statistics & numerical data
Young Adult
Abstract
This study was designed to provide a representative description of the mental health of youth accessing homelessness services in Canada. It is the most extensive survey in this area to date and is intended to inform the development of mental health and addiction service and policy for this marginalized population.
This study reports mental health-related data from the 2015 "Leaving Home" national youth homelessness survey, which was administered through 57 agencies serving homeless youth in 42 communities across the country. This self-reported, point-in-time survey assessed a broad range of demographic information, pre-homelessness and homelessness variables, and mental health indicators.
Survey data were obtained from 1103 youth accessing Canadian homelessness services in the Nunavut territory and all Canadian provinces except for Prince Edward Island. Forty-two per cent of participants reported 1 or more suicide attempts, 85.4% fell in a high range of psychological distress, and key indicators of risk included an earlier age of the first episode of homelessness, female gender, and identifying as a sexual and/or gender minority (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and 2 spirit [LGBTQ2S]).
This study provides clear and compelling evidence of a need for mental health support for these youth, particularly LGBTQ2S youth and female youth. The mental health concerns observed here, however, must be considered in the light of the tremendous adversity in all social determinants faced by these youth, with population-level interventions best leveraged in prevention and rapid response.
Notes
Cites: Lancet. 1998 Aug 29;352(9129):743 PMID 9729028
Cites: J Youth Adolesc. 2012 May;41(5):533-43 PMID 22302217
Cites: Soc Sci Med. 2003 Aug;57(3):561-9 PMID 12791497
Cites: Can J Psychiatry. 2015 Nov;60(11):467-74 PMID 26720504
Cites: JAMA. 2004 Aug 4;292(5):569-74 PMID 15292082
Cites: Am J Addict. 2006;15 Suppl 1:80-91 PMID 17182423
Cites: J Adolesc. 2011 Oct;34(5):1049-54 PMID 21122909
Cites: Qual Life Res. 2004 Mar;13(2):299-310 PMID 15085902
Cites: J Adolesc Health. 2009 Dec;45(6):571-8 PMID 19931829
Cites: J Adolesc. 2007 Apr;30(2):283-96 PMID 16631925
Cites: J Couns Psychol. 2010 Jul;57(3):274-89 PMID 21133579
Cites: Can J Psychiatry. 2001 Sep;46(7):617-21 PMID 11582822
Cites: Psychiatr Serv. 2016 Oct 1;67(10 ):1083-1090 PMID 27247178
Cites: J Nurs Meas. 2009;17(2):105-13 PMID 19711709
Cites: Am J Public Health. 2002 May;92(5):773-7 PMID 11988446
PubMed ID
28372467 View in PubMed
Less detail

Acute care hospitalization by Aboriginal identity, Canada, 2006 through 2008.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature292287
Source
Health Rep. 2016 Aug 17; 27(8):3-11
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Aug-17-2016
Author
Gisèle Carrière
Evelyne Bougie
Dafna Kohen
Michelle Rotermann
Claudia Sanmartin
Author Affiliation
Health Analysis Division, Statistics Canada, Ottawa, Ontario.
Source
Health Rep. 2016 Aug 17; 27(8):3-11
Date
Aug-17-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Acute Disease
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Canada - epidemiology
Censuses
Child
Child, Preschool
Female
Hospitalization - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Indians, North American
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Inuits
Male
Middle Aged
Risk factors
Abstract
National data about acute care hospitalization of Aboriginal people are scarce. This study addresses that information gap by describing patterns of hospitalization by Aboriginal identity for leading diagnoses for all provinces and territories except Quebec.
The 2006 Census was linked to the 2006/2007-to-2008/2009 Discharge Abstract Database, which contains hospital records from all acute care facilities in Canada (excluding Quebec). With these linked data, hospital records could be examined by Aboriginal identity, as reported to the census. Hospitalizations were grouped by International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) chapters based on "the most responsible diagnosis." Age-standardized hospitalization rates were calculated per 100,000 population, and rate ratios (RR) were calculated for Aboriginal groups relative to non-Aboriginal people.
Hospitalization rates were almost invariably higher for First Nations living on and off reserve, Métis, and Inuit living in Inuit Nunangat than for the non-Aboriginal population, regardless of ICD diagnostic chapter. The ranking of age-standardized hospitalization rates by frequency of diagnoses varied slightly by Aboriginal identity. RRs were highest among First Nations living on reserve, especially for endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases (RR = 4.9), mental and behavioural disorders (RR = 3.6), diseases of the respiratory system (RR = 3.3), and injuries (RR = 3.2). As well, the rate for endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases was high among First Nations living off reserve (RR = 2.7). RRs were also high among Inuit for mental and behavioural disorders (RR = 3.3) and for diseases of the respiratory system (RR = 2.7).
Hospitalization rates varied by Aboriginal identity, and were consistent with recognized health disparities between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people. Because many factors besides health affect hospital use, further research is required to understand differences in hospital use by Aboriginal identity. These national data are relevant to health policy formulation and service delivery planning.
PubMed ID
27532620 View in PubMed
Less detail

Acute care hospitalization of Aboriginal children and youth.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature295326
Source
Health Rep. 2017 Jul 19; 28(7):11-17
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Jul-19-2017
Author
Anne Guèvremont
Gisèle Carrière
Evelyne Bougie
Dafna Kohen
Author Affiliation
Health Analysis Division, Statistics Canada, Ottawa, Ontario.
Source
Health Rep. 2017 Jul 19; 28(7):11-17
Date
Jul-19-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Acute Disease
Adolescent
Canada - epidemiology
Censuses
Child
Child, Preschool
Female
Hospitalization - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Indians, North American - statistics & numerical data
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Inuits
Male
Patient Discharge
Young Adult
Abstract
Research that has examined Aboriginal children's hospitalization rates at the national level has been limited to analyses of areas with large percentages of Aboriginal residents, rather than of Aboriginal individuals. This study uses linked census and administrative data to describe hospitalization patterns among children and youth aged 0 to 19, by Aboriginal identity, for all provinces and territories except Quebec.
The 2006 Census was linked to the 2006/2007-to-2008/2009 Discharge Abstract Database, which contains hospital records from all acute care facilities (except Quebec). Hospital records were examined by Aboriginal identity, as reported to the census, according to International Classification of Diseases chapters based on "the most responsible diagnosis." Age-standardized hospitalization rates (ASHRs) were calculated per 100,000 population, and age-standardized rate ratios (RRs) were calculated for Aboriginal groups relative to non-Aboriginal people.
ASHRs were consistently higher among Aboriginal children and youth relative to their non-Aboriginal counterparts; rates for children aged 0 to 9 were 1.4 to 1.8 times higher; for youth aged 10 to 19, 2.0 to 3.8 times higher. For all children aged 0 to 9, the leading cause of hospitalization was "diseases of the respiratory system," but RRs for Aboriginal children ranged from 1.7 to 2.5, compared with non-Aboriginal children. Disparities between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal 10- to 19-year-olds were pronounced for injuries due to assaults (RRs from 4.8 to 10.0), self-inflicted injuries (RRs from 2.7 to 14.2), and pregnancy, childbirth and the puerperium (RRs from 4.1 to 9.8).
Additional research is needed to examine reasons for the disparities in hospitalization rates between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children and youth.
PubMed ID
28722747 View in PubMed
Less detail

Acute care hospitalizations for mental and behavioural disorders among First Nations people.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature303192
Source
Health Rep. 2018 06 20; 29(6):11-19
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
06-20-2018
Author
Gisèle Carrière
Bougie Bougie
Dafna Kohen
Author Affiliation
Health Analysis Division, Statistics Canada, Ottawa, Ontario.
Source
Health Rep. 2018 06 20; 29(6):11-19
Date
06-20-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Canada - epidemiology
Censuses
Databases, Factual
Female
Hospitalization - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Indians, North American - statistics & numerical data
Inuits - statistics & numerical data
Male
Mental Disorders - epidemiology
Middle Aged
Young Adult
Abstract
National information about acute care hospitalizations for mental/behavioural disorders among Aboriginal people in Canada is limited.
This study describes acute care hospitalizations for mental /behavioural disorders among First Nations people living on and off reserve. The 2006 Census was linked to the Discharge Abstract Database from 2006/2007 through 2008/2009 for all provinces (except Ontario and Quebec) and the three territories. Hospitalizations for seven types of disorders were identified. "Most responsible" diagnosis and secondary diagnoses were examined separately. Age-standardized hospitalization rates (ASHRs) per 100,000 population and rate ratios were calculated.
ASHRs for most responsible and secondary diagnoses of mental/behavioural disorders were significantly higher for First Nations people living on and off reserve than for non-Aboriginal people. The leading diagnoses were the same for each group, but the rank order differed. Among First Nations people, the most common diagnoses were substance-related disorders, mood disorders, and schizophrenic/psychotic disorders. Among non-Aboriginal people, mood disorders were the leading most responsible diagnosis, followed by schizophrenic/psychotic disorders and substance-related disorders. The greatest rate differences between First Nations and non-Aboriginal people for both most responsible and secondary diagnoses were for substance-related disorders.
The higher burden of hospitalizations due to mental/behavioural disorders among First Nations people provides benchmarks and points to the need of considering every hospital admission as an important opportunity for intervention and prevention. The Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada (2015) has recognized that the poorer health outcomes of Aboriginal people in Canada were rooted in the legacies of colonization. Further research is required to better understand the direct impacts on mental health.
PubMed ID
29924374 View in PubMed
Less detail

Adult idiopathic cholestasis: a condition more common in the Canadian Inuit?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature292475
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2017; 76(1):1388104
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
2017
Author
Gerald Y Minuk
Galia Pollock
Julia Uhanova
Author Affiliation
a Section of Hepatology, Department of Medicine , College of Medicine, University of Manitoba , Winnipeg , Canada.
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2017; 76(1):1388104
Date
2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Canada - epidemiology
Cholestasis - drug therapy - ethnology - immunology - physiopathology
Female
Humans
Immunomodulation - physiology
Inuits
Male
Middle Aged
Ursodeoxycholic Acid - therapeutic use
Abstract
Despite extensive investigations, some patients have no identifiable cause for their cholestatic liver enzyme abnormalities. The aim of this study was to document the clinical, laboratory, radiologic and histologic features of adult patients with idiopathic cholestasis (AIC). A computerised database of referred patients to a tertiary care hospital outpatient department for assessment of hepatobiliary disorders between 2005 and 2015 was employed to identify and describe features associated with AIC. Of 6,560 patient referrals, sufficient documentation to warrant a diagnosis of AIC was present in 17 (0.26%) cases. Of the 17, a disproportionate number were Canadian Inuit (7/60, 12% Inuit referrals vs. 10/6,500, 0.16% non-Inuit referrals, p
Notes
Cites: World J Gastroenterol. 2008 Aug 7;14(29):4607-15 PMID 18698674
Cites: Gut. 2001 Oct;49(4):589-94 PMID 11559660
Cites: Semin Immunopathol. 2013 Jan;35(1):73-85 PMID 23010889
Cites: Semin Liver Dis. 2007 Feb;27(1):77-98 PMID 17295178
Cites: Pathol Int. 2009 Aug;59(8):546-54 PMID 19627538
Cites: Curr Gastroenterol Rep. 2009 Feb;11(1):37-41 PMID 19166657
Cites: J Hepatol. 1987 Aug;5(1):8-13 PMID 2821105
Cites: Antiviral Res. 1998 Oct;39(3):141-62 PMID 9833956
Cites: Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2006 May;22(3):234-40 PMID 16550037
Cites: N Engl J Med. 1995 Oct 26;333(17 ):1118-27 PMID 7565951
Cites: Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2015 Feb;41(4):393-405 PMID 25521721
Cites: Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 2008 Jun;37(2):479-84, viii PMID 18499032
PubMed ID
29034810 View in PubMed
Less detail

Alcohol use among Inuit pregnant women: Validity of alcohol ascertainment measures over time.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature292590
Source
Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2017 Nov; 64:73-78
Publication Type
Journal Article
Validation Studies
Date
Nov-2017
Author
Marilyn Fortin
Gina Muckle
Sandra W Jacobson
Joseph L Jacobson
Richard E Bélanger
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychiatry, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada; Douglas Mental Health University Institute, Montreal, QC, Canada. Electronic address: marilyn.fortin@douglas.mcgill.ca.
Source
Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2017 Nov; 64:73-78
Date
Nov-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Validation Studies
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Alcohol drinking - epidemiology
Binge Drinking - epidemiology
Canada - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Inuits
Pregnancy
Prospective Studies
Retrospective Studies
Risk factors
Young Adult
Abstract
Frequency and quantity of alcohol consumed by women are two important indicators of the risks associated with drinking during pregnancy. Some studies have compared the validity of maternal alcohol report obtained during and after pregnancy. However, to date none have examined alcohol use in a Native Canadian population, such as the Inuit. Effective measurement methods are necessary to better understand why children from some communities seem at increased risk of alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorders.
Prospective and retrospective drinking interviews were obtained from a sub-sample of 67 women included in the Nunavik Child Development Study (NCDS), Nunavik, Canada (1995-2010; N=248). Number of days of alcohol consumption and binge drinking (five drinks or more per episode) across pregnancy as well as ounces of absolute alcohol per day and per drinking day among users were collected using timeline follow-back interviews administered both during pregnancy and again 11years after delivery. Consistency of alcohol reports over time, as well as significant differences for alcohol quantities described by users between interviews were examined. Sociodemographic characteristics associated with alcohol use reports were also assessed.
The proportion of positive reports of alcohol and binge drinking during pregnancy was higher when women were interviewed prospectively during pregnancy than retrospectively. We observed a fair to moderate agreement of alcohol report between interview periods. By contrast, the number of binge drinking days during pregnancy was slightly higher among alcohol users when documented retrospectively.
Our findings endorse the conclusion that prospective alcohol measures provide more reliable ascertainment and likely generate more valid information about the proportion of children prenatally exposed to alcohol in the Inuit population.
PubMed ID
29079497 View in PubMed
Less detail

Assessment of naturally acquired neutralizing antibodies against rabies Lyssavirus in a subset of Nunavik's Inuit population considered most at risk of being exposed to rabid animals.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature302507
Source
Zoonoses Public Health. 2019 08; 66(5):533-539
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
08-2019
Author
Julie Ducrocq
Jean-François Proulx
Benoît Lévesque
Gaston De Serres
Heidi Wood
Mélanie Lemire
Author Affiliation
Département de médecine sociale et préventive, Université Laval, Québec City, Québec, Canada.
Source
Zoonoses Public Health. 2019 08; 66(5):533-539
Date
08-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Animals
Antibodies, Neutralizing - blood
Antibodies, Viral - blood
Canada - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Inuits
Male
Middle Aged
Rabies - epidemiology - veterinary
Rabies virus - immunology
Young Adult
Zoonoses - epidemiology
Abstract
Contact with infected saliva through the bite of a rabid animal is the main route of infection with the rabies Lyssavirus in humans. Although a few individuals have survived the infection, rabies remains the most lethal zoonotic infection worldwide. Over the last century, the dogma that rabies is invariably fatal has been challenged by the survival and recovery of infected animals. In humans, 11 studies have found rabies virus-specific antibodies in unvaccinated individuals exposed to rabies virus reservoir species, suggesting the possibility of asymptomatic rabies virus infection, contact with non-infectious virus or exposure to the virus without viral replication. Two of these studies were conducted in Arctic hunters. Considering the extensive exposure of Nunavik's Inuit to potentially infected animals through hunting, trapping, skinning and the preparation of Arctic carnivores, we analysed archived serum samples from the 2004 Nunavik Inuit Health Survey for the presence of rabies virus-neutralizing antibodies (rVNA) in this sub-population. A total of 196 participants who were considered at highest risk for exposure to rabies virus were targeted. Serum samples were tested for the presence of rVNA using a variation of the fluorescent antibody virus neutralization test, an assay recommended for the quantification of neutralizing antibody titres following vaccination. Our study identified two seropositive individuals among the 196 participants but a review of their medical record and a phone interview revealed previous vaccination. Our results do not provide evidence for naturally acquired rVNA in Nunavik's Inuit population.
PubMed ID
30688040 View in PubMed
Less detail

Birth outcomes among First Nations, Inuit and Métis populations.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature295190
Source
Health Rep. 2017 Nov 15; 28(11):11-16
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Nov-15-2017
Author
Amanda J Sheppard
Gabriel D Shapiro
Tracey Bushnik
Russell Wilkins
Serenity Perry
Jay S Kaufman
Michael S Kramer
Seungmi Yang
Author Affiliation
Cancer Care Ontario, and University of Toronto.
Source
Health Rep. 2017 Nov 15; 28(11):11-16
Date
Nov-15-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adult
Canada - epidemiology
Censuses
Cohort Studies
Female
Gestational Age
Humans
Indians, North American - statistics & numerical data
Infant
Infant Mortality - ethnology
Infant, Newborn
Inuits - statistics & numerical data
Male
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Outcome - epidemiology - ethnology
Premature Birth
Stillbirth
Young Adult
Abstract
First Nations, Inuit, and Métis are at higher risk of adverse birth outcomes than are non-Indigenous people. However, relatively little perinatal information is available at the national level for Indigenous people overall or for specific identity groups.
This analysis describes and compares rates of preterm birth, small-for-gestational-age birth, large-for-gestational-age birth, stillbirth, and infant mortality (neonatal, postneonatal, and cause-specific) in a nationally representative sample of First Nations, Inuit, Métis, and non-Indigenous births. The study cohort consisted of 17,547 births to Indigenous mothers and 112,112 births to non-Indigenous mothers from 2004 through 2006. The cohort was created by linking the Canadian Live Birth, Infant Death and Stillbirth Database to the long form of the 2006 Census, which contains a self-reported Indigenous identifier.
With the exception of small-for-gestational-age birth, adverse birth outcomes occurred more frequently among First Nations, Inuit, and Métis women than among non-Indigenous women. Inuit had the highest preterm birth rate (11.4 per 100 births; 95% CI: 9.7 to 13.1) among the three Indigenous groups. The large-for-gestational-age rate was highest for First Nations births (20.9 per 100 births; 95% CI: 19.9 to 21.8). Infant mortality rates were more than twice as high for each Indigenous group compared with the non-Indigenous population, and rates of sudden infant death syndrome were more than seven times higher among First Nations and Inuit.
The results confirm disparities in birth outcomes between Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations, and demonstrate differences among First Nations, Métis and Inuit.
PubMed ID
29140536 View in PubMed
Less detail

Burden of disease from Helicobacter pylori infection in western Canadian Arctic communities.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature302489
Source
BMC Public Health. 2019 Jun 11; 19(1):730
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Jun-11-2019
Author
Katharine Fagan-Garcia
Janis Geary
Hsiu-Ju Chang
Laura McAlpine
Emily Walker
Amy Colquhoun
Sander Veldhuyzen van Zanten
Safwat Girgis
Billy Archie
Brendan Hanley
Andre Corriveau
John Morse
Rachel Munday
Karen J Goodman
Author Affiliation
Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. kfagan@ualberta.ca.
Source
BMC Public Health. 2019 Jun 11; 19(1):730
Date
Jun-11-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Arctic Regions - epidemiology
Biopsy
Breath Tests
Canada - epidemiology
Child
Child, Preschool
Cost of Illness
Female
Gastric Mucosa - microbiology - pathology
Gastritis - epidemiology - microbiology
Gastroscopy - statistics & numerical data
Helicobacter Infections - epidemiology - microbiology
Helicobacter pylori
Humans
Incidence
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Male
Metaplasia
Middle Aged
Prevalence
Stomach Neoplasms - epidemiology - microbiology
Young Adult
Abstract
Indigenous communities across the circumpolar north have elevated H. pylori (Hp) prevalence and stomach cancer incidence. We aimed to describe the Hp-associated disease burden among western Canadian Arctic participants in community-driven projects that address concerns about health risks from Hp infection.
During 2008-2013, participants underwent Hp screening by urea breath test and gastroscopy with gastric biopsies. We estimated Hp prevalence and prevalence by Hp status of endoscopic and histopathologic diagnoses.
Among 878 participants with Hp status data, Hp prevalence was: 62% overall; 66% in 740 Indigenous participants; 22% in 77 non-Indigenous participants (61 participants did not disclose ethnicity); 45% at 0-14?years old, 69% at 15-34?years old, and 61% at 35-96?years old. Among 309 participants examined endoscopically, visible mucosal lesions were more frequent in the stomach than the duodenum: the gastric to duodenal ratio was 2 for inflammation, 8 for erosions, and 3 for ulcers. Pathological examination in 308 participants with gastric biopsies revealed normal gastric mucosa in 1 of 224 Hp-positive participants and 77% (65/84) of Hp-negative participants with sharp contrasts in the prevalence of abnormalities between Hp-positive and Hp-negative participants, respectively: moderate-severe active gastritis in 50 and 0%; moderate-severe chronic gastritis in 91 and 1%; atrophic gastritis in 43 and 0%; intestinal metaplasia in 17 and 5%.
The observed pattern of disease is consistent with increased risk of stomach cancer and reflects substantial inequity in the Hp-associated disease burden in western Arctic Canadian hamlets relative to most North American settings. This research adds to evidence that demonstrates the need for interventions aimed at reducing health risks from Hp infection in Indigenous Arctic communities.
PubMed ID
31185961 View in PubMed
Less detail

Cancer incidence and survival among Métis adults in Canada: results from the Canadian census follow-up cohort (1992-2009).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature301627
Source
CMAJ. 2018 03 19; 190(11):E320-E326
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
03-19-2018
Author
Maegan V Mazereeuw
Diana R Withrow
E Diane Nishri
Michael Tjepkema
Eduardo Vides
Loraine D Marrett
Author Affiliation
Prevention and Cancer Control (Mazereeuw, Withrow, Nishri, Marrett), Cancer Care Ontario; Dalla Lana School of Public Health (Withrow, Marrett), University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont.; Health Analysis Division (Tjepkema), Statistics Canada; Métis National Council (Vides), Ottawa, Ont. mmazereeuw@cihi.ca.
Source
CMAJ. 2018 03 19; 190(11):E320-E326
Date
03-19-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
American Native Continental Ancestry Group - statistics & numerical data
Canada - epidemiology
Censuses
Databases, Factual
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Healthcare Disparities
Humans
Incidence
Life Style
Male
Middle Aged
Neoplasms - ethnology - mortality
Population Surveillance
Risk factors
Sex Factors
Survival Analysis
Abstract
Métis people are 1 of 3 Aboriginal groups recognized by the Canadian constitution. We estimated site-specific incidence rates and survival for the most common cancers among Métis adults in Canada and compared these with rates among non-Aboriginal adults in Canada.
We examined responses to the 1991 long-form census, including self-reported Métis ancestry linked to national mortality and cancer databases for followup from 1992 to 2009. We estimated age-standardized incidence rates and 5-year relative survival. We determined relative risk (RR) of cancer among Métis and non-Aboriginal adults using Poisson regression, and estimated excess mortality rate ratios using ethnicity-specific life tables.
For all cancers and both sexes combined, cancer incidence was similar for Métis and non-Aboriginal adults. However, incidence was significantly higher among Métis adults than among non-Aboriginal adults for the following cancers: female breast (RR 1.18, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-1.37), lung (RR 1.34, 95% CI 1.18-1.52), liver (RR 2.09, 95% CI 1.30-3.38), larynx (RR 1.60, 95% CI 1.03-2.48), gallbladder (RR 2.35, 95% CI 1.12-4.96) and cervix (RR 1.84, 95% CI 1.23-2.76). Métis people had poorer survival for prostate cancer (excess mortality rate ratio 2.60, 95% CI 1.52-4.46).
We found higher incidence for several cancers and poorer survival after prostate cancer among Métis adults. Several of these disparities may be related to lifestyle factors (including tobacco use, obesity and lack of cancer screening), providing evidence to support development of public health policy and health care to address cancer burden in the Métis people of Canada.
PubMed ID
29555862 View in PubMed
Less detail

48 records – page 1 of 5.