The role of antiestrogen treatment in high risk postmenopausal patients with primary breast cancer is currently evaluated in a nationwide, prospective randomized trial conducted by the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group. The primary treatment is total mastectomy and radiotherapy. As of February 1, 1982, 720 women were randomized to treatment with tamoxifen (30 mg daily for 1 year) and 691 women were randomized to no further therapy. Life-table analysis after 36 months shows a difference in recurrence rates of 9% (p = 0.19) in favor of the tamoxifen-treated patients. The material has been analyzed with respect to established prognostic factors such as age, degree of anaplasia, tumor size, and number of positive nodes. The rates of recurrent disease are lower in all subsets of patients treated with tamoxifen, but are only statistically significant in patients 50-59 years of age or with 4 or more positive lymph nodes. Regardless of treatment, ER negative patients have a 23% higher recurrence rate than ER positive patients after 18 months of analysis (p = 0.0033); this represents an approximate doubling of risk, and is independent of age, degree of anaplasia, tumor size, or lymph node status. With regard to PgR status, there is 11% higher recurrence rate in the PgR negative than in the PgR positive patients (p = 0.097).
All the countries of the European Union face similar challenges when providing adequate and high quality treatment in oncology. A working party was established to consider what should comprise a specialist service and the Requirements of a Breast Unit, published in 2000, represent the opinion of the European Society of Mastology (EUSOMA) on the standards required for creating high quality Breast Cancer Units across Europe. We studied the application of the mandatory requisites and general recommendations of EUSOMA: critical mass, or minimum number of patients, core team (composition and specific training), quality assurance, and application of diagnostic and treatment protocols. A thorough literature search was performed and was completed with information from search tools, the web pages of scientific societies, national associations for the fight against cancer, and health ministries of the countries belonging to the European Union. We also analyzed the latest reports of the European Parliamentary Committee for breast cancer. Distinct approaches to the multidisciplinary management of breast disease can be found in the United Kingdom, Sweden, Italy, France and Spain. A common European standard would be useful to improve the care provided to patients.
This study evaluated the impact of province-wide treatment guidelines on consistency of adjuvant therapy for node-negative breast cancer. A retrospective population-based cohort study was conducted in the Canadian provinces of British Columbia, which has province-wide guidelines, and Ontario, which does not. All eligible 1991 incident cases of node-negative breast cancer in British Columbia (n = 942) and a similar number of randomly selected 1991 incident cases in Ontario (n = 938) were reviewed. Consistency of adjuvant therapy received was evaluated by stratifying cases into discrete diagnostic groups using several grouping systems, and by then comparing the distribution of treatments received within each diagnostic group in the two provinces. Recursive partitioning was also performed. We observed that patterns of pathology reporting were consistent with awareness of the factors used in the British Columbia guidelines to define indications for adjuvant therapy. Consistency of care was greater in British Columbia than in Ontario by all diagnostic grouping systems and by recursive partitioning (P
Cites: J Clin Oncol. 1994 Sep;12(9):1783-88083701
Cites: Health Rep. 1993;5(2):157-778292756
Cites: Qual Health Care. 1995 Mar;4(1):55-6410142039
Cites: J Clin Oncol. 1997 Jan;15(1):216-228996145
Cites: N Engl J Med. 1994 Mar 24;330(12):805-108114832
Cites: J Gen Intern Med. 1986 Sep-Oct;1(5):275-813772615
Cites: J Clin Oncol. 1987 Mar;5(3):504-113819812
Cites: Int J Technol Assess Health Care. 1988;4(1):27-3310287110
The Atlantic Breast Cancer Information Project (ABCIP) is one of 5 breast cancer information exchange projects funded by Health Canada. This article describes the development of ABCIP and thereby contributes to the limited knowledge on successful partnership formation in the face of restraints but with support from enabling factors. Partnership formation is presented in the context of alliances in management, coalitions in health promotion, and social movements. The restraining factors were the inertia of the status quo, provincial structures and concerns about empowering others. The enabling factors fell into 3 categories: timely logistics, roles of individuals who participated at critical points in the process, and the evolution of a supportive cultural environment. The article outlines ABCIP's achievements to date.
The three claims put forward by Dr. Roger Poisson to rationalize his enrollment of ineligible subjects in clinical trials do not justify research fraud. None the less, certain lessons for the conduct of clinical research can be learned from the affair: experimental therapies should be made available to technically ineligible subjects when no effective therapy exists for their disease; further research must investigate the possible benefits of clinical-trial participation; broadly based, pragmatic trials must be regarded as the ideal model; and each eligibility criterion in a clinical-trial protocol should be justified.
Cites: Cancer. 1985 Nov 1;56(9):2161-93902204
Cites: Cancer Invest. 1983;1(1):49-556582988
Cites: Science. 1981 Feb 27;211(4485):881-66781066
The purpose of this study was to explore the personal and social processes women with breast cancer engaged in when making decisions about complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). The overall aim was to develop a conceptual model of the treatment decision-making process specific to breast cancer care and CAM that will inform future information and decision support strategies.
Grounded theory methodology explored the decisions of women with breast cancer using CAM. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 20 women diagnosed with early-stage breast cancer. Following open, axial, and selective coding, the constant comparative method was used to identify key themes in the data and develop a conceptual model of the CAM decision-making process.
The final decision-making model, Bridging the Gap, was comprised of four core concepts including maximizing choices/minimizing risks, experiencing conflict, gathering and filtering information, and bridging the gap. Women with breast cancer used one of three decision-making styles to address the paradigmatic, informational, and role conflict they experienced as a result of the gap they perceived between conventional care and CAM: (1) taking it one step at a time, (2) playing it safe, and (3) bringing it all together.
Women with breast cancer face conflict and anxiety when making decisions about CAM within a conventional cancer care context. Information and decision support strategies are needed to ensure women are making safe, informed treatment decisions about CAM. The model, Bridging the Gap, provides a conceptual framework for future decision support interventions.