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Adherence and plasma HIV RNA responses to highly active antiretroviral therapy among HIV-1 infected injection drug users.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature183497
Source
CMAJ. 2003 Sep 30;169(7):656-61
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-30-2003
Author
Evan Wood
Julio S G Montaner
Benita Yip
Mark W Tyndall
Martin T Schechter
Michael V O'Shaughnessy
Robert S Hogg
Author Affiliation
British Columbia Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS, St. Paul's Hospital, Vancouver, BC. ewood@hivnet.ubc.ca
Source
CMAJ. 2003 Sep 30;169(7):656-61
Date
Sep-30-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active
British Columbia
CD4 Lymphocyte Count
Female
HIV Infections - blood - drug therapy - etiology
HIV-1
Humans
Male
Patient compliance
RNA, Viral - blood - drug effects
Substance Abuse, Intravenous
Abstract
The benefits of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for the treatment of HIV infection are well documented, but concerns regarding access and adherence to HAART are growing. We evaluated virological responses to HAART among HIV-1 infected patients who were injection drug users (IDUs) in a population-based setting where HIV/AIDS care is delivered free of charge.
We evaluated previously untreated HIV-1 infected men and women who initiated HAART between Aug. 1, 1996, and July 31, 2000, and who were followed until Mar. 31, 2002, in a province-wide HIV treatment program. We used Kaplan-Meier methods and Cox proportional hazards regression in our evaluation of time to suppression (i.e., less than 500 copies/mL) and rebound (i.e., 500 copies/mL or more) of plasma HIV-1 RNA, with patients stratified according to whether or not they had a history of injection drug use.
Overall, 1422 patients initiated HAART during the study period, of whom 359 (25.2%) were IDUs. In Kaplan-Meier analyses, the cumulative suppression rate at 12 months after initiation of HAART was 70.8% for non-IDUs and 51.4% for IDUs (p 0.1).
Non-IDUs and IDUs had similar rates of HIV-1 RNA suppression and rebound after the initiation of HAART, once lower levels of adherence were taken into account. Nevertheless, the lower virological response rates among IDUs suggest that, unless interventions are undertaken to improve adherence, these patients may experience elevated rates of disease progression and use of medical services in our setting.
Notes
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PubMed ID
14517122 View in PubMed
Less detail

Adherence to the cervical cancer screening program in women living with HIV in Denmark: comparison with the general population.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature259332
Source
BMC Infect Dis. 2014;14:256
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Kristina Thorsteinsson
Steen Ladelund
Søren Jensen-Fangel
Terese L Katzenstein
Isik Somuncu Johansen
Gitte Pedersen
Jette Junge
Marie Helleberg
Merete Storgaard
Anne-Mette Lebech
Source
BMC Infect Dis. 2014;14:256
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
CD4 Lymphocyte Count
Case-Control Studies
Denmark
Early Detection of Cancer
Female
HIV Infections
Humans
Mass Screening - statistics & numerical data
Middle Aged
Odds Ratio
Patient Compliance - statistics & numerical data
Uterine Cervical Neoplasms - diagnosis
Vaginal Smears - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
Women living with HIV (WLWH) are at increased risk of invasive cervical cancer (ICC). International HIV guidelines suggest cervical screening twice the first year after HIV diagnosis and thereafter annually. Adherence to the HIV cervical screening program in Denmark is unknown.
We studied women from a population-based, nationwide HIV cohort in Denmark and a cohort of age-matched females from the general population. Screening behaviour was assessed from 1999-2010. Adjusted odds ratios (OR's) for screening attendance in the two cohorts and potential predictors of attendance to guidelines were estimated. Pathology specimens were identified from The Danish Pathology Data Bank.
We followed 1143 WLWH and 17,145 controls with no prior history of ICC for 9,509 and 157,362 person-years. The first year after HIV diagnosis 2.6% of WLWH obtained the recommended two cervical cytologies. During the different calendar intervals throughout the study period between 29-46% of WLWH followed the HIV cervical screening guidelines. Adjusted OR's of attendance to the general population screening program for WLWH aged 30, 40 and 50 years, compared to controls, were 0.69 (95% CI: 0.56-0.87), 0.67 (0.55-0.80) and 0.84 (0.61-1.15). Predictors of attendance to the HIV cervical screening program were a CD4 count?>?350 cells/µL and HIV RNA?
Notes
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PubMed ID
24885577 View in PubMed
Less detail

Adverse health effects for individuals who move between HIV care centers.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature136756
Source
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2011 May 1;57(1):51-4
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-1-2011
Author
Hartmut B Krentz
Heather Worthington
M John Gill
Author Affiliation
Southern Alberta Clinic, Sheldon M Chumir Health Centre, Calgary, AB, Canada. hartmut.krentz@albertahealthservices.ca
Source
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2011 May 1;57(1):51-4
Date
May-1-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Alberta
CD4 Lymphocyte Count
Chi-Square Distribution
Cohort Studies
Continuity of Patient Care
Delivery of Health Care - methods
Female
Follow-Up Studies
HIV - isolation & purification
HIV Infections - immunology - therapy
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Patient Dropouts
Abstract
Studies on patient mobility have focused on patients who become lost-to-follow-up (LTFU). Much less is known about patients who move with a planned transfer of care from one HIV center to another. We assess disease progression in patients who moved and then returned to our care compared with patients remaining or were LTFU.
We identified which patients left our HIV care program between January 01,2000, to January 01,2008, defined how they left (either moved or LTFU), and then determined the health status of returning patients. We examined the impact of the move on their health by comparing clinical measurements (eg, CD4, new AIDS) at their departure and on return.
Forty-four percent of all patients left care; 38% of these returned. In contrast to those remaining in local care whose CD4 counts climbed, "moved" patients exhibited deterioration in both CD4 counts and incident AIDS comparable to LFTU patients. Only 1 in 3 patients who moved had our medical records requested by a new HIV center.
We suspect that despite forward planning, a move may result in potential serious interruptions and/or disengagements of care. The potential harmful health effects can in some be equivalent becoming LTFU. Recognizing and addressing the potential disruption in care from a planned move may be of value in improving outcomes.
PubMed ID
21346587 View in PubMed
Less detail

[AIDS in Denmark. 1. Opportunistic infections and malignant diseases. Danish Study Group for HIV infection]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature7897
Source
Ugeskr Laeger. 1995 Mar 6;157(10):1347-51
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-6-1995
Author
J D Lundgren
K D Bentsen
C. Pedersen
J. Gerstoft
T. Seefeldt-Nielsen
T L Nielsen
G F Jensen
Author Affiliation
Infektionsmedicinsk afdeling, Hvidovre Hospital, København.
Source
Ugeskr Laeger. 1995 Mar 6;157(10):1347-51
Date
Mar-6-1995
Language
Danish
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections - diagnosis - epidemiology - microbiology
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome - complications
Blood Transfusion - adverse effects
CD4 Lymphocyte Count
CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes - immunology
Denmark - epidemiology
English Abstract
HIV Infections - complications
Humans
Male
Sarcoma, Kaposi - etiology
Sexual Behavior
Substance Abuse, Intravenous - complications
Abstract
To examine the distribution of AIDS-defining illnesses among Danish AIDS patients, data on 687 AIDS patients diagnosed in the period from 1980 to 1990 (93% of all reported cases in the period) were collected. The most frequent AIDS-defining illness was Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia followed by candida oesophagitis and Kaposis sarcoma. The proportion of homo/bisexual men presenting with Kaposis sarcoma as the initial AIDS-defining illness declined over time. Patients with extrapulmonary tuberculosis had higher CD4 cell counts than patients presenting with other illnesses. Cytomegalovirus chorioretinitis and atypical mycobacteriosis were seen more frequently after the time of the AIDS diagnosis, and a low CD4 cell count at time of the AIDS diagnosis was a significant predictor for the development of these opportunistic infections during follow-up. Danish AIDS patients present with a wide spectrum of HIV-related illnesses, reflecting their exposure to opportunistic microorganisms and the degree of immune deficiency. The pattern of HIV-related illnesses is changing over time, and therefore continuous surveillance is needed to optimize therapeutic and prophylactic regimens.
PubMed ID
7709482 View in PubMed
Less detail

[AIDS in Denmark. 2. Survival after the diagnosis of AIDS. Danish Study Group for HIV infection]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature7896
Source
Ugeskr Laeger. 1995 Mar 6;157(10):1352-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-6-1995
Author
J D Lundgren
C. Pedersen
K D Bentsen
J. Gerstoft
T. Seefeldt-Nielsen
T L Nielsen
G F Jensen
Author Affiliation
Infektionsmedicinsk afdeling, Hvidovre Hospital, København.
Source
Ugeskr Laeger. 1995 Mar 6;157(10):1352-6
Date
Mar-6-1995
Language
Danish
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome - diagnosis - immunology - mortality
Adult
Age Factors
CD4 Lymphocyte Count
CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes - immunology
Denmark - epidemiology
English Abstract
Female
HIV Infections - diagnosis - mortality
Humans
Male
Prognosis
Survival Rate
Time Factors
Abstract
The survival pattern was studied for 687 Danish AIDS patients (93% of notified cases in the study period) who were diagnosed with AIDS during the period from 1980 to 1990. The median survival was 17 months. Factors significantly associated with a shortened survival were transfusion-acquired HIV infection, age > 40 years, year of diagnosis before 1987, and the presence of either disseminated infection with Mycobacterium avium-complex, Cytomegalovirus chorioretinitis or malignant lymphoma at time of the AIDS diagnosis. There was also a significant association between survival and CD4 cell count at time of AIDS diagnosis. Patients who had CD4 cell counts above 200 x 10(6)/l had twice as long a survival as patients who had CD4 cell counts less than 50 x 10(6)/l. The prognosis of Danish AIDS patients remains poor. The most important determinant of survival time appears to be the degree of immune deficiency at time of diagnosis.
PubMed ID
7709483 View in PubMed
Less detail

Alcohol use and incarceration adversely affect HIV-1 RNA suppression among injection drug users starting antiretroviral therapy.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature182124
Source
J Urban Health. 2003 Dec;80(4):667-75
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2003
Author
Anita Palepu
Mark W Tyndall
Kathy Li
Benita Yip
Michael V O'Shaughnessy
Martin T Schechter
Julio S G Montaner
Robert S Hogg
Author Affiliation
All the authors are with the University of British Columbia, British Columbia, Canada. anita@hivnet.ubc.ca
Source
J Urban Health. 2003 Dec;80(4):667-75
Date
Dec-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Alcohol drinking - epidemiology
Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active
British Columbia - epidemiology
CD4 Lymphocyte Count
Female
HIV Infections - drug therapy - virology
Humans
Logistic Models
Male
Patient compliance
Prisons
RNA, Viral - blood
Statistics, nonparametric
Substance Abuse, Intravenous - complications
Abstract
We conducted this study among HIV-infected injection drug users to determine the effect of self-reported alcohol use and prior incarceration at the time of initiating antiretroviral therapy on subsequent HIV-1 RNA suppression. We examined the demographics, recent incarceration history, and drug and alcohol use history from the Vancouver Injection Drug User Study (VIDUS) questionnaire closest to the date of initiating antiretroviral therapy. We linked these data to the HIV/AIDS Drug Treatment Program. There were 234 VIDUS participants who accessed antiretroviral therapy through the Drug Treatment Program from August 1, 1996, to July 31, 2001. In terms of illicit drug use, 196 (84%) reported injecting heroin and cocaine at the time of initiating antiretroviral therapy. Multiple logistic regression revealed that in the 6 months prior to initiating antiretroviral therapy, alcohol use (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.32; 95% CI 0.13-0.81) and incarceration (AOR 0.22; 95% CI 0.09-0.58) were independently associated with lower odds of HIV-1 RNA suppression. Factors positively associated with HIV-1 RNA suppression included: adherence (AOR 1.27; 95% CI 1.06-1.51); lower baseline HIV-1 RNA (AOR 1.30; 95% CI 1.01-1.66); highly active antiretroviral therapy (AOR 4.10; 95% CI 1.56-10.6); months on therapy (AOR 1.1; 95% CI 1.06-1.14). Among HIV-infected injection drug users who were on antiretroviral therapy, any alcohol use and incarceration in the 6 months prior to initiating antiretroviral therapy were negatively associated with achieving HIV-1 RNA suppression. In addition to addiction treatment for active heroin and cocaine use, the identification and treatment of alcohol problems should be supported in this setting. As well, increased outreach to HIV-infected drug users recently released from prison to ensure continuity of care needs to be further developed.
Notes
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PubMed ID
14709714 View in PubMed
Less detail

Alternating treatment with didanosine and zidovudine versus either drug alone for the treatment of advanced HIV infection. The Alter Study. Nordic HIV Therapy Group.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature7764
Source
Scand J Infect Dis. 1997;29(2):121-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
1997
Author
J. Gerstoft
H. Melander
J N Bruun
C. Pedersen
P C Gltzsche
O. Berglund
L. Mathiesen
P. Skinhlj
S R Norrby
Author Affiliation
Department of Infectious Diseases, RHIMA, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
Source
Scand J Infect Dis. 1997;29(2):121-8
Date
1997
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Anti-HIV Agents - administration & dosage - adverse effects - therapeutic use
CD4 Lymphocyte Count - drug effects
Didanosine - administration & dosage - adverse effects - therapeutic use
Drug Administration Schedule
Drug Therapy, Combination
Female
HIV Infections - drug therapy
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Zidovudine - administration & dosage - adverse effects - therapeutic use
Abstract
The efficacy and safety of an alternating regime with zidovudine and didanosine versus treatment with either drug alone were investigated in a randomized, open, controlled trial, 552 patients with advanced HIV infection, 47% of whom had received prior treatment with zidovudine, were enrolled. The patients were randomly assigned to zidovudine 600 mg/day, didanosine 400 mg/day or 4-week alternations with the 2 drugs in the same dose. The study had a median length of follow-up of 88 weeks. In the overall analyses, time to death (p = 0.48) and time to death or new AIDA event (0.80) were equally distributed between the 3 treatment groups. In the subgroup of patients with a CD4 count
PubMed ID
9181646 View in PubMed
Less detail

Amplicor HIV monitor, NASBA HIV-1 RNA QT and quantiplex HIV RNA version 2.0 viral load assays: a Canadian evaluation.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature203199
Source
J Clin Virol. 1998 Dec;11(3):189-202
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-1998
Author
I T Prud'homme
J E Kim
R G Pilon
T. Minkus
N. Hawley-Foss
W. Cameron
E W Rud
Author Affiliation
National Laboratory for HIV Reference Services, Bureau of HIV/AIDS, STD and TB, LCDC, HPB, Health Canada, Tunney's Pasture, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
Source
J Clin Virol. 1998 Dec;11(3):189-202
Date
Dec-1998
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
CD4 Lymphocyte Count
Canada
Female
Flow Cytometry
HIV Infections - blood - diagnosis - virology
HIV Seropositivity
HIV-1 - isolation & purification
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Predictive value of tests
RNA, Viral - analysis
Reagent kits, diagnostic
Viral Load
Virology - methods
Abstract
HIV-1 viral load quantitation is now recognized as a useful tool to monitor the efficiency of antiviral treatment and a powerful predictor of disease outcome. Three HIV-1 viral load quantitation methods have been currently available as commercial kits in Canada since 1996.
To evaluate the ability to quantify HIV-1 RNA in plasma of the Amplicor HIV Monitor Test, the NASBA HIV-1 RNA QT Assay and the Quantiplex HIV RNA Assay, version 2.0, at comparable lower detection limits.
Blood was collected from 50 HIV-1-infected patients at various stages of infection and therapy. CD4+ cell count were estimated by flow cytometry. Plasma was isolated and tested in duplicate on four occasions using viral load kits from a single lot. HIV RNA data, performance, sensitivity and intra- and inter-assay variability were compared.
RNA could be quantified in 33 patients by each technique. An inverse correlation was observed between viral load level and CD4+ cell counts in patients with counts below 200. Monitor could detect RNA in 94% of patients, but it showed the greatest variability and failure rate. Quantiplex 2.0 could detect HIV-1 RNA in 78%, and NASBA in 88% of the patients at theoretically equivalent lower detection limits, suggesting that the detection limit of Quantiplex 2.0 may be higher than 500 HIV-1 RNA copies per ml. NASBA had the fewest invalid tests and good reproducibility, comparable to that of Quantiplex 2.0. The mean values from NASBA and Monitor were the most similar but the best correlation was observed between Monitor and Quantiplex 2.0 results.
Monitor, NASBA and Quantiplex results were comparable, although those obtained by Quantiplex were significantly lower. Performing this study at comparable detection limits showed that the detection limit of Quantiplex 2.0 may be higher than stated by the manufacturer.
PubMed ID
9949955 View in PubMed
Less detail

[Analysis of lethal outcomes in patients with newly-diagnosed tuberculosis of the respiratory organs in combination with HIV-infection].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature127237
Source
Ter Arkh. 2011;83(11):25-31
Publication Type
Article
Date
2011
Author
V N Zimina
A V Kravchenko
Iu R Ziuzia
F A Batyrov
A A Popova
G V Klimov
Iu G Parkhomenko
I A Vasil'eva
Source
Ter Arkh. 2011;83(11):25-31
Date
2011
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Autopsy
CD4 Lymphocyte Count
Female
HIV Infections - complications - mortality
Humans
Male
Microscopy
Moscow
Mycobacterium tuberculosis - isolation & purification
Tomography, X-Ray Computed - methods
Tuberculosis, Lymph Node - diagnosis
Tuberculosis, Miliary - diagnosis
Tuberculosis, Pulmonary - diagnosis - mortality
Abstract
To analyse lethal outcomes in patients with newly-diagnosed respiratory tuberculosis comorbid with HIV-infection depending on initial count of CD4+ lymphocytes.
Of 304 HIV patients with newly-diagnosed tuberculosis treated in Moscow Tubercusis Hospital N 7 in 2006-2010, 40 (13.2%) patients died. Tuberculosis diagnosis was made after detection of M. tuberculosis (MT) by different tests, MT DNA in different biological material, histological verification or by effectiveness of specific antituberculous therapy. Postmortem examinations were made according to the protocol.
Significant differences were detected in patients with initial count of CD4+ lymphocytes less than 50 in 1 mcl. Specific CNS affection was found in patients with initial lymphocyte count CD4+ less than 100 in 1 mcl. Most of autopsy examinations registered generalized acutely progressive tuberculosis with multiple lesions of internal organs and lymph nodes (LN). Microscopy revealed obscure morphological picture of specific inflammation with prevalence of alternative-exudative tissue reactions in the absence of a productive inflammation component. Cases with submiliary dissemination which was invisible in macroscopic examination due to a bright picture of exudative tissue reaction (rare plethora of the lungs, alveolar and interstitial edema, perifocal inflammatory reaction of nonspecific reactive nature) and small size of the lesions. The comparison of clinical and autopsy diagnoses revealed that involvement of intrathoracic LN and miliary dissemination, according to autopsy, occurred much more frequently than shown by antemortem standard x-ray examination of the chest.
It is strongly recommended to perform computed tomography of the chest in all HIV-infected patients with long-term fever but without visible alterations on chest x-ray.
PubMed ID
22312880 View in PubMed
Less detail

Anti-HIV agents. Danish study finds survival with HAART similar to some HIV negative people.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature79182
Source
TreatmentUpdate. 2004 Jan;16(1):3-4
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2004

212 records – page 1 of 22.