The Hungarian National Cancer Registry (HNCR) was launched in August, 1999 by the National Cancer Institute. The main goal of HNCR is to determine the prevalence of different types of malignant cancers. A new method, period analysis was invented to determine survival chances of patients with malignant tumor. Based on period analysis we developed a new method by approximating survivals of Hungarian cancer patients with the help of Gompertz distribution. Our survival analysis was based on HNCR data of patients with cancer recognized between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2005. These data are far enough from the time when HNCR started, thus they do not contain the initial errors, but also far enough from the present so their correction could be considered completed. In case of 21 malignant tumor locations for males and 23 ones for females we determined the parameters of the Gompertz distribution and based on the estimated parameters we estimated the expected survival probabilities for each specific tumor type and gender. In this study we have not used the TNM-based clinical stage or any other data of the patients contained by HNCR. Using the Gompertz model, the complete recovery of a cancer patient is always possible and the probability of recovery has a reliable estimate based on a short follow-up period only. We compared our results with five-year survival data of Canada, Italy, Norway and Finland and we did not find substantial differences. For both men and women, considering any specific location, the differences in survival among countries are much smaller than the difference between locations.
Beginning with the end of the total and later on the partial state ban on gambling in Hungary, an increasingly intensive revival of gambling can be observed together with a widening scope of offers. Parallel to the growing popularity of controlled, social and recreational forms of gambling, the spread of excessive, problematic and pathological gambling requiring therapeutic intervention is also present.
Both from the perspective of research and clinical practice the following questions are raised. Whether there exist subtypes of problematic or pathological gamblers with specific personality characteristics and therefore needs for specific types of treatment, and if it is worth differentiating between gamblers according to their preferences towards specific types of gambling.
One stream of research with the objective of finding subtypes of gambling examines pathological gamblers in general, independent of their gambling preferences. These authors describe subgroups with typical psychological characteristics and they present various possible functions of gambling. On the other hand, data is available supporting that persons with unlike dominant preferences towards different types of gambling can be characterized by dissimilar demographic and psychological indices as well. Authors in these studies present typologies created according to various different aspects in details.
Based on studies aiming to create a typology of gambling addicted patients and discover their motives, we can assume that the escape gambler and the impulsive gambler types can most unequivocally be differentiated. Besides these, studies suggest the existence of two other types of gamblers; normal and ones seeking the experience of dissociation. On the personality characteristics of gamblers playing specific types of games, however, there is little data available yet.
Suicide is still a major health concern, although suicide rates widely differ among different countries and cultures. Thus, besides biological and clinical studies, there is an increasing transcultural research activity on suicidal behaviour. We are presenting here some important transcultural aspects of suicidal behaviour and report some preliminary findings of our transcultural suicide research. Based on the previous data and on our investigations it is likely that the national character and the attitudes toward self-harm are reflecting in some major cultural, historical texts of a nation.