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Anorexia and bulimia nervosa in same-sex and opposite-sex twins: lack of association with twin type in a nationwide study of Finnish twins.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature154434
Source
Am J Psychiatry. 2008 Dec;165(12):1604-10
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2008
Author
Anu Raevuori
Jaakko Kaprio
Hans W Hoek
Elina Sihvola
Aila Rissanen
Anna Keski-Rahkonen
Author Affiliation
Columbia University, New York State Psychiatric Institute, 1051 Riverside Dr., Unit 23, New York, NY 10032, USA. anu.raevuori@helsinki.fi
Source
Am J Psychiatry. 2008 Dec;165(12):1604-10
Date
Dec-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Anorexia Nervosa - diagnosis - epidemiology - genetics
Bulimia Nervosa - diagnosis - epidemiology - genetics
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Incidence
Male
Phenotype
Prevalence
Questionnaires
Twins - genetics
Abstract
The authors tested the hypothesis that either prenatal feminization or masculinization hormone influences in utero or later socialization affects the risk for anorexia and bulimia nervosa and disordered eating in members of opposite-sex twin pairs.
Finnish twins (N=2,426 women, N=1,962 men with known zygosity) from birth cohorts born 1974-1979 were assessed at age 22 to 28 years with a questionnaire for eating disorder symptoms. Based on the questionnaire screen, women (N=292), men (N=53), and their cotwins were interviewed to assess diagnoses of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa (per DSM-IV and broad criteria).
In women from opposite-sex twin pairs, the prevalence of DSM-IV or broad anorexia nervosa was not significantly different than that of women from monozygotic pairs or same-sex dizygotic pairs. Of the five male anorexia nervosa probands, only one was from an opposite-sex twin pair. Bulimia nervosa in men was too rare to be assessed by zygosity; the prevalence of DSM-IV or broad bulimia nervosa did not differ in women from opposite- versus same-sex twin pairs. In both sexes, the overall profile of indicators on eating disorders was rather similar between individuals from opposite- and same-sex pairs.
The authors found little evidence that the risk for anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, or disordered eating was associated with zygosity or sex composition of twin pairs, thus making it unlikely that in utero femininization or masculinization or socialization effects of growing up with an opposite-sex twin have a major influence on the later development of eating disorders.
PubMed ID
18981064 View in PubMed
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Anorexic self-control and bulimic self-hate: differential outcome prediction from initial self-image.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature153494
Source
Int J Eat Disord. 2009 Sep;42(6):522-30
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2009
Author
Andreas Birgegård
Caroline Björck
Claes Norring
Staffan Sohlberg
David Clinton
Author Affiliation
Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden. andreas.birgegard@ki.se
Source
Int J Eat Disord. 2009 Sep;42(6):522-30
Date
Sep-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Anorexia Nervosa - diagnosis - psychology
Bulimia Nervosa - diagnosis - psychology
Hate
Humans
Internal-External Control
Longitudinal Studies
Middle Aged
Models, Psychological
Patient Admission
Personality Inventory - statistics & numerical data
Professional-Patient Relations
Psychometrics
Psychotherapy
Self Concept
Sweden
Treatment Outcome
Young Adult
Abstract
The study investigated initial self-image (structural analysis of social behavior) and its relation to 36-month outcome, among patients with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Hypotheses were that degree of different aspects of self-image would predict outcome in the groups.
Participants were 52 patients with anorexia and 91 with bulimia from a longitudinal naturalistic database, and outcome measures included eating disorder and psychiatric symptoms and a general outcome index. Stepwise regression was used to investigate which self-image variables were related to outcome, and multiple regression contrasted the groups directly on each obtained predictor.
Consistent with hypotheses, in bulimia degree of self-hate/self-love moderately predicted outcome, whereas self-control-related variables powerfully predicted outcome in anorexia.
It is important to focus on self-image in the treatment of both diagnostic groups, but especially in anorexia nervosa, where control-submission interactions between patient and therapist should be handled with care.
PubMed ID
19107836 View in PubMed
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Associations between birth characteristics and eating disorders across the life course: findings from 2 million males and females born in Sweden, 1975-1998.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature104939
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 2014 Apr 1;179(7):852-63
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-1-2014
Author
Anna Goodman
Amy Heshmati
Ninoa Malki
Ilona Koupil
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 2014 Apr 1;179(7):852-63
Date
Apr-1-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Anorexia Nervosa - diagnosis - epidemiology
Birth weight
Bulimia Nervosa - diagnosis - epidemiology
Child
Cohort Studies
Comorbidity
Eating Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology
Family Characteristics
Female
Gestational Age
Humans
Male
Multiple Birth Offspring
Obstetric Labor Complications - epidemiology
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Complications - epidemiology
Prevalence
Proportional Hazards Models
Registries
Risk factors
Sex Distribution
Socioeconomic Factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Young Adult
Abstract
Birth characteristics predict a range of major physical and mental disorders, but findings regarding eating disorders are inconsistent and inconclusive. This total-population Swedish cohort study identified 2,015,862 individuals born in 1975-1998 and followed them for anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and eating disorder not otherwise specified until the end of 2010. We examined associations with multiple family and birth characteristics and conducted within-family analyses to test for maternal-level confounding. In total, 1,019 males and 15,395 females received an eating disorder diagnosis. Anorexia nervosa was independently predicted by multiple birth (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.33, 95% confidence interval: 1.15, 1.53) for twins or triplets vs. singletons) and lower gestational age (adjusted hazard ratio = 0.96, 95% confidence interval: 0.95, 0.98) per extra week of gestation, with a clear dose-response pattern. Within-family analyses provided no evidence of residual maternal-level confounding. Higher birth weight for gestational age showed a strong, positive dose-response association with bulimia nervosa (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.15, 95% confidence interval: 1.09, 1.22, per each standard-deviation increase), again with no evidence of residual maternal-level confounding. We conclude that some perinatal characteristics may play causal, disease-specific roles in the development of eating disorders, including via perinatal variation within the normal range. Further research into the underlying mechanisms is warranted. Finally, several large population-based studies of anorexia nervosa have been conducted in twins; it is possible that these studies considerably overestimate prevalence.
PubMed ID
24553681 View in PubMed
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Early maternal adjustment in women with eating disorders.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature93545
Source
Int J Eat Disord. 2008 Jul;41(5):405-10
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2008
Author
Koubaa Saloua
Hällström Tore
Hirschberg Angelica Lindén
Author Affiliation
Department of Women and Child Health, Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
Source
Int J Eat Disord. 2008 Jul;41(5):405-10
Date
Jul-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adaptation, Psychological
Adult
Anorexia Nervosa - diagnosis - psychology
Body Image
Body mass index
Bulimia Nervosa - diagnosis - psychology
Depression, Postpartum - diagnosis - psychology
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Infant
Maternal Behavior
Mothers - psychology
Pregnancy
Risk factors
Sweden
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To study early adaptation to motherhood in mothers with eating disorders (ED) before pregnancy. METHOD: Forty-four nulliparous nonsmoking women with ED before pregnancy (24 anorexia nervosa, 20 bulimia nervosa) and 67 controls were recruited from the same prenatal clinics. Three months after delivery, the women completed the maternal adjustment and maternal attitude questionnaire (MAMA) and were asked about mental health problems postpartum. RESULTS: Ninety-two percent of mothers with ED before pregnancy reported problems regarding their maternal adjustment compared to 13% in the control group (p
PubMed ID
18306346 View in PubMed
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Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) and Clinical Impairment Assessment (CIA): clinical norms and functional impairment in male and female adults with eating disorders.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature282950
Source
Nord J Psychiatry. 2017 May;71(4):256-261
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2017
Author
Camilla Lindvall Dahlgren
Kristin Stedal
Øyvind Rø
Source
Nord J Psychiatry. 2017 May;71(4):256-261
Date
May-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Anorexia Nervosa - diagnosis - psychology - therapy
Bulimia Nervosa - diagnosis - psychology - therapy
Disability Evaluation
Feeding and Eating Disorders - diagnosis - psychology - therapy
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Norway
Psychometrics - statistics & numerical data
Reference Values
Reproducibility of Results
Sex Factors
Surveys and Questionnaires
Young Adult
Abstract
The aim of the current study was to collect clinical normative data for the Clinical Impairment Assessment questionnaire (CIA) and the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) from adult patients with eating disorders (EDs). This study also examined unique contributions of eating disorder (ED) symptoms on levels of ED-related impairment.
A sample of 667 patients, 620 females and 47 males, was recruited from six specialist centres across Norway. The majority of the sample (40.3%) was diagnosed with eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS), 34.5% had bulimia nervosa (BN), and 25.2% were diagnosed with anorexia nervosa (AN).
There were significant differences for global EDE-Q and CIA scores between females and males. In the female sample, significant differences were found on several EDE-Q sub-scales between the AN and BN group, and between the AN and EDNOS group. No significant differences were found between the diagnostic groups on the CIA. In the male sample, no significant differences were found between diagnostic groups on the EDE-Q or CIA. A multiple regression analysis revealed that 46.8% of the variance in impairment as measured by the CIA was accounted for by ED symptoms.
Body mass index, Eating Concern, Shape/Weight Concern, and binge eating served as significant, unique predictors of impairment. The results from the present study contribute to the interpretation of EDE-Q and CIA scores in ED samples.
PubMed ID
28084126 View in PubMed
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Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) in Norwegian Adults: Discrimination between Female Controls and Eating Disorder Patients.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature270204
Source
Eur Eat Disord Rev. 2015 Sep;23(5):408-12
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2015
Author
Øyvind Rø
Deborah L Reas
Kristin Stedal
Source
Eur Eat Disord Rev. 2015 Sep;23(5):408-12
Date
Sep-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Anorexia Nervosa - diagnosis - psychology
Body mass index
Bulimia Nervosa - diagnosis - psychology
Case-Control Studies
Discriminant Analysis
Feeding and Eating Disorders - diagnosis - psychology
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Norway
Psychometrics
ROC Curve
Sensitivity and specificity
Surveys and Questionnaires - standards
Abstract
To determine the optimal Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q) global score to discriminate between female controls and patients by eating disorder (ED) diagnosis, body mass index (BMI) and age.
A sample of 1845 control participants and 620 patients from specialty ED treatment centres.
Mean global EDE-Q was 4.00 [standard deviation (SD)?=?1.32] for patients and 1.25 (SD?=?1.10) for controls. Receiver operating characteristic analyses demonstrated an area under the curve of 0.93 (95% CI: 0.91-0.94), with an optimal cut-off score of 2.50 (sensitivity?=?0.86; specificity?=?0.86), ranging from 2.09 for anorexia nervosa, 2.62 for bulimia nervosa and 2.63 for ED otherwise not specified. Optimal cut-off scores also varied according to BMI, ranging from 1.62 (BMI?=?18.0?kg/m(2) ) to 3.26 (BMI?=?30?kg/m(2) ), with less variability for age, ranging inversely from 2.16 (>40?years) to 2.70 (
PubMed ID
26094887 View in PubMed
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Eating Disorder Inventory-3, validation in Swedish patients with eating disorders, psychiatric outpatients and a normal control sample.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature263540
Source
Nord J Psychiatry. 2015 Feb;69(2):142-51
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2015
Author
Erika Nyman-Carlsson
Ingemar Engström
Claes Norring
Lauri Nevonen
Source
Nord J Psychiatry. 2015 Feb;69(2):142-51
Date
Feb-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Anorexia Nervosa - diagnosis
Bulimia Nervosa - diagnosis
Case-Control Studies
Diagnosis, Differential
Eating Disorders - diagnosis - psychology
Female
Humans
Mental Disorders - diagnosis
Middle Aged
Outpatients - psychology
Personality Inventory
Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
Reproducibility of Results
Sensitivity and specificity
Sweden
Young Adult
Abstract
The Eating Disorder Inventory-3 (EDI-3) is designed to assess eating disorder psychopathology and the associated psychological symptoms. The instrument has been revised and has not yet been validated for Swedish conditions in its current form.
The aim of this study was to investigate the validity and reliability of this inventory and present national norms for Swedish females.
Data from patients with eating disorders (n = 292), psychiatric outpatients (n = 140) and normal controls (n = 648), all females, were used to study the internal consistency, the discriminative ability, and the sensitivity and specificity of the inventory using preliminary cut-offs for each subscale and diagnosis separately. Swedish norms were compared with those from Denmark, USA, Canada, Europe and Australian samples.
The reliability was acceptable for all subscales except Asceticism among normal controls. Analysis of variance showed that the EDI-3 discriminates significantly between eating disorders and normal controls. Anorexia nervosa was significantly discriminated from bulimia nervosa and eating disorder not otherwise specified on the Eating Disorder Risk Scales. Swedish patients scored significantly lower than patients from other countries on the majority of the subscales. Drive for Thinness is the second best predictor for an eating disorder. The best predictor for anorexia nervosa was Interoceptive Deficits and Bulimia for the other diagnoses. Conclusions/clinical implications: The EDI-3 is valid for use with Swedish patients as a clinical assessment tool for the treatment planning and evaluation of patients with eating-related problems. However, it still exist some uncertainty regarding its use as a screening tool.
PubMed ID
25434459 View in PubMed
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Eating-disorder symptoms and syndromes in a sample of urban-dwelling Canadian women: contributions toward a population health perspective.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature154550
Source
Int J Eat Disord. 2009 Mar;42(2):158-65
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2009
Author
Lise Gauvin
Howard Steiger
Jean-Marc Brodeur
Author Affiliation
Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Universite' de Montréal, Quebec, Canada. lise.gauvin.2@umontreal.ca
Source
Int J Eat Disord. 2009 Mar;42(2):158-65
Date
Mar-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Attitude to Health
Body Weight
Bulimia Nervosa - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Canada - epidemiology
Eating Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Exercise
Female
Health status
Health Status Indicators
Humans
Interviews as Topic
Prevalence
Severity of Illness Index
Social Adjustment
Urban Population - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
We estimated the prevalence of eating disorders and maladaptive eating behaviors in a population-based sample and examined the association of maladaptive eating with self-rated physical and mental health.
A sample of 1,501 women (mean age = 31.2 years, SD = 6.2) were recruited using random-digit dialing to participate in a 20-min telephone interview about eating behaviors.
Weighted frequency analysis showed the prevalence of frequent binge-eating to be 4.1%, that of regular purging to be 1.1%, and that of frequent compensation to be 8.7%. Although we found none of the women to meet full criteria for anorexia nervosa, 0.6% met criteria for bulimia nervosa, 3.8% provisional criteria for binge eating disorder, and 0.6% criteria for a newly proposed entity, purging disorder. As many as 14.9% fell into a residual category representing subthreshold, but potentially problematic variants of eating disturbances. Logistic regression analyses showed that clinical-level maladaptive eating attitudes and behaviors predicted self-rated physical- and mental-health problems after sociodemographic factors were controlled.
This population-based survey provides prevalence estimates of BN, BED, and purging disorder that are compatible with those of recent epidemiological studies and shows that maladaptive eating attitudes and behaviors represent a substantial population burden.
PubMed ID
18951453 View in PubMed
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Effects of reducing the frequency and duration criteria for binge eating on lifetime prevalence of bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder: implications for DSM-5.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature131739
Source
Int J Eat Disord. 2012 May;45(4):531-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2012
Author
Sara E Trace
Laura M Thornton
Tammy L Root
Suzanne E Mazzeo
Paul Lichtenstein
Nancy L Pedersen
Cynthia M Bulik
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychiatry, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7160, USA.
Source
Int J Eat Disord. 2012 May;45(4):531-6
Date
May-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Binge-Eating Disorder - diagnosis - epidemiology
Bulimia - diagnosis
Bulimia Nervosa - diagnosis - epidemiology
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
Diseases in Twins - diagnosis - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Middle Aged
Prevalence
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
We assessed the impact of reducing the binge eating frequency and duration thresholds on the diagnostic criteria for bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED).
We estimated the lifetime population prevalence of BN and BED in 13,295 female twins from the Swedish Twin study of Adults: Genes and Environment employing a range of frequency and duration thresholds. External validation (risk to cotwin) was used to investigate empirical evidence for an optimal binge eating frequency threshold.
The lifetime prevalence estimates of BN and BED increased linearly as the frequency criterion decreased. As the required duration increased, the prevalence of BED decreased slightly. Discontinuity in cotwin risk was observed in BN between at least four times per month and at least five times per month. This model could not be fit for BED.
The proposed changes to the DSM-5 binge eating frequency and duration criteria would allow for better detection of binge eating pathology without resulting in a markedly higher lifetime prevalence of BN or BED.
Notes
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PubMed ID
21882218 View in PubMed
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21 records – page 1 of 3.