13C-urease breath tests have been extensively used in world-wide gastroenterological practice since the 1990s. We have been using them since 2000, but their clinical application in Russia is far from being universal. Moreover, their results are significantly different from those obtained by other methods for determining H. pylori. The authors report original data on the peculiarities of occurrence of this pathogen in its carriers.
The present study evaluated two non-invasive diagnostic methods for H. pylori infection in children, i.e. an in-house ELISA using sonicated Campylobacter jejuni antigen for absorption of cross-reacting antibodies and an immunoblot kit (Helico Blot 2.0, Genelabs, Singapore). 13C -Urea breath test (13C-UBT) was used as reference METHOD: Sera and questionnaires were collected from 695/858 (81%) Swedish school children with mixed ethnic backgrounds within a cross-sectional, community-based study. Of 133 children with an ELISA OD value of > or = 0.1, all were screened with immunoblot and 107 made a 13C-UBT. The negative controls were 34/37 children from three school classes with an ELISA OD value of
The burden of asthma (death, disability, and an increasing prevalence) makes it a major public health problem worldwide. In an effort to decrease this burden, investigators are studying many aspects of this disease. The role of race, ethnicity, infections, and pollutants as triggers, as well as the risk factors are now being defined. Research into methods to decrease acute exacerbations and improve emergency and in-hospital management, using standardized protocols and incentives for follow-up care, has yielded valuable information but has met with limited success. Adherence to the national guidelines has been poor and to some extent can be attributed to the lack of a practical method of measuring the degree of lung inflammation and cumbersome treatment protocols. Exhaled nitric oxide is a noninvasive marker of inflammation and may provide a rational method to titrate corticosteroid and leukotriene receptor antagonist therapy. The best route and dosing regimen for corticosteroid administration (oral vs intramuscular vs nebulized) are the subject of several studies, with no clear-cut winner. The burden of asthma in developing countries with limited financial resources has also triggered a search for simpler, cheaper, and practical methods for beta-agonist delivery using indigenous spacers. Recent research in asthma has unveiled our incomplete knowledge of the disease but has also provided a sense of where efforts should be expended. Research into the genetics and pharmacogenetics of asthma and into the societal factors limiting the delivery of optimal care is likely to yield useful and practical information.
This study investigated the acute respiratory effects of low ammonia exposure on healthy persons.
Twelve healthy persons underwent sham or ammonia (5 and 25 ppm) exposure randomly in an exposure chamber on three occasions. The exposure duration was 3 hours, 1.5 hours resting (seated) and 1.5 hours exercising (50 W on a bicycle ergonometer). Symptoms were registered repeatedly before, during, and after the exposure on visual analogue scales. Bronchial responsiveness to methacholine, lung function, and exhaled nitric oxide (NO) were measured before and 7 hours after the exposure. In addition, nasal lavage was performed, and peripheral blood samples were drawn before and 7 hours after the exposure.
All the symptom ratings increased significantly during 25-ppm ammonia exposure as compared with the control exposure. The cumulative dose of methacholine causing a 20% decrease in forced expiratory volume in 1 second was lower (
Blood samples from 733 drivers suspected of driving under the influence of alcohol in the province of Ontario from 2001 to 2005 were retrospectively examined.
Samples were analyzed for alcohol content by headspace gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. Drivers ranged in age from 15 to 83 years old with the majority of blood samples obtained from males (n=623, 85%). Of the 704 cases where quantifiable numerical values were obtained, blood alcohol concentrations ranged from 13 to 414 mg/100 mL (mean 172 mg/100 mL) for males and 10 to 425 mg/100 mL (mean 173 mg/100 mL) for females. The majority of these drivers (n=640/704, 90.9%) had blood alcohol concentrations of 80 mg/100 mL and greater at the time of sampling. Analysis for alcohol was undertaken in all cases. However, additional toxicological examinations for drugs was conducted on a case-by-case basis based on the submitted case history and/or where there were requests for additional drug analysis, or where such analysis would be probative in the absence of the detection of alcohol at a concentration that could cause impairment.
Therefore, analyses for drugs were only performed in a small subset of 42 cases (6%). Thirty-four of these cases had positive drug findings, with Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol being the most frequently encountered drug (n=18), followed by benzoylecgonine/cocaine (n=8), morphine (n=6), lorazepam (n=5) and diphenhydramine (n=4). The majority of individuals were involved in some type of motor vehicle accident (n=658, 89.8%), with single motor vehicle accidents (n=412, 56.2%) being the most common, followed by multiple motor vehicle accidents (n=169, 23%). Injuries (n=309, 42.1%) were the main cause of individuals not being able to provide breath samples with specific, non-life threatening injuries (n=178, 24.3%) representing the highest percentage of cases. The majority of incidents (n=449, 61.3%) occurred between Friday and Sunday reaching a peak on Saturday (n=174, 23.7%). Incidents occurred throughout the day, with the majority of events (n=449/705, 63.7%) for which a time was provided occurring between 6:01 pm and 3:00 am, and the peak number of incidents occurring between 9:01 pm and midnight (n=168/705, 23.8%).
However, these data demonstrate that ''drugged driving" does occur and that further, comprehensive investigation is needed to determine the frequency and type of drug use by Ontario drivers.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the role of alcohol in downhill skiing injuries. DESIGN: Comparison of alcohol consumption habits and blood alcohol concentrations of injured skiers to those of randomly selected controls. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 121 injured skiers and 701 control subjects were interviewed and gave breath samples for the determination of blood alcohol concentration. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Neither mean blood alcohol concentration nor the number of subjects with an intoxicating level of alcohol in blood (> 0.5 g/L; 2.9% of control subjects and 3.3% of the injured patients) differed significantly between the groups. Also, the severity of the injury and the blood alcohol concentration seemed to be independent of each other; all of the most severe traumas occurred in subjects with no detectable alcohol in blood. CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol does not seem to be a major etiological factor in skiing-related injuries.
To discuss the implications of widespread implementation of alcohol ignition interlocks.
We base our discussion on data from Finland including crash statistics and surveys collected from criminal justice professionals and general driving population.
Alcohol ignition interlocks are an effective preventive measure against drunk driving when installed in the vehicles of convicted drunk drivers. However, once they are removed from the vehicles, drivers typically return to their habit of drinking and driving. Furthermore, for a number of reasons, the proportion of convicted drunk drivers that install an interlock in their vehicles is quite small. Therefore, many stakeholders believe that the solution to the drunk driving problem will come when interlocks become standard equipment in all new vehicles. However, drunk driving is a complex sociopsychological problem, and technology can rarely offer a solution to such complex problems. Consequently, many aspects of such interventions might be difficult to identify and include in cost-benefit analysis.
We express caution about requiring an interlock as standard equipment in all new vehicles.
This report summarizes evidence presented during the Third Annual Ignition Interlock Symposium at Vero Beach, Florida, 29 October 2002. The ignition interlock prevents a car from starting when blood alcohol concentration (BAC) is elevated. We review some of our prior work as well as introduce previously unpublished results to demonstrate the manner in which the data recorded by the alcohol ignition interlock device can serve as an advance predictor of future driving under the influence (DUI) of alcohol risks. Data used in this current report represent approximately 2,200 ignition interlock users from Alberta, Canada, and about 8,000 interlock users from Quebec, Canada; the Alberta data set contained 5.5 million breath tests and the Quebec data 18.8 million breath tests. All tests are time and date stamped and this information was used to characterize patterns of BAC and vehicle use, and the relationship between BAC elevations and DUI offenses that accumulated after the interlock was removed from the vehicles. Findings from Cox regression (Marques et al., 2003) show that BAC elevations > .02-.04% are more potent predictors of repeat DUI (p
Alcohol use and alcohol-related problems, including accidents, vandalism and violence, at sporting events are of increased concern in Sweden and other countries. The relationship between alcohol use and violence has been established and can be explained by the level of intoxication. Given the occurrence of alcohol use and alcohol-related problems at sporting events, research has assessed intoxication levels measured through biological sampling among spectators. This cross-sectional study aimed to assess the level of alcohol intoxication among spectators at football matches in the Swedish Premier Football League. Spectators were randomly selected and invited to participate in the study. Alcohol intoxication was measured with a breath analyser for Blood Alcohol Concentration levels, and data on gender, age, and recent alcohol use were gathered through a face-to-face interview. Blood Alcohol Concentration samples from 4420 spectators were collected. Almost half (46.8%) had a positive Blood Alcohol Concentration level, with a mean value of 0.063%, while 8.9% had a Blood Alcohol Concentration level = 0.1%, with a mean value of 0.135%. Factors that predicted a higher Blood Alcohol Concentration level included male gender (p = 0.005), lower age (p
Cites: Drug Alcohol Depend. 2013 Apr 1;129(1-2):110-523102731
Cites: Lancet. 2011 Jun 4;377(9781):1962-7521561649
Cites: Drug Alcohol Rev. 2015 Jul;34(4):447-5725735650