PURPOSE: Evaluate the effects of radiotherapy after sector resection for ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast (DCIS) in patient groups as defined by age, size of the lesion, focality, completeness of excision and mode of detection. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 1,067 women in Sweden were randomly assigned to either postoperative radiotherapy (RT) or control from 1987 to 1999, and 1,046 were followed for a mean of 8 years. The main outcome was new ipsilateral breast cancer events and distant metastasis-free survival analyzed according to intention to treat. RESULTS: There were 64 ipsilateral events in the RT arm and 141 in the control group corresponding to a risk reduction of 16.0 percentage points at 10 years (95% CI, 10.3% to 21.6%) and a relative risk of 0.40 (95% CI, 0.30 to 0.54). There was no statistically significant difference in distant metastasis-free survival. There was an effect modification by age, yielding a low effect of RT in women younger than 50, but substantial protection in women older than 60 years. The age effect was not confounded by focality, lesion size, completeness of excision, or detection mode. There was no group as defined by our stratification variables that had a low risk without radiotherapy. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that younger women have a low protective effect of conventional RT after sector resection. Older women benefit substantially. We caution that the age effect was seen in a subgroup analysis. Further search with conventional clinical variables for a low risk group that does not need RT does not seem fruitful.
In the last two decades the introduction of mammographic screening in the Western world has increased the number of diagnosed ductal carcinomas in situ (DCIS) considerably. In situ carcinoma of the breast is considered a heterogeneous disease, the natural history of which is not well known. Thus, appropriate treatment needs to be established. For this reason, a randomised trial studying the effect of breast conserving operation with or without postoperative radiotherapy was instituted in Southern Sweden in 1987. The aim of the present study was to assess patient accrual, identify limiting factors, and evaluate possible ways to influence these factors in order to increase patient accrual. Between 1987 and 1992, 331 patients had been registered with DCIS in the Regional Tumour Registry, 96 of which had been randomised. All 331 were subjected to chart review studying clinical data, mammography reports, cytology and pathology reports to identify inclusion and exclusion criteria according to the design of the trial. It was found that 5% (18/331) had an incorrect diagnosis of DCIS. According to the trial protocol 52% were not eligible (162/313). Fifty-eight per cent (n=88) of the 151 eligible patients had been correctly randomised. The most common reason for exclusion was lesion size. In 21% (66/313) the lesion was 'too large'. Several other limiting factors were identified such as in cytological and pathological definitions and reports, lack of information/awareness in certain physicians, patient reluctance to participate, which in turn may be influenced by the previous factor. With increased information to participating hospitals and considering the above given facts it should be possible to increase accrual from the 28% noted in the present consecutive demographic study to at least one-third of the diagnosed cases of DCIS.
To determine the number of different radiation schedules used in Ontario to treat women with node-negative breast cancer after lumpectomy and axillary dissection.
Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, and regional centres of the Ontario Cancer Treatment and Research Foundation (in Hamilton, London, Ottawa, Windsor and Thunder Bay).
A total of 551 of 1624 consecutive patients with node-negative breast cancer having undergone lumpectomy and axillary dissection who were eligible but did not participate in the Ontario Clinical Oncology Group randomized clinical trial and who received adjuvant breast irradiation between April 1984 and February 1989.
Schedules of radiotherapy received.
Forty-eight different radiotherapy schedules were identified. Total doses ranged from 4000 to 6600 cGy and the number of fractions from 15 to 30. Several different schedules were preferred: 322 patients (58.5%) received 4000 cGy in 15 or 16 fractions to the whole breast over 3 weeks plus a local boost of 1250 cGy to the primary site in 5 fractions over 1 week; 66 patients (12.0%) received 4000 cGy in 15 or 16 fractions over 3 weeks to the whole breast plus a local boost of 1000 cGy to the primary site in 4 or 5 fractions over 1 week; and 63 patients (11.5%) received 5000 cGy in 25 fractions to the whole breast in 5 weeks, without a boost.
The practice of adjuvant radiotherapy for early breast cancer in Ontario varies. The optimal radiation regimen for patients after lumpectomy should be determined through randomized clinical trials.
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The therapeutic, social and economic aspects of the efficacy of intense preoperative irradiation in combined therapy of breast cancer were analysed. It has been established that preoperative irradiation in the form of the fractionation of a single focal dose of 6 Gy every other day, the summary dose of 24 Gy within 8-10 days followed by surgery 1-3 days after irradiation does not either complicate its performance or the course of the postoperative period, and by the short- and long-term results it is no worse than the routine dose fractionation. Large dose fractionation saves the time of preoperative irradiation (10 days instead of 5-6 weeks), reduces the time of inpatients' stay (56-70 days instead of 90-100 days), enables most of the patients after treatment to resume work 1.2-2 mos. earlier than after the routine dose fractionation. Preoperative irradiation in the form of large dose fractionation reduces the time of treatment, does not change its efficacy and provides for a greater economic effect.
In the period 1986 to 94, 173 women who had had a lumpectomy or a mastectomy were treated with radiotherapy at the University Hospital of TromsÃ¸. The median diagnostic delay was 2.4 months (range 0-98.6 months). Three out of four patients were operated on within two weeks of the diagnosis being made. About two thirds experienced a delay of more than six weeks from the operation to the start of radiotherapy treatment. The five-year overall survival rate in the mastectomy and postoperative radiotherapy group was 67%. Patients with estrogen receptor positive tumours had a better prognosis. Only 5% and 7% of all patients in our region in stages I and II had breast conserving surgery (BCS) during the study period (66 patients). The five-year overall survival rate in the BCS group was 77%. BCS raised the cost per patient by about 3,000 GBP compared to modified radical mastectomy (MRM). The cost per QALY using BCS as against MRM was about 12,000 GBP. We conclude that MRM should not be used instead of BCS merely for economical reasons.
Since 1977 patients living in Stockholm with Stage I breast cancer fulfilling specific criteria are offered breast-conserving treatment. The treatment includes a partial mastectomy and a low-axillary dissection followed by radiotherapy, 5000 rad, to the remaining breast. Between 1977 and 1981, 262 patients underwent the breast conserving therapy. One hundred eighty-six patients had pathologic Stage I tumors. Radiotherapy was given to 158 of those patients. During the follow-up time (6 months to 5 years), 4 of 186 patients had recurrence to the breast. Two of those had not received radiotherapy. Recurrent tumor in regional lymph nodes occurred in 4/186, and distant metastases in 10/186 patients. Six patients have died of their disease. The cosmetic results were favorable overall, but often impaired when surgical complications occurred. A comparison between these results and those obtained in similar patients treated with modified radical mastectomy with a low-axillar dissection followed by radiotherapy to the remaining breast seems to be an alternative treatment to modified radical mastectomy. Longer follow-up time is needed before final conclusions can be drawn.
From 1979-89, 211 women with cancer mammae were irradiated at the Norwegian Radium Hospital after breast-conserving surgery performed at different hospitals in Norway. 181 of these patients were called in for re-examination to check the procedures for treatment and the cosmetic results. Only 37% of the patients had undergone mammography prior to surgery and 48% of the patients had had two or more operations before the irradiation. The cosmetic results were not very satisfactory in 45% of the patients. Reduced cosmesis was mainly due to less than optimal surgery. We propose better standardisation of the treatment programme for breast preservation. Optimal results require close collaboration between radiologists, surgeons, oncologists and pathologists. The treatment must be organized in a way that facilitates this collaboration.
Different jurisdictions report different breast cancer treatment rates. Evidence-based utilization models may be specific to derived populations. We compared predicted optimal with actual radiotherapy utilization in British Columbia, Canada; Dundee, Scotland; and Perth, Western Australia.
Data were analyzed for differences in demography, tumor, and treatment. Epidemiological data were fitted to published Australian optimal radiotherapy utilization trees and region-specific optimal treatment rates were calculated. Optimal and actual surgery/radiotherapy rates from 2 population-based and 1 institution-based registries were compared for patients diagnosed with breast cancer between 2000 and 2004, and 2002 for British Columbia.
Mastectomy rates differed between British Columbia (40%), Western Australia (44%), and Dundee (47%, p