Acid precipitation affects the solubility of several metals in aquatic systems and in soil. Cadmium levels in tap water samples from geological areas having low resistance to acidic pollution were significantly higher than those in samples from a neighbouring reference area where there was a different geological structure. The median cadmium levels and pH values were 0.14 microgram l-1 and 5.6 respectively, for the acidic areas compared with 0.07 microgram l-1 and 6.4 respectively for the reference area. Further, there was a significant inverse relationship between both cadmium and lead contents and the pH values of the samples. The mobility of the metals was thus dependent on the acidity. The blood lead levels in 195 subjects from the acidic areas were lower than those in 91 subjects from the reference area (medians 60 vs. 70 micrograms l-1); no significant differences were found in blood cadmium or blood mercury levels. Subjects in the acidic areas had lower plasma selenium levels than those from the reference area (medians 85 vs. 90 micrograms l-1); the difference was mainly attributed to subjects with private wells. The data may indicate a negative effect of the acidic pollution on selenium intake via water and/or foods. There was also a positive relationship between intake of fish on the one hand and blood mercury and plasma selenium on the other, which is in accordance with the role of fish as a source of these metals.
Cadmium (Cd), a nonessential toxic metal present in the environment, accumulates in the organs of herbivorous mammals which typically are consumed by Aboriginal populations. The relative contribution of this potential exposure source to concentrations of blood Cd was investigated in 1429 participants (age >7 years) residing in the nine Cree First Nations communities of Eeyou Istchee, northern Quebec, Canada. Analysis of variance identified significant Cd concentration differences between communities, sex, and age groups, although these were complicated by significant 2-way interactions. The percentage of participants with Cd concentrations within the adopted health-based guideline categories of 'acceptable', 'concern' and 'action' pertaining to kidney damage was 56.2%, 38.3%, and 5.5%, respectively. Partial correlations (controlling for age as a continuous variable) did not show a significant association between consumption of traditional foods and Cd concentrations (r = 0.014, df = 105, p = 0.883). A significant and positive partial correlation (r = 0.390, df = 105, p
No comprehensive data on sources or risk factors of cadmium exposure in Ukrainian children are available. In this we measured the blood levels of cadmium among 80 Ukrainian children and evaluated sources of exposure. A nested case-control study from a prospective cohort of Ukrainian 3-year-old children was conducted. We evaluated predictors of elevated blood cadmium using a multivariable logistic regression model. The model included socioeconomic data, parent occupation, environmental tobacco smoke, hygiene, body-mass index, and diet. Dietary habits were evaluated using the 1992 Block-NCI-HHHQ Dietary Food Frequency survey. Elevated cadmium was defined as blood levels in the upper quartile (0.25 microg/L). The mean age for all 80 children was 36.6 months. Geometric mean cadmium level was 0.21 microg/L (range = 0.11-0.42 microg/L; SD = 0.05). Blood cadmium levels were higher among children taking zinc supplements (0.25 vs 0.21 microg/L; P = 0.032), children who ate sausage more than once per week (0.23 vs 0.20; P = 0.007) and children whose fathers worked in a by-product coking industry (0.25 vs 0.21; P = 0.056). In the multivariable model, predictors of elevated blood cadmium levels included zinc supplementation (adjusted OR = 14.16; P
The Northern Finland Birth Cohort program (NFBC) is the epidemiological and longitudinal prospective general population research program, which was established to promote health and wellbeing of the population in northern Finland. The aim of present study, as a part of the NFBC program, was to analyze the blood levels of arsenic (B-As), cadmium (B-Cd), lead (B-Pb), total mercury (B-Hg) and selenium (B-Se); to compare these levels with threshold limits; to study sociodemographic factors; and to correlate these levels with calcium and haemoglobin. The study was comprised of 249 NFBC subjects, of which 123 were female and 126 were male (ages 31.1???0.3 and 31.1???0.4, respectively). All participants were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding diet and living habits. The geometric means (? SD) of B-As were 0.49???2.80??g/l and 0.44???2.72??g/l; B-Cd were 0.18???4.02??g/l and 0.12???3.21??g/l; B-Pb were 17.0???1.8??g/l and 9.06???2.20??g/l; B-Hg were 2.18???2.02??g/l and 1.85???1.78??g/l; and B-Se were 106.0???1.3 and 94.3???1.3??g/l in males and females, respectively. Among the subjects in the present analysis, 23?% of males and 17.1?% of females had B-As levels above the ATSDR normal human levels of B-As in unexposed individuals (1.0??g/l). The B-Pb geometric mean (12.44??g/l) was approximately one eighth the CDC toxicological cut-off point of 100??g/l. Twenty-one individuals (8.4?%) exceeded a B-Hg level of 5.8??g/l. Fifty-eight females (47?%) had a B-Hg higher than 2.0??g/l, the German Federal Environmental Agency cut-off point for women (18-69?years) who consume fish at least three times/month; therefore, their babies could be at risk of adverse effects during development.
Lead and cadmium in blood (B-Pb and B-Cd, respectively) and arsenic in urine (U-As) were analyzed three times during pregnancy for women living around a metal smelter and women living in a reference town. The B-Pb levels were significantly higher in the smelter town. In the women of both towns, the B-Pb levels increased during pregnancy. Women who were employed at the smelter had higher B-Pb levels than women in the surrounding area. There were no significant differences in the B-Cd levels between the smelter and reference towns, except for non- and ex-smokers at the onset of pregnancy. No difference between the two areas was seen among the smokers, whose cadmium levels were twice those of non- and ex-smokers. There were no significant differences in the U-As levels, which were comparable with previously reported values in Sweden.
Blood and urine cadmium concentrations have been determined in a group of 85 Inuit residents of Kuujjuaq, Quebec, Canada, drawn from actively hunting households. Mean blood cadmium values are high at 39.4 nmol/l, varying between 6.6 in non-smokers and 60.3 in smokers. No association of blood cadmium with self-reported offal consumption could be found. Median urine cadmium concentrations are elevated at 2.3 mumol/mol creatinine and rise substantially with age: 0.9 in the 30-39 age group; 3.2 among the 40-59 age group; and 4.1 in the 60 and over.
Blood cadmium and plasma zinc were measured in a series of 47 patients admitted for myocardial infarction (MI) and in 37 control subjects divided into 3 groups. Certainly increased blood cadmium values, for the MI patients, were found in 33%. The mean blood cadmium value of the MI series was significantly (P less than 0.001), but not invariably, higher against the control subjects. The difference between the zinc values of the series was studied in 35 MI patients with raised serum enzyme activity. In MI patients, the mean plasma zinc content was significantly (0.001 less than P less than 0.01) lower than in healthy controls. Of the enzymes, the highest positive correlation was found between the ratio of blood cadmium to plasma zinc and the GOT activity. Of the ratio, the MI patients had values in excess of the controls range in 43%, and values within the limits of the healthy controls in 40%. Therefore, the rise in the ratio is of limited value for the diagnosis of myocardial infarction in an individual patient.
Cadmium exposure may increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. The only published longitudinal study on cadmium and incident cardiovascular disease was performed in American Indians with relatively high cadmium exposure.
Our aim was to examine the association between blood cadmium at baseline and incident cardiovascular events in a population-based study of Swedish men and women with cadmium levels similar to those of most European and U.S.
A Swedish population-based cohort (n = 6,103, age 46-67 years) was recruited between 1991 and 1994. After we excluded those with missing data on smoking, 4,819 participants remained. Acute coronary events, other major cardiac events, stroke, and cardiovascular mortality were followed until 2010. Associations with blood cadmium (estimated from cadmium in erythrocytes) were analyzed using Cox proportional hazards regression including potential confounders and important cardiovascular risk factors.
Hazard ratios for all cardiovascular end points were consistently increased for participants in the 4th blood cadmium quartile (median, 0.99 ?g/L). In models that also included sex, smoking, waist circumference, education, physical activity, alcohol intake, serum triglycerides, HbA1c, and C-reactive protein, the hazard ratios comparing the highest and lowest quartiles of exposure were 1.8 (95% CI: 1.2, 2.7) for acute coronary events, and 1.9 (1.3, 2.9) for stroke. Hazard ratios in never-smokers were consistent with these estimates.
Blood cadmium in the highest quartile was associated with incident cardiovascular disease and mortality in our population-based samples of Swedish adults. The consistent results among never-smokers are important because smoking is a strong confounder. Our findings suggest that measures to reduce cadmium exposures are warranted, even in populations without unusual sources of exposure.
Barregard L, Sallsten G, Fagerberg B, Born? Y, Persson M, Hedblad B, Engstr?m G. 2016. Blood cadmium levels and incident cardiovascular events during follow-up in a population-based cohort of Swedish adults: the Malm? Diet and Cancer Study. Environ Health Perspect 124:594-600; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1509735.
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Cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) are hypothesised to be risk factors for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), a group of haematological malignancies with a suspected environmental aetiology. Within the EnviroGenoMarkers study we utilised pre-diagnostic erythrocyte concentrations of Cd and Pb to determine whether exposure was associated with risk of B-cell NHL and multiple myeloma.
194 incident cases of B-cell NHL and 76 cases of multiple myeloma diagnosed between 1990 and 2006 were identified from two existing cohorts; EPIC-Italy and the Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study. Cases were matched to healthy controls by centre, age, gender and date of blood collection. Cd and Pb were measured in blood samples provided at recruitment using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Logistic regression was applied to assess the association with risk. Analyses were stratified by cohort and gender and by subtype where possible.
There was little evidence of an increased risk of B-cell NHL or multiple myeloma with exposure to Cd (B-cell NHL: OR 1.09 95%CI 0.61, 1.93, MM: OR 1.16 95% CI: 0.40, 3.40 ) or Pb (B-cell NHL: 0.93 95% CI 0.43, 2.02, multiple myeloma: OR 1.63 95%CI 0.45, 5.94) in the total population when comparing the highest to the lowest quartile of exposure. However, gender and cohort specific differences in results were observed. In females the risk of B-cell NHL was more than doubled in those with a body burden of Cd >1 ?g/L (OR 2.20 95%CI; 1.04, 4.65).
This nested case-control study does not support a consistent positive association between Cd or Pb and NHL, but there is some indication of a gender specific effect suggesting further research is warranted.
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