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The 2015 National Canadian Homeless Youth Survey: Mental Health and Addiction Findings.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature291013
Source
Can J Psychiatry. 2017 07; 62(7):493-500
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
07-2017
Author
Sean A Kidd
Stephen Gaetz
Bill O'Grady
Author Affiliation
1 Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario.
Source
Can J Psychiatry. 2017 07; 62(7):493-500
Date
07-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Canada - epidemiology
Female
Homeless Youth - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Male
Mental Health - statistics & numerical data
Sex Factors
Sexual and Gender Minorities - statistics & numerical data
Stress, Psychological - epidemiology
Substance-Related Disorders - epidemiology
Suicide, Attempted - statistics & numerical data
Young Adult
Abstract
This study was designed to provide a representative description of the mental health of youth accessing homelessness services in Canada. It is the most extensive survey in this area to date and is intended to inform the development of mental health and addiction service and policy for this marginalized population.
This study reports mental health-related data from the 2015 "Leaving Home" national youth homelessness survey, which was administered through 57 agencies serving homeless youth in 42 communities across the country. This self-reported, point-in-time survey assessed a broad range of demographic information, pre-homelessness and homelessness variables, and mental health indicators.
Survey data were obtained from 1103 youth accessing Canadian homelessness services in the Nunavut territory and all Canadian provinces except for Prince Edward Island. Forty-two per cent of participants reported 1 or more suicide attempts, 85.4% fell in a high range of psychological distress, and key indicators of risk included an earlier age of the first episode of homelessness, female gender, and identifying as a sexual and/or gender minority (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and 2 spirit [LGBTQ2S]).
This study provides clear and compelling evidence of a need for mental health support for these youth, particularly LGBTQ2S youth and female youth. The mental health concerns observed here, however, must be considered in the light of the tremendous adversity in all social determinants faced by these youth, with population-level interventions best leveraged in prevention and rapid response.
Notes
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Cites: Am J Public Health. 2002 May;92(5):773-7 PMID 11988446
PubMed ID
28372467 View in PubMed
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Acute care hospitalization by Aboriginal identity, Canada, 2006 through 2008.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature292287
Source
Health Rep. 2016 Aug 17; 27(8):3-11
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Aug-17-2016
Author
Gisèle Carrière
Evelyne Bougie
Dafna Kohen
Michelle Rotermann
Claudia Sanmartin
Author Affiliation
Health Analysis Division, Statistics Canada, Ottawa, Ontario.
Source
Health Rep. 2016 Aug 17; 27(8):3-11
Date
Aug-17-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Acute Disease
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Canada - epidemiology
Censuses
Child
Child, Preschool
Female
Hospitalization - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Indians, North American
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Inuits
Male
Middle Aged
Risk factors
Abstract
National data about acute care hospitalization of Aboriginal people are scarce. This study addresses that information gap by describing patterns of hospitalization by Aboriginal identity for leading diagnoses for all provinces and territories except Quebec.
The 2006 Census was linked to the 2006/2007-to-2008/2009 Discharge Abstract Database, which contains hospital records from all acute care facilities in Canada (excluding Quebec). With these linked data, hospital records could be examined by Aboriginal identity, as reported to the census. Hospitalizations were grouped by International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) chapters based on "the most responsible diagnosis." Age-standardized hospitalization rates were calculated per 100,000 population, and rate ratios (RR) were calculated for Aboriginal groups relative to non-Aboriginal people.
Hospitalization rates were almost invariably higher for First Nations living on and off reserve, Métis, and Inuit living in Inuit Nunangat than for the non-Aboriginal population, regardless of ICD diagnostic chapter. The ranking of age-standardized hospitalization rates by frequency of diagnoses varied slightly by Aboriginal identity. RRs were highest among First Nations living on reserve, especially for endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases (RR = 4.9), mental and behavioural disorders (RR = 3.6), diseases of the respiratory system (RR = 3.3), and injuries (RR = 3.2). As well, the rate for endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases was high among First Nations living off reserve (RR = 2.7). RRs were also high among Inuit for mental and behavioural disorders (RR = 3.3) and for diseases of the respiratory system (RR = 2.7).
Hospitalization rates varied by Aboriginal identity, and were consistent with recognized health disparities between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people. Because many factors besides health affect hospital use, further research is required to understand differences in hospital use by Aboriginal identity. These national data are relevant to health policy formulation and service delivery planning.
PubMed ID
27532620 View in PubMed
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Acute care hospitalization of Aboriginal children and youth.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature295326
Source
Health Rep. 2017 Jul 19; 28(7):11-17
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Jul-19-2017
Author
Anne Guèvremont
Gisèle Carrière
Evelyne Bougie
Dafna Kohen
Author Affiliation
Health Analysis Division, Statistics Canada, Ottawa, Ontario.
Source
Health Rep. 2017 Jul 19; 28(7):11-17
Date
Jul-19-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Acute Disease
Adolescent
Canada - epidemiology
Censuses
Child
Child, Preschool
Female
Hospitalization - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Indians, North American - statistics & numerical data
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Inuits
Male
Patient Discharge
Young Adult
Abstract
Research that has examined Aboriginal children's hospitalization rates at the national level has been limited to analyses of areas with large percentages of Aboriginal residents, rather than of Aboriginal individuals. This study uses linked census and administrative data to describe hospitalization patterns among children and youth aged 0 to 19, by Aboriginal identity, for all provinces and territories except Quebec.
The 2006 Census was linked to the 2006/2007-to-2008/2009 Discharge Abstract Database, which contains hospital records from all acute care facilities (except Quebec). Hospital records were examined by Aboriginal identity, as reported to the census, according to International Classification of Diseases chapters based on "the most responsible diagnosis." Age-standardized hospitalization rates (ASHRs) were calculated per 100,000 population, and age-standardized rate ratios (RRs) were calculated for Aboriginal groups relative to non-Aboriginal people.
ASHRs were consistently higher among Aboriginal children and youth relative to their non-Aboriginal counterparts; rates for children aged 0 to 9 were 1.4 to 1.8 times higher; for youth aged 10 to 19, 2.0 to 3.8 times higher. For all children aged 0 to 9, the leading cause of hospitalization was "diseases of the respiratory system," but RRs for Aboriginal children ranged from 1.7 to 2.5, compared with non-Aboriginal children. Disparities between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal 10- to 19-year-olds were pronounced for injuries due to assaults (RRs from 4.8 to 10.0), self-inflicted injuries (RRs from 2.7 to 14.2), and pregnancy, childbirth and the puerperium (RRs from 4.1 to 9.8).
Additional research is needed to examine reasons for the disparities in hospitalization rates between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children and youth.
PubMed ID
28722747 View in PubMed
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Adult idiopathic cholestasis: a condition more common in the Canadian Inuit?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature292475
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2017; 76(1):1388104
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
2017
Author
Gerald Y Minuk
Galia Pollock
Julia Uhanova
Author Affiliation
a Section of Hepatology, Department of Medicine , College of Medicine, University of Manitoba , Winnipeg , Canada.
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2017; 76(1):1388104
Date
2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Canada - epidemiology
Cholestasis - drug therapy - ethnology - immunology - physiopathology
Female
Humans
Immunomodulation - physiology
Inuits
Male
Middle Aged
Ursodeoxycholic Acid - therapeutic use
Abstract
Despite extensive investigations, some patients have no identifiable cause for their cholestatic liver enzyme abnormalities. The aim of this study was to document the clinical, laboratory, radiologic and histologic features of adult patients with idiopathic cholestasis (AIC). A computerised database of referred patients to a tertiary care hospital outpatient department for assessment of hepatobiliary disorders between 2005 and 2015 was employed to identify and describe features associated with AIC. Of 6,560 patient referrals, sufficient documentation to warrant a diagnosis of AIC was present in 17 (0.26%) cases. Of the 17, a disproportionate number were Canadian Inuit (7/60, 12% Inuit referrals vs. 10/6,500, 0.16% non-Inuit referrals, p
Notes
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Cites: Curr Gastroenterol Rep. 2009 Feb;11(1):37-41 PMID 19166657
Cites: J Hepatol. 1987 Aug;5(1):8-13 PMID 2821105
Cites: Antiviral Res. 1998 Oct;39(3):141-62 PMID 9833956
Cites: Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2006 May;22(3):234-40 PMID 16550037
Cites: N Engl J Med. 1995 Oct 26;333(17 ):1118-27 PMID 7565951
Cites: Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2015 Feb;41(4):393-405 PMID 25521721
Cites: Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 2008 Jun;37(2):479-84, viii PMID 18499032
PubMed ID
29034810 View in PubMed
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Alcohol use among Inuit pregnant women: Validity of alcohol ascertainment measures over time.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature292590
Source
Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2017 Nov; 64:73-78
Publication Type
Journal Article
Validation Studies
Date
Nov-2017
Author
Marilyn Fortin
Gina Muckle
Sandra W Jacobson
Joseph L Jacobson
Richard E Bélanger
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychiatry, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada; Douglas Mental Health University Institute, Montreal, QC, Canada. Electronic address: marilyn.fortin@douglas.mcgill.ca.
Source
Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2017 Nov; 64:73-78
Date
Nov-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Validation Studies
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Alcohol drinking - epidemiology
Binge Drinking - epidemiology
Canada - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Inuits
Pregnancy
Prospective Studies
Retrospective Studies
Risk factors
Young Adult
Abstract
Frequency and quantity of alcohol consumed by women are two important indicators of the risks associated with drinking during pregnancy. Some studies have compared the validity of maternal alcohol report obtained during and after pregnancy. However, to date none have examined alcohol use in a Native Canadian population, such as the Inuit. Effective measurement methods are necessary to better understand why children from some communities seem at increased risk of alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorders.
Prospective and retrospective drinking interviews were obtained from a sub-sample of 67 women included in the Nunavik Child Development Study (NCDS), Nunavik, Canada (1995-2010; N=248). Number of days of alcohol consumption and binge drinking (five drinks or more per episode) across pregnancy as well as ounces of absolute alcohol per day and per drinking day among users were collected using timeline follow-back interviews administered both during pregnancy and again 11years after delivery. Consistency of alcohol reports over time, as well as significant differences for alcohol quantities described by users between interviews were examined. Sociodemographic characteristics associated with alcohol use reports were also assessed.
The proportion of positive reports of alcohol and binge drinking during pregnancy was higher when women were interviewed prospectively during pregnancy than retrospectively. We observed a fair to moderate agreement of alcohol report between interview periods. By contrast, the number of binge drinking days during pregnancy was slightly higher among alcohol users when documented retrospectively.
Our findings endorse the conclusion that prospective alcohol measures provide more reliable ascertainment and likely generate more valid information about the proportion of children prenatally exposed to alcohol in the Inuit population.
PubMed ID
29079497 View in PubMed
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Birth outcomes among First Nations, Inuit and Métis populations.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature295190
Source
Health Rep. 2017 Nov 15; 28(11):11-16
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Nov-15-2017
Author
Amanda J Sheppard
Gabriel D Shapiro
Tracey Bushnik
Russell Wilkins
Serenity Perry
Jay S Kaufman
Michael S Kramer
Seungmi Yang
Author Affiliation
Cancer Care Ontario, and University of Toronto.
Source
Health Rep. 2017 Nov 15; 28(11):11-16
Date
Nov-15-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adult
Canada - epidemiology
Censuses
Cohort Studies
Female
Gestational Age
Humans
Indians, North American - statistics & numerical data
Infant
Infant Mortality - ethnology
Infant, Newborn
Inuits - statistics & numerical data
Male
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Outcome - epidemiology - ethnology
Premature Birth
Stillbirth
Young Adult
Abstract
First Nations, Inuit, and Métis are at higher risk of adverse birth outcomes than are non-Indigenous people. However, relatively little perinatal information is available at the national level for Indigenous people overall or for specific identity groups.
This analysis describes and compares rates of preterm birth, small-for-gestational-age birth, large-for-gestational-age birth, stillbirth, and infant mortality (neonatal, postneonatal, and cause-specific) in a nationally representative sample of First Nations, Inuit, Métis, and non-Indigenous births. The study cohort consisted of 17,547 births to Indigenous mothers and 112,112 births to non-Indigenous mothers from 2004 through 2006. The cohort was created by linking the Canadian Live Birth, Infant Death and Stillbirth Database to the long form of the 2006 Census, which contains a self-reported Indigenous identifier.
With the exception of small-for-gestational-age birth, adverse birth outcomes occurred more frequently among First Nations, Inuit, and Métis women than among non-Indigenous women. Inuit had the highest preterm birth rate (11.4 per 100 births; 95% CI: 9.7 to 13.1) among the three Indigenous groups. The large-for-gestational-age rate was highest for First Nations births (20.9 per 100 births; 95% CI: 19.9 to 21.8). Infant mortality rates were more than twice as high for each Indigenous group compared with the non-Indigenous population, and rates of sudden infant death syndrome were more than seven times higher among First Nations and Inuit.
The results confirm disparities in birth outcomes between Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations, and demonstrate differences among First Nations, Métis and Inuit.
PubMed ID
29140536 View in PubMed
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Cancer incidence and survival among Métis adults in Canada: results from the Canadian census follow-up cohort (1992-2009).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature301627
Source
CMAJ. 2018 03 19; 190(11):E320-E326
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
03-19-2018
Author
Maegan V Mazereeuw
Diana R Withrow
E Diane Nishri
Michael Tjepkema
Eduardo Vides
Loraine D Marrett
Author Affiliation
Prevention and Cancer Control (Mazereeuw, Withrow, Nishri, Marrett), Cancer Care Ontario; Dalla Lana School of Public Health (Withrow, Marrett), University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont.; Health Analysis Division (Tjepkema), Statistics Canada; Métis National Council (Vides), Ottawa, Ont. mmazereeuw@cihi.ca.
Source
CMAJ. 2018 03 19; 190(11):E320-E326
Date
03-19-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
American Native Continental Ancestry Group - statistics & numerical data
Canada - epidemiology
Censuses
Databases, Factual
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Healthcare Disparities
Humans
Incidence
Life Style
Male
Middle Aged
Neoplasms - ethnology - mortality
Population Surveillance
Risk factors
Sex Factors
Survival Analysis
Abstract
Métis people are 1 of 3 Aboriginal groups recognized by the Canadian constitution. We estimated site-specific incidence rates and survival for the most common cancers among Métis adults in Canada and compared these with rates among non-Aboriginal adults in Canada.
We examined responses to the 1991 long-form census, including self-reported Métis ancestry linked to national mortality and cancer databases for followup from 1992 to 2009. We estimated age-standardized incidence rates and 5-year relative survival. We determined relative risk (RR) of cancer among Métis and non-Aboriginal adults using Poisson regression, and estimated excess mortality rate ratios using ethnicity-specific life tables.
For all cancers and both sexes combined, cancer incidence was similar for Métis and non-Aboriginal adults. However, incidence was significantly higher among Métis adults than among non-Aboriginal adults for the following cancers: female breast (RR 1.18, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-1.37), lung (RR 1.34, 95% CI 1.18-1.52), liver (RR 2.09, 95% CI 1.30-3.38), larynx (RR 1.60, 95% CI 1.03-2.48), gallbladder (RR 2.35, 95% CI 1.12-4.96) and cervix (RR 1.84, 95% CI 1.23-2.76). Métis people had poorer survival for prostate cancer (excess mortality rate ratio 2.60, 95% CI 1.52-4.46).
We found higher incidence for several cancers and poorer survival after prostate cancer among Métis adults. Several of these disparities may be related to lifestyle factors (including tobacco use, obesity and lack of cancer screening), providing evidence to support development of public health policy and health care to address cancer burden in the Métis people of Canada.
PubMed ID
29555862 View in PubMed
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Cancer mortality in Yukon 1999-2013: elevated mortality rates and a unique cancer profile.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature291169
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2017; 76(1):1324231
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
2017
Author
Jonathan Simkin
Ryan Woods
Catherine Elliott
Author Affiliation
a School of Population and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine , University of British Columbia , Vancouver , British Columbia , Canada.
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2017; 76(1):1324231
Date
2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Age Distribution
Arctic Regions - epidemiology
Canada - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Male
Neoplasms - mortality
Rural Population
Sex Distribution
Socioeconomic Factors
Yukon Territory - epidemiology
Abstract
Although cancer is the leading cause of death in Canada, cancer in the North has been incompletely described.
To determine cancer mortality rates in the Yukon Territory, compare them with Canadian rates, and identify major causes of cancer mortality.
The Yukon Vital Statistics Registry provided all cancer deaths for Yukon residents between 1999-2013. Age-standardised mortality rates (ASMRs) were calculated using direct standardisation and compared with Canadian rates. Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated using indirect standardisation relative to age-specific rates from Canada, British Columbia (BC), and three sub-provincial BC administrative health regions : Interior Health (IH), Northern Health (NH) and Vancouver Coastal Health (VCH). Trends in smoothed ASMRs were examined with graphical methods.
Yukon's all-cancer ASMRs were elevated compared with national and provincial rates for the entire period. Disparities were greatest compared with the urban VCH: prostate (SMRVCH=246.3, 95% CI 140.9-351.6), female lung (SMRVCH=221.2, 95% CI 154.3-288.1), female breast (SMRVCH=169.0 95% CI, 101.4-236.7), and total colorectal (SMRVCH=149.3, 95% CI 101.8-196.8) cancers were significantly elevated. Total stomach cancer mortality was significantly elevated compared with all comparators.
Yukon cancer mortality rates were elevated compared with national, provincial, urban, and southern-rural jurisdictions. More research is required to elucidate these differences.
Notes
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PubMed ID
28598269 View in PubMed
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Cardiovascular dynamics of Canadian Indigenous peoples.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature298107
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2018 12; 77(1):1421351
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
12-2018
Author
Heather J A Foulds
Shannon S D Bredin
Darren E R Warburton
Author Affiliation
a Cardiovascular Physiology and Rehabilitation Laboratory , University of British Columbia , Vancouver , Canada.
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2018 12; 77(1):1421351
Date
12-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adult
Age Factors
Blood pressure
Canada - epidemiology
Cardiac output
Cardiovascular Diseases - epidemiology - ethnology
Cardiovascular System - diagnostic imaging - pathology - physiopathology
Echocardiography, Doppler
European Continental Ancestry Group - statistics & numerical data
Female
Heart Ventricles - diagnostic imaging
Humans
Indians, North American - statistics & numerical data
Male
Sex Factors
Ventricular Function
Young Adult
Abstract
Limited understanding of Indigenous adults' cardiovascular structure and function exists despite high rates of cardiovascular disease. This investigation characterised cardiovascular structure and function among young Indigenous adults and compared to age- and sex-matched European descendants. Echocardiographic assessments included apical two- and four-chamber images, parasternal short-axis images and Doppler. Analyses included cardiac volumes, dimensions, velocities and strains. Cardiovascular structure and function were similar between Indigenous (n=10, 25 ± 3 years, 4 women) and European-descendant (n=10, 24 ± 4 years, 4 women,) adults, though European descendants demonstrated greater systemic vascular resistance (18.19 ± 3.94 mmHg·min-1·L-1 vs. 15.36 ± 2.97 mmHg·min-1·L-1, p=0.03). Among Indigenous adults, women demonstrated greater arterial elastance (0.80 ± 0.15 mmHg·mL-1·m-2 vs. 0.55 ± 0.17 mmHg·mL-1·m-2, p=0.02) and possibly greater systemic vascular resistance (17.51 ± 2.20 mmHg·min-1·L-1 vs. 13.93 ± 2.61 mmHg·min-1·L-1, p=0.07). Indigenous men had greater cardiac size, dimensions and output, though body size differences accounted for cardiac size differences. Similar cardiac rotation and strains were observed across sexes. Arterial elastance and cardiac size were different between Indigenous men and women while cardiovascular structure and function may be similar between Indigenous and European descendants.
PubMed ID
29405888 View in PubMed
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Determinants of excessive daytime sleepiness in two First Nation communities.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature294187
Source
BMC Pulm Med. 2017 Dec 12; 17(1):192
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Dec-12-2017
Author
Ina van der Spuy
Chandima P Karunanayake
James A Dosman
Kathleen McMullin
Gaungming Zhao
Sylvia Abonyi
Donna C Rennie
Joshua Lawson
Shelley Kirychuk
Judith MacDonald
Laurie Jimmy
Niels Koehncke
Vivian R Ramsden
Mark Fenton
Gregory P Marchildon
Malcolm King
Punam Pahwa
Author Affiliation
School of Physical Therapy, University of Saskatchewan, 104 Clinic Place, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 2Z4, Canada.
Source
BMC Pulm Med. 2017 Dec 12; 17(1):192
Date
Dec-12-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Canada - epidemiology
Comorbidity
Disorders of Excessive Somnolence - diagnosis - epidemiology - physiopathology
Female
Humans
Lung Diseases - epidemiology
Male
Middle Aged
Snoring - diagnosis - epidemiology
Socioeconomic Factors
Surveys and Questionnaires
Abstract
Excessive daytime sleepiness may be determined by a number of factors including personal characteristics, co-morbidities and socio-economic conditions. In this study we identified factors associated with excessive daytime sleepiness in 2 First Nation communities in rural Saskatchewan.
Data for this study were from a 2012-13 baseline assessment of the First Nations Lung Health Project, in collaboration between two Cree First Nation reserve communities in Saskatchewan and researchers at the University of Saskatchewan. Community research assistants conducted the assessments in two stages. In the first stage, brochures describing the purpose and nature of the project were distributed on a house by house basis. In the second stage, all individuals age 17 years and older not attending school in the participating communities were invited to the local health care center to participate in interviewer-administered questionnaires and clinical assessments. Excessive daytime sleepiness was defined as Epworth Sleepiness Scale score?>?10.
Of 874 persons studied, 829 had valid Epworth Sleepiness Scale scores. Of these, 91(11.0%) had excessive daytime sleepiness; 12.4% in women and 9.6% in men. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that respiratory comorbidities, environmental exposures and loud snoring were significantly associated with excessive daytime sleepiness.
Excessive daytime sleepiness in First Nations peoples living on reserves in rural Saskatchewan is associated with factors related to respiratory co-morbidities, conditions of poverty, and loud snoring.
Notes
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