This paper examines the health effects of Caesarean section (CS) for children and their mothers. We use exogenous variation in the probability of CS in a fuzzy regression discontinuity design. Using administrative Danish data, we exploit an information shock for obstetricians that sharply altered CS rates for breech babies. We find that CS decreases the child's probability of having a low APGAR score and the number of family doctor visits in the first year of life. We find no significant effects for severe neonatal morbidity or hospitalizations. While mothers are hospitalized longer after birth, we find no effects of CS for maternal post-birth complications or infections. Although the change in mode of delivery for the marginal breech babies increases direct costs, the health benefits show that CS is the safest option for these children.
To analyze the consequences of the handling of breech presentation in Denmark after publication of the Term Breech Trial (TBT).
Population-based retrospective cohort study.
Data from the National Birth Registry and discharge letters from cases with perinatal death. Population. Singleton breech fetuses at term and alive at onset of labor delivered between 1997 and 2008 (n=23 789).
Outcomes before and after publication of TBT were compared and analyzed by planned mode of delivery.
Cesarean section, intrapartum or early neonatal mortality in infants without lethal congenital malformations, Apgar score = 6 at five minutes and admittance to neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) for four days or more.
The rate of cesarean section increased from 79.6 to 94.2%. Intrapartum or early neonatal mortality was reduced from 0.13 to 0.05%[relative risk (RR) 0.38 (95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.15-0.98)]. The incidence of low Apgar scores declined from 1.0 to 0.6%[RR 0.83 (95%CI 0.73-0.95)] and admission to NICU from 4.2 to 3.2%[RR 0.92 (95%CI 0.87-0.97)]. Planned vaginal delivery was associated with an increased risk of mortality, low Apgar score and admission to NICU throughout the period.
Reduction in the rate of vaginal delivery was correlated with a significant reduction in rates of intrapartum or early neonatal mortality and morbidity, but at a much lower level than reported in the Term Breech Trial. The lower rate of vaginal delivery, indicating a strict selection of women, did not reduce the relative risks of complications during a planned vaginal delivery.
DESIGN: To study the association between mode of delivery and neonatal mortality in second twins. To study the association between caesarean delivery and mortality with minimum bias of the indication for the operation, we wanted to compare the outcome of second twins delivered by caesarean due to breech presentation of the sibling with vaginally delivered second twins in uncomplicated pregnancies. SETTING: Sweden, 1980-2004. POPULATION: Twins born during 1980-2004 were identified from the Swedish Medical Birth Registry. Twin pairs delivered by caesarean due to breech presentation of the first twin, and vaginally delivered twins with the first twin in cephalic presentation were included. Pregnancies with antepartum complications were excluded. METHODS: Odds ratios and 95% CI were calculated using multiple logistic regression analyses, adjusting for year of birth, maternal age, parity and gestational age. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Neonatal mortality. RESULTS: Compared with second-born twins delivered vaginally, second-born twins delivered by caesarean (for breech presentation of the sibling) had a lower risk of neonatal death (adjusted OR 0.40; 95% CI 0.19-0.83). The decreased risk after caesarean delivery was significant for births before 34 weeks (2.1 versus 9.0%; adjusted OR 0.40; 95% CI 0.17-0.95). After 34 weeks, neonatal mortality was low in both groups (0.1 and 0.2%, respectively), and the difference was not statistically significant (adjusted OR 0.42; 95% CI 0.10-1.79). CONCLUSIONS: Neonatal mortality is lower for the second twin after caesarean delivery at birth before 34 weeks. At term, mortality is low irrespective of delivery mode.
To evaluate the preferred types of uterine closure at Caesarean section among Quebec's obstetrician-gynaecologists.
An anonymous survey with multiple-choice and open questions was sent by email to all members of the Association des Obstétriciens-Gynécologues du Québec in clinical practice. The primary response of interest was the type of uterine closure that would be favoured for a primigravida undergoing an elective CS at term for a breech fetus. Secondary responses of interest included type of uterine closure for CS performed for other indications, and methods of closure for the bladder flap, parietal peritoneum, rectus abdominis muscle, subcutaneous tissue, and skin. Results were stratified according to the number of years in practice.
Of 454 persons targeted, 176 (39%) responded. Responders were more likely to have fewer years in practice than the targeted population in general. The closures for a primigravida undergoing an elective CS at term for a breech presentation were, in order of preference: (1) a double-layer closure combining a first locked layer and an imbricating second layer (61%), (2) a double-layer closure combining a first unlocked layer and an imbricating second layer (28%), (3) a locked single layer (5%), (4) an unlocked single layer (5%), and (5) other techniques (1%). A locked single-layer closure was more frequently used for repeat CS (29%), and it was the favoured technique (40%) when tubal ligation was performed at the time of CS (P
Objective: To evaluate the frequency of different modes of delivery after one previous cesarean section and those factors which may influence mode of delivery. Material and methods: During the study period (1.1.2001-31.12.2005) 925 women with a previous cesarean section and a following singleton pregnancy were identified and included. Information regarding mode of delivery, induction of labor, instrumental delivery, the urgency and indications for first and second cesarean section, birth weight and Apgar scores were collected retrospectively. Results: Trial of labor (TOL) was initiated for 564 women of which 61% were successful while 39% delivered by an emergent cesarean section. In total, 346 women delivered vaginally (37%), 341 women (37%) delivered with an elective cesarean section and 238 (26%) underwent an emergency cesarean section. The VBAC rate increased during the study period, from 35% to 46%. Women who underwent an elective cesarean section due to fetal malpresentation (most often breech) in their first pregnancy were significantly more likely to have a successful VBAC in their second pregnancy (53%) compared with women who had an elective cesarean section for any other indication (21%) (p4000 grams compared with