The objective of the present work was to detect and describe the new features characterizing the long-term stay of a corpse in seawater followed by its burial on earth. The bones of the skeletonized corpse were found to be covered with mussels and petrified sea worms that can serve as the indicators of staying the corps in seawater and its subsequent transportation from the sea coastline to the inland. These findings can be used to clarify the circumstances of death of the people found in the illegal burial places at the seacoast of maritime areas.
Older living kidney donors are regularly accepted. Better knowledge of recipient outcomes is needed to inform this practice. This retrospective cohort study observed kidney allograft recipients from Ontario, Canada between January 2000 and March 2008. Donors to these recipients were older living (= 60 years), younger living, or standard criteria deceased (SCD). Review of medical records and electronic healthcare data were used to perform survival analysis. Recipients received 73 older living, 1187 younger living and 1400 SCD kidneys. Recipients of older living kidneys were older than recipients of younger living kidneys. Baseline glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of older kidneys was 13 mL/min per 1.73 m² lower than younger kidneys. Median follow-up time was 4 years. The primary outcome of total graft loss was not significantly different between older and younger living kidney recipients [adjusted hazard ratio, HR (95%CI): 1.56 (0.98-2.49)]. This hazard ratio was not proportional and increased with time. Associations were not modified by recipient age or donor eGFR. There was no significant difference in total graft loss comparing older living to SCD kidney recipients [HR: 1.29 (0.80-2.08)]. In light of an observed trend towards potential differences beyond 4 years, uncertainty remains, and extended follow-up of this and other cohorts is warranted.
Recent success in overcoming rejection of transplanted organs has led to a much greater demand for organs from donors and to a reconsideration of mechanisms for increasing the availability of organs from cadavers. In the latter respect the two basic systems are "contracting-in" and "contracting-out". Each system has different benefits and harms, and it is a value judgement that should be adopted. However, both systems raise legal, ethical and practical issues that must be addressed if organs for transplantation are to become available to all who need them.
Sonography using cadavers is beneficial in teaching and learning sonoanatomy, which is particularly important because imaging of the airway can be challenging due to the cartilaginous landmarks and air artifacts. In this exploratory study, we have attempted to compare the airway sonoanatomy of cadavers and live models. Our observations support the use of cadavers as teaching tools for learning airway sonoanatomy and practicing procedures involving airway structures, such as superior laryngeal nerve blocks, transtracheal injections, and needle cricothyroidotomy, before performance on patients in clinical situations. We believe this process will improve patient safety and enhance the competency of trainees and practitioners in rare procedures such as needle cricothyroidotomy.
The results of analysis of elemental composition of human bone tissue by the method of laser mass spectrometry are published for the first time. This method makes it possible to detect about 20 elements of bone tissue at once. Quantitative analysis of 1 microgram/gram of an element contained in bone tissue is sufficient to diagnose of human medico-biological characteristics by this method.
Statistics are presented on the incidence of blood groups of 6 systems in the population of the Udmurt Republic. The data are compared with the results of similar surveys in other regions of the Russian Federation.
To determine factors predictive of long-term graft function in patients treated prophylactically with an antilymphocyte antibody, 670 first cadaveric adult renal transplant procedures performed between 1985 and 1991 were reviewed. The actuarial 1- and 5-year patient survival in this group was 95% and 87% respectively, and graft survival was 84% and 70% respectively. The final analysis was based on a study group of 635 patients which excluded 28 patients who lost grafts to early technical failures and 8 patients who were not induced with an antilymphocyte preparation. Multivariate analysis showed that 5-year graft survival was lower in patients with delayed graft function (p = 0.0001), in those who had an acute rejection episode in the first 6 months post-transplant (p = 0.0001), recipients greater than 55 years of age at the time of transplant (p = 0.0001), in patients who were highly sensitized at the time of transplant (p = 0.0331) and, finally, in those who received a graft from an older donor (p = 0.044). The 209 patients with delayed graft function had a 16% lower long-term graft survival than 425 patients with early graft function (62% vs. 78% respectively at 5 years). One or more rejection episodes in the first 6 months post-transplant (329 patients) reduced long-term graft survival by 13% compared to those who did not have a rejection episode (67% vs. 80% respectively at 5 years).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
In Canada, as in many other countries, there exists an organ procurement/donation crisis. This paper reviews some of the most common kidney procurement and allocation programmes, analyses them in terms of public and private administration, and argues that privately administered living donor models are an inequitable stopgap measure, the good intentions of which are misplaced and opportunistic. Focusing on how to improve the publicly administered equitable cadaveric donation programme, and at the same time offering one possible explanation for its current failure, it is suggested that the simple moral principle of "give and you shall receive", already considered by some, be extended further. This would allow for those who are willing to sign up to be a public cadaveric donor be given a priority for receiving an organ donation should they ever require it. It is argued that this priority may provide the motivation to give that is so far lacking in Canada. This model is called the Public Cadaveric Organ Donation Program.
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