No comprehensive data on sources or risk factors of cadmium exposure in Ukrainian children are available. In this we measured the blood levels of cadmium among 80 Ukrainian children and evaluated sources of exposure. A nested case-control study from a prospective cohort of Ukrainian 3-year-old children was conducted. We evaluated predictors of elevated blood cadmium using a multivariable logistic regression model. The model included socioeconomic data, parent occupation, environmental tobacco smoke, hygiene, body-mass index, and diet. Dietary habits were evaluated using the 1992 Block-NCI-HHHQ Dietary Food Frequency survey. Elevated cadmium was defined as blood levels in the upper quartile (0.25 microg/L). The mean age for all 80 children was 36.6 months. Geometric mean cadmium level was 0.21 microg/L (range = 0.11-0.42 microg/L; SD = 0.05). Blood cadmium levels were higher among children taking zinc supplements (0.25 vs 0.21 microg/L; P = 0.032), children who ate sausage more than once per week (0.23 vs 0.20; P = 0.007) and children whose fathers worked in a by-product coking industry (0.25 vs 0.21; P = 0.056). In the multivariable model, predictors of elevated blood cadmium levels included zinc supplementation (adjusted OR = 14.16; P
An analysis for cadmium was made of 101 human blood samples from the district of Angmagssalik, East Greenland, and 29 from East Greenlanders living temporarily in Copenhagen. No relationship could be found between concentrations of blood cadmium and ethnic origin (Eskimos--Danes), sex, age or amount of seal eaten. Only smoking habits were reflected, as a median of 2.2 micrograms/l was found in smokers and 1.1 in non-smokers. Since analyses of organs from seals have suggested that the WHO provisional, tolerable weekly intake is exceeded by a factor as high as 10 as a result of seal eating, it is surprising that seal eating is without any effect on the blood concentration.
Cadmium is a non-essential toxic metal with multiple adverse health effects. Cadmium has been shown to be associated with cardiovascular diseases, but few studies have investigated heart failure (HF) and none of them reported atrial fibrillation (AF). We examined whether cadmium exposure is associated with incidence of HF or AF.
A prospective, observational cohort study with a 17-year follow-up.
The city of Malmö, Sweden.
Blood cadmium levels were measured in 4378 participants without a history of HF or AF (aged 46-67 years, 60% women), who participated in the Malmö Diet and Cancer (MDC) study during 1992-1994.
Incidence of HF and AF were identified from the Swedish hospital discharge register.
143 participants (53% men) were diagnosed with new-onset HF and 385 individuals (52% men) were diagnosed with new-onset AF during follow-up for 17 years. Blood cadmium in the sex-specific 4th quartile of the distribution was significantly associated with incidence of HF. The (HR, 4th vs 1st quartile) was 2.64 (95% CI 1.60 to 4.36), adjusted for age, and 1.95 (1.02 to 3.71) after adjustment also for conventional risk factors and biomarkers. The blood cadmium level was not significantly associated with risk of incident AF.
Blood cadmium levels in the 4th quartile were associated with increased incidence of HF in this cohort with comparatively low exposure to cadmium. Incidence of AF was not associated with cadmium.