Department of Psychology, University of Denver, Denver, CO, USA; Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, University of California-Irvine, Hewitt Hall, Irvine, CA 92697, USA. Electronic address: Elysia.Davis@du.edu.
Early life experiences have persisting influence on brain function throughout life. Maternal signals constitute a primary source of early life experiences, and their quantity and quality during sensitive developmental periods exert enduring effects on cognitive function and emotional and social behaviors. Here we examined if, in addition to established qualitative dimensions of maternal behavior during her interactions with her infant and child, patterns of maternal signals may contribute to the maturation of children's executive functions. We focused primarily on effortful control, a potent predictor of mental health outcomes later in life.
In two independent prospective cohorts in Turku, Finland (N?=?135), and Irvine, CA, USA (N?=?192) that differed significantly in race/ethnicity and sociodemographic parameters, we assessed whether infant exposure to unpredictable patterns of maternal-derived sensory signals portended poor effortful control.
In both the Irvine and Turku cohorts, unpredictable sequences of maternal behavior during infancy were associated with worse effortful control at one year of age. Longitudinal analyses demonstrated that this association persisted for as long as each cohort was assessed-until two years of age in the Turku cohort and to 9.5?years in the Irvine cohort. The relation of unpredictable maternal signals during infancy and the measures of executive function persisted after adjusting for covariates.
The consistency of our findings across two cohorts from different demographic backgrounds substantiated the finding that patterns, and specifically unpredictable sequences, of maternal behaviors may influence the development of executive functions which may be associated with vulnerability to subsequent psychopathology. FUND: This research was supported by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) awards P50MH096889, HD051852, NS041298, HD02413, HD050662, HD065823, and by the FinnBrain funders: Academy of Finland (129839, 134950, 253270, 286829, 287908, 308176, 308252), Jane and Aatos Erkko Foundation, Signe and Ane Gyllenberg Foundation, Yrjö Jahnsson Foundation, and State Research Grants (P3498, P3654).
Rapid changes in climate may impose strong selective pressures on organisms. Evolutionary responses to climate change have been observed in natural populations, yet no example has been documented for a metabolic enzyme locus. Furthermore, few studies have linked physiological responses to stress with allozyme genotypic variation. We quantified changes in allele frequency between 1988 and 1996 at three allozyme loci (isocitrate dehydrogenase, Idh; phosphoglucose isomerase, Pgi; and phosphoglucomutase, Pgm) for the leaf beetle Chrysomela aeneicollis in the Bishop Creek region of the Sierra Nevada of California (2900-3300 m). Beetles often experience high daytime (> 32 degrees C) and extremely low nighttime (
The objective of this study was to examine access, engagement, and quitting behaviors of American Indian/Alaska Native (AIAN) callers to the California Smokers' Helpline. Telephone counseling is the primary function of the quitline. The overarching theoretical framework for California's quitline is social cognitive theory, although it also utilizes motivational interviewing and cognitive-behavioral strategies.
AIAN (n = 16 089) and White (n = 173 425) California quitline callers from 2009 to 2018 were compared on their characteristics, engagement, and quitting behaviors. Quitline callers responded to a telephone survey at intake. A random selection was called for evaluation 7 months later (White n = 8194, AIAN n = 764). Data from the 2009 to 2017 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) were used as a reference point for AIANs (AIAN n = 1373).
The quitline and CHIS had similar proportions of AIANs (4.6% vs. 4.3%, respectively). AIAN smokers were more likely than White smokers to report physical (53.6% vs. 44.9%) and mental (65.7% vs. 57.8%) health conditions at intake. AIANs were more likely to participate in counseling than White callers (67.1% vs. 65.7%). Among those who received counseling, AIANs had greater odds than White smokers of making a quit attempt (adjusted odds ratio = 1.39 [1.06, 1.81]) and similar odds of quitting for 180 days (adjusted odds ratio = 0.95 [0.69, 1.31]).
Rates of access, engagement, and quitting suggest that individualized quitline counseling was as effective with AIANs as it was with White smokers. Increasing efforts to refer AIANs to existing state quitlines can help more smokers quit.
This study showed that AIAN smokers were well represented among California quitline callers, even without a targeted campaign. It also found that AIAN smokers engaged in quitline services and were as able to quit as their White counterparts were, even after adjusting for other baseline characteristics. One implication is that public health programs can promote quitlines using broad-based campaigns knowing that they will still motivate AIAN smokers to seek help. Another implication is that a standard, individualized counseling protocol delivered by culturally competent quitline staff can effectively help AIAN smokers to quit.
BACKGROUND AND METHODS: The purpose of this article was to examine differences in demographics, general health status, and utilization of breast and cervical cancer screening for subgroups of American Indians and Alaska Natives (AIAN) using the 2001 California Health Interview Survey. RESULTS: The statewide distribution of California American Indians, non-California AIANs, and unknown AIANs are 10%, 51%, and 39%, respectively. Significant differences exist among the 3 tribal subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, AIAN women aged 40+ years are close to the Healthy People 2010 goals for receipt of a mammogram in the past 2 years and for receipt of a Pap test ever and in the past 3 years. Less than 5% of AIAN in California report Indian Health Service coverage.
Most conifer species occur in large continuous populations, but radiata pine, Pinus radiata, occurs only in five disjunctive natural populations in California and Mexico. The Mexican island populations were presumably colonized from the mainland millions of years ago. According to Axelrod (1981), the mainland populations are relicts of an earlier much wider distribution, reduced some 8,000 years ago, whereas according to Millar (1997, 2000), the patchy metapopulation-like structure is typical of the long-term population demography of the species. We used 19 highly polymorphic microsatellite loci to describe population structure and to search for signs of the dynamics of population demography over space and time. Frequencies of null alleles at microsatellite loci were estimated using an approach based on the probability of identity by descent. Microsatellite genetic diversities were high in all populations [expected heterozygosity (H(e)) = 0.68-0.77], but the island populations had significantly lower estimates. Variation between loci in genetic differentiation (F(ST)) was high, but no locus deviated statistically significantly from the rest at an experiment wide level of 0.05. Thus, all loci were included in subsequent analysis. The average differentiation was measured as F(ST) = 0.14 (SD 0.012), comparable with earlier allozyme results. The island populations were more diverged from the other populations and from an inferred common ancestral gene pool than the mainland ones. All populations showed a deficiency of expected heterozygosity given the number of alleles, the mainland populations more so than the island ones. The results thus do not support a recent important contraction in the mainland range of radiata pine.
In the Pacific Basin, the hepatitis B virus is closely associated with hepatocellular carcinoma in its geographic distribution and familial clustering, and its presence in liver tissues. The contribution of aflatoxin to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma in different regions varies from negligible to probably major. Neither the hepatitis B virus nor aflatoxin can account for the varied epidemiology of hepatocarcinogenesis in the Pacific Basin. Many potential carcinogens for the liver have been identified in food, drugs, industrial chemicals, and in the general environment, but their importance in hepatocarcinogenesis remains to be defined.