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The 2006 Canadian Hypertension Education Program recommendations for the management of hypertension: Part II - Therapy.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature168976
Source
Can J Cardiol. 2006 May 15;22(7):583-93
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-15-2006
Author
N A Khan
Finlay A McAlister
Simon W Rabkin
Raj Padwal
Ross D Feldman
Norman Rc Campbell
Lawrence A Leiter
Richard Z Lewanczuk
Ernesto L Schiffrin
Michael D Hill
Malcolm Arnold
Gordon Moe
Tavis S Campbell
Carol Herbert
Alain Milot
James A Stone
Ellen Burgess
B. Hemmelgarn
Charlotte Jones
Pierre Larochelle
Richard I Ogilvie
Robyn Houlden
Robert J Herman
Pavel Hamet
George Fodor
George Carruthers
Bruce Culleton
Jacques Dechamplain
George Pylypchuk
Alexander G Logan
Norm Gledhill
Robert Petrella
Sheldon Tobe
Rhian M Touyz
Author Affiliation
Division of General Internal Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
Source
Can J Cardiol. 2006 May 15;22(7):583-93
Date
May-15-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Advisory Committees
Alcohol Drinking
Antihypertensive Agents - therapeutic use
Calcium, Dietary - administration & dosage
Canada
Cerebrovascular Disorders - therapy
Diabetes Mellitus - therapy
Diet
Exercise
Humans
Hypertension - therapy
Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular - therapy
Kidney Diseases - therapy
Life Style
Magnesium - administration & dosage
Myocardial Ischemia - therapy
Patient compliance
Potassium, Dietary - administration & dosage
Sodium, Dietary - administration & dosage
Stress, Psychological - prevention & control
Weight Loss
Abstract
To provide updated, evidence-based recommendations for the management of hypertension in adults.
For lifestyle and pharmacological interventions, evidence from randomized, controlled trials and systematic reviews of trials was preferentially reviewed. Changes in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality were the primary outcomes of interest. For lifestyle interventions, blood pressure (BP) lowering was accepted as a primary outcome given the lack of long-term morbidity/mortality data in this field. For treatment of patients with kidney disease, the development of proteinuria or worsening of kidney function was also accepted as a clinically relevant primary outcome.
MEDLINE searches were conducted from November 2004 to October 2005 to update the 2005 recommendations. In addition, reference lists were scanned and experts were contacted to identify additional published studies. All relevant articles were reviewed and appraised independently by content and methodological experts using prespecified levels of evidence.
Lifestyle modifications to prevent and/or treat hypertension include the following: perform 30 min to 60 min of aerobic exercise four to seven days per week; maintain a healthy body weight (body mass index of 18.5 kg/m2 to 24.9 kg/m2) and waist circumference (less than 102 cm for men and less than 88 cm for women); limit alcohol consumption to no more than 14 standard drinks per week in men or nine standard drinks per week in women; follow a diet that is reduced in saturated fat and cholesterol and that emphasizes fruits, vegetables and low-fat dairy products; restrict salt intake; and consider stress management in selected individuals. Treatment thresholds and targets should take into account each individual's global atherosclerotic risk, target organ damage and comorbid conditions. BP should be lowered to less than 140/90 mmHg in all patients, and to less than 130/80 mmHg in those with diabetes mellitus or chronic kidney disease (regardless of the degree of proteinuria). Most adults with hypertension require more than one agent to achieve these target BPs. For adults without compelling indications for other agents, initial therapy should include thiazide diuretics. Other agents appropriate for first-line therapy for diastolic hypertension with or without systolic hypertension include beta-blockers (in those younger than 60 years), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors (in nonblack patients), long-acting calcium channel blockers or angiotensin receptor antagonists. Other agents for first-line therapy for isolated systolic hypertension include long-acting dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers or angiotensin receptor antagonists. Certain comorbid conditions provide compelling indications for first-line use of other agents: in patients with angina, recent myocardial infarction or heart failure, beta-blockers and ACE inhibitors are recommended as first-line therapy; in patients with diabetes mellitus, ACE inhibitors or angiotensin receptor antagonists (or in patients without albuminuria, thiazides or dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers) are appropriate first-line therapies; and in patients with nondiabetic chronic kidney disease, ACE inhibitors are recommended. All hypertensive patients should have their fasting lipids screened, and those with dyslipidemia should be treated using the thresholds, targets and agents recommended by the Canadian Hypertension Education Program Working Group on the management of dyslipidemia and the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Selected patients with hypertension, but without dyslipidemia, should also receive statin therapy and/or acetylsalicylic acid therapy.
All recommendations were graded according to strength of the evidence and voted on by the 45 members of the Canadian Hypertension Education Program Evidence-Based Recommendations Task Force. All recommendations reported here achieved at least 95% consensus. These guidelines will continue to be updated annually.
Notes
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PubMed ID
16755313 View in PubMed
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Assessing the validity of a self-administered food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) in the adult population of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature114696
Source
Nutr J. 2013;12:49
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
Author
Lin Liu
Peizhong Peter Wang
Barbara Roebothan
Ann Ryan
Christina Sandra Tucker
Jennifer Colbourne
Natasha Baker
Michelle Cotterchio
Yanqing Yi
Guang Sun
Author Affiliation
Division of Community Health and Humanities, Faculty of Medicine, Memorial University, 300 Prince Philip Drive, St. John's, NL A1B 3V6, Canada.
Source
Nutr J. 2013;12:49
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Calcium, Dietary - administration & dosage
Carotenoids - administration & dosage
Dietary Carbohydrates - administration & dosage
Dietary Fats - administration & dosage
Dietary Fiber - administration & dosage
Dietary Proteins - administration & dosage
Energy intake
Female
Guidelines as Topic
Humans
Male
Mental Recall
Middle Aged
Newfoundland and Labrador
Nutrition Assessment
Questionnaires
Socioeconomic Factors
Vitamin A - administration & dosage
Vitamin D - administration & dosage
Abstract
The Food- Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) is a dietary assessment tool frequently used in large-scale nutritional epidemiology studies. The goal of the present study is to validate a self-administered version of the Hawaii FFQ modified for use in the general adult population of Newfoundland and Labrador (NL).
Over a one year period, 195 randomly selected adults completed four 24-hour dietary recalls (24-HDRs) by telephone and one subsequent self-administered FFQ. Estimates of energy and nutrients derived from the 24-HDRs and FFQs were compared (protein, carbohydrate, fibre, fat, vitamin A, carotene, vitamin D, and calcium). Data were analyzed using the Pearson's correlation coefficients, cross-classification method, and Bland-Altman plots.
The mean nutrient intake values of the 24-HDRs were lower than those of the FFQs, except for protein in men. Sex and energy-adjusted de-attenuated Pearson correlation coefficients for each nutrient varied from 0.13 to 0.61. Except for protein in men, all correlations were statistically significant with p?
Notes
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PubMed ID
23590645 View in PubMed
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Association between dairy food consumption and weight change over 9 y in 19,352 perimenopausal women.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature79474
Source
Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Dec;84(6):1481-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2006
Author
Rosell Magdalena
Håkansson Niclas N
Wolk Alicja
Author Affiliation
The National Institute of Environmental Medicine, Division of Nutritional Epidemiology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. magdalena.rosell@ki.se
Source
Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Dec;84(6):1481-8
Date
Dec-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Body mass index
Body Weight - physiology
Calcium, Dietary - administration & dosage
Cohort Studies
Confidence Intervals
Dairy Products
Dietary Fats - administration & dosage
Energy Intake - physiology
Female
Humans
Logistic Models
Longitudinal Studies
Middle Aged
Multivariate Analysis
Odds Ratio
Perimenopause
Sweden
Weight Gain
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Dairy foods may play a role in the regulation of body weight. OBJECTIVE: We examined the association between changes in dairy product consumption and weight change over 9 y. DESIGN: The study was conducted in 19 352 Swedish women aged 40-55 y at baseline. Data on dietary intake, body weight, height, age, education, and parity were collected in 1987-1990 and 1997. The intake frequencies of whole milk and sour milk (3% fat), medium-fat milk (1.5% fat), low-fat milk and sour milk (or=1 serving/d; 3) constant, >or=1 serving/d; and 4) decreased from >or=1 serving/d to or=1 kg/y were calculated by using multivariable logistic regression analyses, with group 1 as the reference. RESULTS: Mean (+/-SD) body mass index (in kg/m2) at baseline was 23.7 +/- 3.5. The constant (>or=1 serving/d) intakes of whole milk and sour milk and of cheese were inversely associated with weight gain; ORs for group 3 were 0.85 (95% CI: 0.73, 0.99) and 0.70 (95% CI: 0.59, 0.84) respectively. No significant associations were seen for the other 3 intake groups. When stratified by BMI, the findings remained significant for cheese and, for normal-weight women only, for whole milk and sour milk. CONCLUSION: The association between the intake of dairy products and weight change differed according to type of dairy product and body mass status. The mechanism behind these findings warrants further investigation.
PubMed ID
17158433 View in PubMed
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Association between dairy intake and caries among children and adolescents. results from the Danish EYHS follow-up study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature274717
Source
Caries Res. 2015;49(3):251-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
2015
Author
Susanne M Lempert
Lisa B Christensen
Karsten Froberg
Kyle Raymond
Berit L Heitmann
Source
Caries Res. 2015;49(3):251-8
Date
2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Animals
Calcium, Dietary - administration & dosage
Caseins - administration & dosage
Child
Cohort Studies
DMF Index
Dairy Products - statistics & numerical data
Denmark - epidemiology
Dental Caries - epidemiology
Educational Status
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Food Habits
Humans
Incidence
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Milk
Parents - education
Prevalence
Social Class
Whey - administration & dosage
Abstract
The aim of this paper was to investigate associations between the intake of dairy products and the development in caries (DMFS, decayed, missing and filled surfaces) among children/adolescents over a period of 3 and 6 years, and to investigate whether dairy intake protects against caries incidence. A total of 68.9% of the children were caries free at the age of 9 compared with 34.0% of the adolescents at the age of 15 (measured as DMFS = 0). A larger percentage of children/adolescents with a dairy intake above the mean were caries free compared with the group of children/adolescents with an intake below the mean (72.8 vs. 65.8% at age 9 and 41.1 vs. 30.7% at age 15). The results from the generalized estimation equation showed that dairy and milk intake, as well as intakes of components of dairy such as dairy calcium, whey and casein, was generally inversely associated with childhood/adolescent caries experience (measured as DMFS). With regard to caries incidence, the same inverse association was found for incidence over a period of 3 years and for incidence over 6 years, but the results were only statistically significant for the 3-year incidence and for the unadjusted models of the 6-year incidence. This study found that previous dairy intake, as well as milk intake or intake of dairy components, may be a predictor of future risk of caries measured by the DMFS count level. This relationship was inverse, meaning that a high intake of dairy products was associated with less future caries development. However, more studies on larger cohorts are needed to confirm these findings.
PubMed ID
25825159 View in PubMed
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Association of low 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations with elevated parathyroid hormone concentrations and low cortical bone density in early pubertal and prepubertal Finnish girls.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature183926
Source
Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Sep;78(3):485-92
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2003
Author
Sulin Cheng
Frances Tylavsky
Heikki Kröger
Merja Kärkkäinen
Arja Lyytikäinen
Arvo Koistinen
Anitta Mahonen
Markku Alen
Jussi Halleen
Kalervo Väänänen
Christel Lamberg-Allardt
Author Affiliation
Department of Health Sciences, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland. cheng@sport.jyu.fi
Source
Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Sep;78(3):485-92
Date
Sep-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acid Phosphatase - blood
Biological Markers - blood
Bone Density
Bone Resorption - diagnosis
Calcium - urine
Calcium, Dietary - administration & dosage
Child
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary - diagnosis - etiology - metabolism
Isoenzymes - blood
Parathyroid Hormone - blood
Puberty - metabolism
Seasons
Vitamin D - analogs & derivatives - blood
Vitamin D Deficiency - complications - diagnosis - epidemiology - metabolism
Abstract
Very few studies have evaluated both parathyroid hormone (PTH) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and their effects on bone mass in children.
We studied the associations of serum 25(OH)D and intact PTH (iPTH) with bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) at different bone sites and the relation between serum 25(OH)D and iPTH in early pubertal and prepubertal Finnish girls.
The subjects were 10-12-y-old girls (n = 193) at Tanner stage 1 or 2, who reported a mean (+/- SD) dietary calcium intake of 733 +/- 288 mg/d. 25(OH)D, iPTH, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRAP 5b), urinary calcium excretion, BMC, areal BMD, and volumetric BMD were assessed by using different methods.
Thirty-two percent of the girls were vitamin D deficient [serum 25(OH)D
Notes
Erratum In: Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Jan;83(1):174
PubMed ID
12936933 View in PubMed
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Associations of social and demographic variables with calcium intakes of high school students.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature218713
Source
J Am Diet Assoc. 1994 Mar;94(3):260-6, 269; quiz 267-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-1994
Author
S I Barr
Author Affiliation
School of Family and Nutritional Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.
Source
J Am Diet Assoc. 1994 Mar;94(3):260-6, 269; quiz 267-8
Date
Mar-1994
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
Animals
Asia - ethnology
Beverages
British Columbia
Calcium, Dietary - administration & dosage
Dairy Products
Diet Records
Eating
Ethnic Groups
European Continental Ancestry Group
Female
Food Preferences - ethnology - psychology
Humans
Male
Milk
Milk Hypersensitivity - epidemiology
Peer Group
Regression Analysis
Reinforcement, Social
Sex Factors
Socioeconomic Factors
Urban Population
Abstract
To assess usual calcium intake of urban high school students and to assess the association of social and demographic variables with calcium intake.
A self-administered survey instrument containing the following elements: a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) developed to estimate calcium intake; questions to elicit demographic information; and scales to reflect taste enjoyment of dairy products, social reinforcement for consumption of milk, perceptions of others' opinions about milk, and behavioral modeling of milk consumption (ie, the frequency of observing friends' and family members' use of milk). The FFQ was shown to include major sources of calcium in diets of a pretest sample (n = 130).
Urban high schools in a metropolitan setting.
Students in one class per grade level in six high schools (approximately 900 students) were asked to participate. Of the 856 questionnaires completed, 785 were usable.
Total calcium intake, as estimated using the FFQ.
Descriptive statistics, t tests, one-way analysis of variance, correlation analysis, and stepwise multiple regression analysis were used to assess relationships of independent variables with calcium intake.
Mean estimated calcium intakes for male and female students were 1,146 +/- 41 mg/day (mean +/- standard error of the mean) and 815 +/- 26 mg/day (P girls); taste enjoyment of dairy products; number of meals and snacks per day; age; ethnicity (whites > Asians); behavioral modeling of milk consumption; perceptions of others' opinions, recommendations, and use of milk; and soft drink consumption (total adjusted R2 = .304). With the exception of age, these variables were positively associated with calcium intake. Regression equations developed for boys and girls separately revealed that different variables entered the equations.
Most of the variability in adolescents calcium intakes remained unexplained by the variables included in this study. Nevertheless, the results suggest that education programs focusing on taste enjoyment of dairy products and building on the influence of peers and family members may have a positive impact on calcium intake.
PubMed ID
8120289 View in PubMed
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Body mass, vitamin D and alcohol intake, lactose intolerance, and television watching influence bone mineral density of young, healthy Canadian women.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature123821
Source
J Am Coll Nutr. 2012 Feb;31(1):24-31
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2012
Author
Carolyn M Tereszkowski
Janis A Randall Simpson
Susan J Whiting
Andrea C Buchholz
Author Affiliation
Department of Family Relations and Applied Nutrition, University of Guelph, ON, Canada.
Source
J Am Coll Nutr. 2012 Feb;31(1):24-31
Date
Feb-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Absorptiometry, Photon - methods
Adult
Alcohol Drinking - adverse effects
Body mass index
Bone Density
Calcium, Dietary - administration & dosage
Female
Femur Neck - radiography
Food Habits
Humans
Lactose Intolerance
Life Style
Linear Models
Lumbar vertebrae - radiography
Ontario
Questionnaires
Television
Vitamin D - administration & dosage
Young Adult
Abstract
To report bone mineral density (BMD) in young, reportedly healthy Canadian women and to determine whether lifestyle factors that have been associated with bone health in older women are also associated with BMD in young women.
We recruited a convenience sample of 52 female undergraduate students in the Applied Human Nutrition program at the University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada. BMD was measured at the femoral neck, lumbar spine (L1 to L4), and whole body using a Discovery Wi (Hologic Inc.) dual-energy x-ray absorptiometer. Subjects completed a questionnaire to collect demographics, medical history, physical activity levels, and dietary habits; in addition, a subset of subjects (n = 31) completed a food frequency questionnaire to collect data on calcium and vitamin D intake. BMD data were examined using T- and Z-score classifications established by the World Health Organization (WHO); multiple regression analysis was used to predict BMD with biological and lifestyle variables.
Mean BMD measured at the femoral neck, lumbar spine, and whole body was 0.863 ± 0.11, 1.019 ± 0.09, and 1.085 ± 0.07 g/cm(2), respectively. Body mass and body mass index were significantly positively correlated with BMD at all 3 sites. Television watching, lactose intolerance, number of alcoholic drinks consumed per week, and age were used to develop a linear regression model to predict whole-body BMD (r(2) = 0.727, p
PubMed ID
22661623 View in PubMed
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Body size from birth to adulthood and bone mineral content and density at 31 years of age: results from the northern Finland 1966 birth cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature175628
Source
Osteoporos Int. 2005 Nov;16(11):1417-24
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2005
Author
J. Laitinen
K. Kiukaanniemi
J. Heikkinen
M. Koiranen
P. Nieminen
U. Sovio
S. Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi
M R Järvelin
Author Affiliation
Oulu Regional Institute of Occupational Health, Oulu, Finland. jaana.laitinen@ttl.fi
Source
Osteoporos Int. 2005 Nov;16(11):1417-24
Date
Nov-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Absorptiometry, Photon
Adolescent
Adult
Anthropometry
Birth weight
Body Size
Bone Density
Calcium, Dietary - administration & dosage
Child
Child, Preschool
Epidemiologic Methods
Female
Finland
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Male
Pregnancy
Radius - radiography
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between body size from birth to adulthood and bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) at the age of 31 years in a longitudinal study of the Northern Finland birth cohort for 1966. Data were collected at birth, 1, 14, and 31 years. This analysis was restricted to a subsample of individuals (n =1,099) for whom the BMC (g) and BMD measurements (g/cm(2)) were performed on the distal and ultradistal radius by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at the age of 31 years. Determinants of low BMC and BMD were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression. Growth retardation at birth, being underweight (BMI
PubMed ID
15782283 View in PubMed
Less detail

Bone size and bone mass in 10-year-old Danish children: effect of current diet.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature32289
Source
Osteoporos Int. 2000;11(12):1024-30
Publication Type
Article
Date
2000
Author
C. Hoppe
C. Mølgaard
K F Michaelsen
Author Affiliation
Research Department of Human Nutrition and Centre for Advanced Food Studies, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Frederiksberg, Denmark. cho@kvl.dk
Source
Osteoporos Int. 2000;11(12):1024-30
Date
2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Body Height - physiology
Body Weight - physiology
Bone Density - physiology
Bone Development - physiology
Bone and Bones - anatomy & histology
Calcium, Dietary - administration & dosage
Child
Child Nutrition - physiology
Cross-Sectional Studies
Denmark
Diet
Dietary Proteins - administration & dosage
Energy intake
Female
Humans
Male
Phosphorus - administration & dosage
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Sodium, Dietary - administration & dosage
Abstract
Lifestyle factors, such as diet, are believed to be involved in modifying bone health, although the results remain controversial, particularly in children and adolescents. The objective of the study was to identify associations between dietary factors and whole body bone measurements in 10-year-old children. The study was a cross-sectional analysis of a random sample of 105 healthy Danish children, aged 10 years (9.97+/-0.09). Whole body bone mineral content (BMC) and bone area (BA) were determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The influence of diet (7 day food records) on BMC and BA were examined in bi- and multivariate analyses. The mean intakes of calcium, protein, phosphorus and sodium were 1226 mg, 78 g, 1523 mg and 3.3 g, respectively. In bivariate analyses, BMC and BA were strongly positively correlated with height (p
PubMed ID
11256893 View in PubMed
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[Breast density: a biomarker to better understand and prevent breast cancer].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature167463
Source
Bull Cancer. 2006 Sep;93(9):847-55
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2006
Author
Jacques Brisson
Sylvie Bérubé
Caroline Diorio
Author Affiliation
Unité de recherche en santé des populations (URESP), Centre hospitalier affilié universitaire de Québec, 1050 chemin Sainte-Foy, Québec, Qc, Canada G1S 4L8. jacques.brisson@uresp.ulaval.ca
Source
Bull Cancer. 2006 Sep;93(9):847-55
Date
Sep-2006
Language
French
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
25-Hydroxyvitamin D 2 - blood
Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal - therapeutic use
Breast - drug effects - pathology
Breast Neoplasms - blood - pathology - prevention & control
Calcium, Dietary - administration & dosage - blood
Female
Humans
Mammography
Polymorphism, Genetic
Premenopause
Quebec
Receptors, Calcitriol - genetics
Risk assessment
Somatomedins - genetics - metabolism
Tamoxifen - therapeutic use
Tumor Markers, Biological - blood
Vitamin D - administration & dosage - analogs & derivatives - blood
Abstract
In Quebec, cancer is the principal cause of mortality. This epidemiologic research program includes two components. The first component takes place at the "Institut national de santé publique du Québec" and involves surveillance and evaluation of practices in oncology with the aim of providing the Quebec Ministry of Health with some of the evidence needed to determine its policies in cancer control. The second component takes place at the "Unité de recherche en santé des populations (URESP)" of Laval University and is devoted to studying the etiology and prevention of breast cancer. This paper focuses on this second research component which uses mammographic breast density as an intermediate biomarker to study the causes of breast cancer and strategies to prevent it. Breast cancer risk is much higher among women with very dense breasts than among those with little or no breast density. Recently, we were among the first to show that women with high vitamin D or calcium intakes have less breast density than those with low intakes, especially among premenopausal women. Furthermore, we have confirmed that breast density was increased among premenopausal women with high levels of IGF-I and low levels of IGFBP3 which is consistent with the observed effect of these molecules on breast cancer risk. Studies are now being conducted to assess whether breast density varies according to blood levels of vitamin D and of additional growth factors, as well as to genetic polymorphisms involved in the pathways of vitamin D, calcium and growth factors. The increase in vitamin D and calcium intakes may prove to be a safe and inexpensive approach to breast cancer prevention; this possibility should be carefully examined as quickly as possible.
PubMed ID
16980227 View in PubMed
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