Late allergic airway responses can be transferred by CD4+ T cells in the rat. To investigate the role of T-cell cytokines in these responses, we examined the expression of mRNA for Th2 (interleukin [IL]-4 and IL-5) and Th1 (IL-2 and interferon gamma [INF-gamma])-type cytokines in Brown Norway rats that were administered either antigen-primed W3/25(CD4)+ or OX8(CD8)+ T cells. Donors were actively sensitized by subcutaneous injection of ovalbumin (OVA) in the neck and T cells were obtained from the cervical lymph nodes by immunomagnetic cell sorting for administration to unsensitized rats. Control rats received bovine serum albumin (BSA)-primed CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Two days later, recipient rats were challenged with aerosolized OVA, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed 8 h after challenge. BAL cells expressing mRNA for IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, and INF-gamma were analyzed using the technique of in situ hybridization. Recipients of OVA-primed CD4+ T cells had an increase in the fraction of BAL cells expressing mRNA for IL-4 and IL-5 compared with BSA-primed CD4+ or OVA-primed CD8+ cells (P
Following allergen exposure, sensitized Brown-Norway rats develop airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and eosinophilic inflammation together with an increase in activated T cells (CD25+) in the airways. We tested the hypothesis that CD4+ T cells are involved directly in the acquisition of AHR. Spleen T cells from animals that were injected intraperitoneally on three consecutive days with ovalbumin/Al(OH)3, showed a dose-dependent proliferative response in vitro to ovalbumin, but not to bovine serum albumin, as measured by [3H]thymidine uptake. For total T-cell transfer, spleen cells obtained from donor rats 4 days after sensitization were depleted of adherent cells by a nylon wool column separation. CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were purified by immunomagnetic beads cell separation. Recipient naive rats were injected intravenously with 50 x 10(6) total T cells, 20 x 10(6) and 5 x 10(6) CD4+ cells, and 5 x 10(6) CD8+ cells, and were exposed to ovalbumin aerosol 24 hr afterwards. After a further 24 hr, airway responsiveness to acetylcholine (ACh) was measured and provocative concentration (PC) values PC100, PC200 and PC300) (the ACh concentration needed to achieve 100, 200 and 300% increase in lung resistance above baseline) were calculated. Airway responsiveness was significantly increased in recipients of sensitized total T cells compared with recipients of cells from saline-injected donor rats (P
We have recently found that allogeneic intrabone marrow-bone marrow transplantation (IBM-BMT) + donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) using CD4(+) cell-depleted spleen cells (CD4(-) cells) can prevent graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) but suppress tumor growth (Meth A: fibrosarcoma) in mice. In the present study, we show that allogeneic IBM-BMT + DLI using CD4(-) cells also has suppressive effects on the growth of colon cancer cells implanted not only in the skin but also in the liver of rats. First, we examined the effects of allogeneic IBM-BMT + DLI on the subcutaneously inoculated ACL-15 (rat colon cancer cell line). Lethally irradiated Fischer rats (F344 rats) were transplanted with T-cell-depleted bone marrow cells (BMCs) from Brown Norway (BN) rats. Simultaneously, DLI was performed using whole spleen cells (whole cells), CD4(+) cell-depleted spleen cells (CD4(-) cells) or CD8(+) cell-depleted spleen cells (CD8(-) cells) of BN rats. Although allogeneic IBM-BMT + DLI suppressed tumor growth, a considerable number of rats treated with allogeneic IBM-BMT + DLI using whole cells or CD8(-) cells died due to GvHD. In contrast, allogeneic IBM-BMT + DLI using CD4(-) cells also suppressed tumor growth, but there was no GvHD. Based on these findings, we next examined the effects of allogeneic IBM-BMT + DLI using CD4(-) cells on the cancer cells implanted in the liver. Allogeneic IBM-BMT + DLI using CD4(-) cells via the portal vein significantly prolonged the survival. These results suggest that allogeneic IBM-BMT + DLI using CD4(-) cells could become a new strategy for the treatment of solid tumors.
Mercuric chloride (HgCl2) induces a T cell-dependent autoimmune syndrome in Brown-Norway (BN) rats characterized by a humoral response, tissue injury with an accumulation of CD8+ and CD4+ T cells, and an increase in tissue IL-4 mRNA and serum IgE suggesting Th2 cell activation. In other models of autoimmune disease, CD8+ cells act in both anti- and pro-inflammatory capacities, suggesting that functionally distinct CD8+ populations exist in vivo. The effect of treatment with OX8, a depleting anti-CD8 MoAb, on the initiation of HgCl2-induced autoimmunity was assessed in two experiments in a total of 20 BN rats, and compared with 20 animals treated with a control MoAb or PBS. OX8 significantly depleted peripheral blood CD8+ lymphocytes, had no effect on HgCl2-induced anti-collagen or myeloperoxidase antibodies, nor on the incidence or severity of caecal vasculitis. The severity of HgCl2-induced arthritis was significantly reduced in OX8-treated animals; median peak score reduced from 7.5 to 3.0 (experiment 1) and from 7.0 to 4 (experiment 2) (P = 0.009, Mann-Whitney U-test). OX8 treatment also exacerbated the early rise in HgCl2-induced IgE and induced a significant rise in plasma interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), suggesting that CD8+ cells may have a regulatory influence on Th cell populations. These data provide direct evidence that CD8+ cells may act in a proinflammatory capacity in both this model of autoimmunity and the pathogenesis of inflammatory arthritis.
Human immunodeficiency virus-2 (HIV-2) is less pathogenic than HIV-1, and the disease progression in HIV-2-infected individuals seems to be similar to that seen in HIV-1-infected long-term nonprogressors. Cell-mediated immune responses and the production of noncytotoxic CD8+ T-cell antiviral factors (CAF) and beta-chemokines have been correlated to protection against HIV-1 and associated with asymptomatic infection and slower disease progression. We investigated the antigen-induced beta-chemokine production in HIV-2-infected patients living in Sweden and in Guinea-Bissau. We also compared in vitro CD8+ T-cell-mediated noncytotoxic antiviral activity against beta-chemokine-sensitive R5 virus (HIV-1Bal) and beta-chemokine-insensitive X4 virus (HIV-1IIIB) in HIV-2-infected patients with that in HIV-1-infected patients. HIV-2-specific beta-chemokine production was demonstrated in a majority of the HIV-2-infected subjects. CD8+ T cells of both HIV-1 and HIV-2-infected individuals suppressed R5 virus replication in vitro in a similar manner, while the inhibition of X4 virus replication seemed to be more frequent and of a higher magnitude among HIV-2-infected patients compared to HIV-1-infected subjects. Taken together, our results indicate that the production of CD8+ T-cell noncytotoxic antiviral factors may contribute to the low transmission of the virus and slower disease progression in HIV-2-infected patients.
The findings of experimental studies suggest that the immune system plays a key role in atherosclerosis, but the clinical importance of different immune cells in cardiovascular disease remains poorly characterized. In this study we investigated the association between CD8(+) T cells and carotid disease as well as development of cardiovascular disease events.
The study cohort comprised 700 subjects from the cardiovascular arm of the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells, obtained at the 1991-1994 baseline investigation and stored at -140 °C, were thawed and the different CD8(+) T-cell populations analysed by flow cytometry. Baseline carotid intima-media thickness and stenosis were assessed by ultrasonography and clinical events were monitored through validated national registers.
Subjects with a high fraction of CD8(+) T cells were characterized by decreased cytokine release from activated leucocytes, metabolic signs of insulin resistance and increased incidence of coronary events; hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for the second and third tertiles of CD8(+) T cells were 2.57 (1.16, 5.67) and 2.61 (1.19, 5,71), respectively, in a Cox proportional hazards regression model. Correlations were found between the fraction of CD8(+) CD25(+) T cells and the degree of carotid stenosis (r = 0.11, P
Airway hyperresponsiveness to inhalational challenge with methacholine (MCh) develops by 32 h after allergen challenge of actively sensitized BN rats. To test the hypothesis that CD4+ T cells mediate allergen-induced hyperresponsiveness independent of IgE-mediated mechanisms, we administered CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, and a mixture of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells (total T cells) isolated from the cervical lymph nodes of rats sensitized with ovalbumin (OA) to naive BN rats that underwent aerosol challenge with either OA or bovine serum albumin (BSA) 2 d later. Responsiveness to MCh was measured 2 d before transfer of T cells and 32 h after challenge with OA or BSA. Airway responsiveness increased significantly in recipients of CD4+ T cells after OA challenge, but not in any other of the treatment groups. Analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells for major basic protein expression by immunostaining showed eosinophilia in OA-challenged CD4+ and total T-cell recipients. Cells retrieved by bronchoalveolar lavage showed increased expression of IL-5 mRNA (in situ hybridization) in CD4+ T cell recipients after OA challenge compared with other groups. Interferon-gamma mRNA was expressed to the greatest extent in CD8+ recipients, but it was elevated in both OA- and BSA-challenged animals. We conclude that CD4+ T cells can induce airway hyperresponsiveness after inhalational challenge with allergen and this is associated with IL-5 production and eosinophilia. CD8+ T cells may have a negative regulatory effect on responsiveness, possibly mediated by interferon-gamma.
BACKGROUND: The function of CD8+ T-cell subsets in mediating late allergic responses is incompletely understood. OBJECTIVE: We sought to test the hypothesis that CD8+ alphabeta T cells are proinflammatory in the airways in vivo by using a well-characterized animal model and the technique of adoptive transfer. METHODS: Brown Norway rats were administered CD8 + alphabeta T cells (10 6 ) intraperitoneally purified from lymph node cells of either naive or ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized rats and were challenged with aerosolized OVA 2 days later. Control rats were sensitized to 100 mug of OVA in Al(OH) 3 subcutaneously or sham sensitized to saline and were OVA challenged 2 weeks later. RESULTS: The OVA-sensitized and OVA-challenged group and the recipients of OVA-primed CD8+ alphabeta T cells had significant late airway responses calculated from lung resistance measured for an 8-hour period after challenge compared with the naive CD8 + alphabeta T cell-transferred group and the sham-sensitized control group. The number of eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid increased in the OVA-sensitized group and the OVA-primed CD8+ alphabeta T-cell recipients compared with numbers in the naive CD8+ alphabeta T-cell recipients and the sham-sensitized control group. IL-4 and IL-5 cytokine mRNA expression in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid increased in the OVA-sensitized group and the OVA-primed CD8+ alphabeta T-cell recipients compared with that in the sham-sensitized group. CONCLUSION: We conclude that antigen-primed CD8 + alphabeta T cells might have a proinflammatory role in allergen-driven airway responses in the rat.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive and irreversible chronic inflammatory disease of the lung. The nature of the immune reaction in COPD raises the possibility that IL-17 and related cytokines may contribute to this disorder. This study analyzed the expression of IL-17A and IL-17F as well as the phenotype of cells producing them in bronchial biopsies from COPD patients.
Bronchoscopic biopsies of the airway were obtained from 16 COPD subjects (GOLD stage 1-4) and 15 control subjects. Paraffin sections were used for the investigation of IL-17A and IL-17F expression in the airways by immunohistochemistry, and frozen sections were used for the immunofluorescence double staining of IL-17A or IL-17F paired with CD4 or CD8. In order to confirm the expression of IL-17A and IL-17F at the mRNA level, a quantitative RT-PCR was performed on the total mRNA extracted from entire section or CD8 positive cells selected by laser capture microdissection.
IL-17F immunoreactivity was significantly higher in the bronchial biopsies of COPD patients compared to control subjects (P
To test the hypothesis that CD8+ T cells may suppress the allergen-induced late airway response (LAR) and airway eosinophilia, we examined the effect of administration of Ag-primed CD8+ T cells on allergic airway responses, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) leukocytes, and mRNA expression for cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, and IFN-gamma) in OVA-sensitized Brown Norway rats. On day 12 postsensitization to OVA, test rats were administered 2 million CD8+ T cells i.p. isolated from either the cervical lymph nodes (LN group; n = 8) or the spleen (Spl group; n = 6) of sensitized donors. On day 14, test rats were challenged with aerosolized OVA. Control rats were administered PBS i.p. on day 12, and challenged with OVA (n = 10) or BSA (n = 6) on day 14. The lung resistance was measured for 8 h after challenge. BAL was performed at 8 h. Cytospin slides of BAL were analyzed for major basic protein by immunostaining and for cytokine mRNA by in situ hybridization. The LAR was significantly less in the LN group (1.8 +/- 0.5 U; p