It has become clear that nursing is a high-risk occupation with regards to stress-related diseases. In this study, we were interested in nurses' experiences of stress and the emotions arising from stress at work. Results showed that nurses experienced negative stress which was apparently related to the social environment in which they worked. Four nurses were interviewed. The method used was grounded theory. Analysis of the interviews singled out absence of response as the core category. Recurring stressful situations obviously caused problems for the nurses in their daily work. Not only did they lack responses from their supervisors, they also experienced emotions of frustration, powerlessness, hopelessness and inadequacy, which increased the general stress experienced at work. Our conclusion is that the experience of absence of response leads to negative stress in nurses.
A comparative assessment of the extent and structure of the various forms of professional burnout among doctors-organizers as well as therapeutists and surgeons depending on age was given. It is shown that the professional burnout in doctors-organizers conjugates with a high level of emotional tension manifested in avoidance of over-saturated emotional and professional communication outside professional activities, increased irritability and temper, reluctance to exercise empathy towards colleagues and compassion for patients. The comparison of three age groups of physicians to each other in terms of the level and features of the burnout was adduced; the results demonstrate the significant differences between the age periods of 30 and 40 years and over 41 years old. Physicians in the age group of 30-40 years old are inclined to depersonalization at a relatively low level of reduction of professional achievement. It was found that age specificity of formation of the syndrome of professional burnout among surgeons was caused by the increased tendency to development of professional burnout syndrome of young and middle-aged surgeons at low levels of professional burnout among older people.
This article analyses problem situations in the context of anaesthesia care. It considers what it means for nurse anaesthetists to be in problematic situations in the anaesthesia care of older patients. Benner's interpretive phenomenological approach proved useful for this purpose. Paradigm cases are used to aid the analysis of individual nurses' experiences. Thirty narrated problematic anaesthesia care situations derived from seven interviews were studied. These show that experienced nurse anaesthetists perceive anaesthesia care as problematic and highly demanding when involving older patients. To be in problematic anaesthesia care situations means becoming morally distressed, which arises from the experience or from being prevented from acting according to one's legal and moral duty of care. An important issue that emerged from this study was the need for an ethical forum to discuss and articulate moral issues, so that moral stress of the kind experienced by these nurse anaesthetists can be dealt with and hopefully reduced.
To apply Karasek's Job Content Model to an analysis of the relationships between job type and perceived stress and stress behaviors in a large company during a period of reorganization and downsizing.
Cross-sectional mail-out, mail-back survey.
A large Canadian telephone/telecommunications company.
Stratified random sample (stratified by job category) of 2200 out of 13,000 employees with a response rate of 48.8%.
Responses to 25 of Karasek's core questions were utilized to define four job types: low-demand and high control = "relaxed"; high demand and high control = "active"; low demand and low control = "passive", and high demand and low control = "high strain." These job types were compared against self-reported stress levels, perceived general level of health, absenteeism, alcohol use, exercise level, and use of medications and drugs. Similar analyses were performed to assess the influence of shift work.
Employees with "passive" or "high strain" job types reported higher levels of stress (trend test p
To identify (1) the contribution of non-patient factors to patient classification systems and (2) the explanatory power of nursing care intensity and non-patient factors to Professional Assessment of Optimal Nursing Care Intensity Level workload.
In the Rainio, Fagerström and Rauhala (RAFAELA) patient classification system, nursing care intensity per nurse is measured daily by the Oulu Patient Classification/Qualisan instrument. The optimal nursing care intensity is determined using Professional Assessment of Optimal Nursing Care Intensity Level instrument. However, nurses' workload may be affected by factors other than nursing care intensity. Therefore, RAFAELA contains 12 non-patient questions.
A retrospective study of all 22 somatic wards of a secondary healthcare hospital in Finland.
Non-patient questions were answered in 26% of 4870 questionnaires. They added to workload in 62%. Eight questions were grouped into four factors: administration; staff resources and mental stress; co-operation within and between units. The explanatory value between Oulu Patient Classification/Qualisan and Professional Assessment of Optimal Nursing Care Intensity Level had a median of 0.45. Including the non-patient questions raised it to 0.55.
Non-patient factors affect the nurses' assessments of their workload, but less than nursing care intensity. They contribute valuable information on the functioning and problems of wards.
Although artistic work is in transition, the occupational wellbeing of artists has been less studied than wellbeing among other workers. This study aimed to explore the relationship between work characteristics and occupational (psychosocial) wellbeing of artists.
A national questionnaire was sent to all artists (theatre artists, writers, and visual artists) reached by four major labor unions in Finland. Type of employment (permanent full-time work vs other), working field (own field of art vs other), regularity of working hours (regular vs irregular), and control of workload were assessed. The wellbeing outcomes were work engagement, recovery from work, and experience of stress and low mood.
Full-time permanent employment, regular working hours, and working in one's own field of art were positively associated with work engagement. Furthermore, regular working hours were positively associated with recovery and negatively associated with subjective report of low mood. Ability to control workload was positively associated with recovery and negatively associated with stress and low mood. Higher age was associated with lower stress and better recovery.
Artists with regular working hours, secure employment, ability to control workload, working in one's own field of art, and higher age reported better wellbeing in this study. The late stages of career appear to guarantee more stability and wellbeing than the more insecure beginning of a career.
The purpose of this quantitative diary study was to investigate daily vigor and exhaustion using a person-centered approach. The study also investigated whether and how experiences of vigor and exhaustion relate to a state of being recovered. A total of 256 Finnish employees filled in a diary questionnaire during five consecutive workdays. Vigor and exhaustion showed strong negative interdependence within and between days. However, by applying a person-centered analysis, we were able to differentiate three groups with meaningful variation in vigor and exhaustion. The groups were labeled as Constantly vigorous (n = 179), Concurrently vigorous and exhausted (n = 30) and Constantly exhausted (n = 43). The vigor-exhaustion groups were also characterized by their recovery experiences: The Constantly vigorous employees recovered well from work strain during the workweek whereas the Constantly exhausted group recovered poorly. Overall, while the results indicate that, typically, vigor and exhaustion are exclusive experiences, it is also possible for them to be experienced simultaneously from day to day at the moderate levels. Thus, positive and negative experiences may co-occur.
Concerns about protecting patient's privacy are experienced as a limitation in the opportunity to obtain and utilize social support by many physicians. As resources of social support can modify the process of burnout, patient confidentiality may increase risk of this syndrome by interfering with proper stress adaptation. This study investigates if experiencing limitations in seeking social support due to confidentiality concerns are associated with burnout. University hospital physicians in four European countries completed measures of burnout, (Index) of Confidentiality as a Barrier for Support (ICBS), and factors of social resources and job demands. Linear regression analysis showed that ICBS was significantly associated with the burnout dimension of Exhaustion and not with Disengagement. These findings were present when controlling for factors known to diminish or increase the likelihood of burnout. These results are the first to demonstrate that patient confidentiality is associated with burnout in the process of stress management among physicians.
Using self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985) as the theoretical framework, we examined potential antecedents of athlete burnout in 201 elite Canadian athletes (121 females, 80 males; mean age 22.9 years). Employing a cross-sectional design, our primary aims were to investigate the relationships between behavioural regulations and athlete burnout and to examine whether self-determined motivation mediated relationships between basic needs satisfaction and athlete burnout. Our self-determination theory-derived hypotheses were largely supported. Relationships among athlete burnout and behavioural regulations mostly varied according to their rank on the self-determination continuum, with less self-determined motives showing positive associations and more self-determined motives showing negative correlations with burnout. The basic needs of competence and autonomy, plus self-determined motivation, accounted for significant amounts of variance in athlete burnout symptoms (exhaustion, R(2) = 0.31; devaluation, R(2) = 0.49; reduced accomplishment, R(2) = 0.61; global burnout, R(2) = 0.74). Self-determined motivation fully mediated the relationships that competence and autonomy had with exhaustion. Analyses showed indirect relationships between these two needs and devaluation, through their associations with self-determined motivation. Motivation partially mediated the needs-reduced sense of accomplishment relationships, but the direct effects were more prominent than the indirect effects.