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An improved method for emergent decontamination of ocular and dermal hydrofluoric acid splashes.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature178892
Source
Vet Hum Toxicol. 2004 Aug;46(4):216-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2004
Author
Kjell Soderberg
Petri Kuusinen
Laurence Mathieu
Alan H Hall
Author Affiliation
Medical Service, Avesta Polarit, Torshalla, Sweden.
Source
Vet Hum Toxicol. 2004 Aug;46(4):216-8
Date
Aug-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Burns, Chemical - diagnosis - epidemiology - pathology
Decontamination
Diagnosis, Differential
Emergency Treatment
Eye Burns - diagnosis - epidemiology - pathology
Female
Humans
Hydrofluoric Acid - adverse effects
Industry
Male
Metallurgy
Occupational Diseases - diagnosis - epidemiology - pathology
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Accidental hydrofluoric acid (HF) splashes often occur in industrial settings. HF easily penetrates into tissues by initial acid action allowing fluoride ions to penetrate deeply, chelating calcium and magnesium. Resultant hypocalcemia and hypomagnesemia can be fatal. This report describes the utilization of Hexafluorine--a hypertonic, amphoteric, chelating decontamination solution--in workplaces where water decontamination followed by calcium gluconate inunction failed to prevent HF burns and systemic toxicity. Between 1998 and 1999, 16 cases of ocular and dermal HF splashes with either 70% HF or 6% HF/15% nitric acid (HNO3) were decontaminated with Hexafluorine at the worksite. HF burns did not develop and medical treatment other than initial decontamination was not reQuired in 12/16 (75%). In 7/16 (44%) cases, lost work time corresponded to duration of hospital observation (mean
PubMed ID
15303400 View in PubMed
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Clinical and laboratory features of acute sulfur dioxide inhalation poisoning: two-year follow-up.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature231309
Source
Am Rev Respir Dis. 1989 Feb;139(2):556-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-1989
Author
S. Rabinovitch
N D Greyson
W. Weiser
V. Hoffstein
Author Affiliation
Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Toronto, St. Michael's Hospital, Ontario, Canada.
Source
Am Rev Respir Dis. 1989 Feb;139(2):556-8
Date
Feb-1989
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents, Occupational
Acute Disease
Adult
Blast Injuries - diagnosis
Burns, Chemical - diagnosis
Burns, Inhalation - diagnosis
Canada
Copper
Explosions
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Lung - drug effects - physiopathology
Lung Injury
Male
Mining
Occupational Diseases - chemically induced - diagnosis - physiopathology
Sulfur Dioxide - poisoning
Abstract
We present clinical and laboratory results (including nuclear imaging) obtained over a period of two years in two nonsmoking miners who were exposed to high concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO2) after a mine explosion. Within 3 wk of the accident, both miners had evidence of severe airways obstruction, hypoxemia, markedly reduced exercise tolerance, ventilation-perfusion mismatch, and evidence of active inflammation as documented by positive gallium lung scan. Serial ventilation-perfusion scans over the first 12 months showed progressive improvement without returning to normal. After the initial recovery, there has been no significant change over the subsequent two years postinjury. Pulmonary function and exercise tests also displayed a similar pattern of initial improvement. We conclude that (1) acute exposure to high concentrations of SO2 results in severe airways obstruction, (2) pulmonary function abnormalities are partially reversible, and (3) most of the improvement occurs within 12 months after the initial injury.
PubMed ID
2913900 View in PubMed
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Corrosion injury of the upper gastrointestinal tract after swallowing strong alkali.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature68412
Source
Eur J Surg. 1998 Aug;164(8):575-80
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-1998
Author
J T Mäkelä
S. Laitinen
J A Salo
Author Affiliation
Department of Surgery, Oulu University Hospital, Finland.
Source
Eur J Surg. 1998 Aug;164(8):575-80
Date
Aug-1998
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Alkalies - adverse effects
Burns, Chemical - diagnosis - etiology - surgery
Caustics - adverse effects
Digestive System Surgical Procedures
Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal
Female
Gastrointestinal Diseases - chemically induced - diagnosis - surgery
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Retrospective Studies
Suicide, Attempted
Trauma Severity Indices
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To review our experience of 9 patients who had attempted suicide by swallowing alkaline substances. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Two university hospitals, Finland. PATIENTS: During the years 1987-1996. 9 patients who had swallowed more than 100 ml of strong alkali. RESULTS: 2 patients with oesophagorespiratory fistulas of the four with third degree injuries died in hospital, the first died of overwhelming sepsis and the second of multiple organ failure. The other two survived emergency staged resection and subsequent reconstruction. Delay between swallowing the alkali and the initial operation, and development of oesophagorespiratory fistulas were the most important predictors of death. Four patients with second degree injuries underwent oesophageal resection and reconstruction after they had developed oesophageal strictures. Two of these six survivors developed anastomotic strictures after reconstruction, both of which necessitated repeated oesophageal dilatations. One patient with a first degree injury was treated conservatively. CONCLUSIONS: An early and aggressive approach to severe third degree corrosive injuries of the upper gastrointestinal tract is needed to resect all necrotic tissue and to make it possible to do a successful reconstruction later. The development of oesophagorespiratory fistulas requires immediate attention, whereas first and second degree injuries can be treated after the patient has been stabilized.
PubMed ID
9720933 View in PubMed
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[Endoscopic assessment in the treatment of chemical burns of the esophagus in children]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature34415
Source
Klin Khir. 1997;(11-12):65-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
1997
Author
V A Domarats'kyi
M O Kozakevych
S I Honcharuk
Source
Klin Khir. 1997;(11-12):65-6
Date
1997
Language
Ukrainian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Burns, Chemical - diagnosis
Child
Child, Preschool
English Abstract
Esophagoscopy - methods
Esophagus - pathology
Female
Humans
Male
Severity of Illness Index
Abstract
The esopagofibroscopy was conducted in 37 children, hospitalized for the chemical burn of esophagus. The substantiation of the treatment tactics in injured persons was permitted due to the method applied for the burn extent and stage determination.
PubMed ID
9615012 View in PubMed
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