This epidemiologic investigation comprised 1351 of 1423 women in a defined geographic area consecutively diagnosed as having a primary breast cancer. Simultaneous bilateral disease occurred in only 1 patient, whereas a history of previous cancer in the contralateral breast was reported by 65 patients. This prevalence was related to that of 23 previous cases in an age-matched control group of 1351 women from the same population. The relative risk of developing a second primary was 2.9 (95% confidence limit, 1.8-4.6) for the whole material and remained seemingly constant over several decades at a level predetermined by age at first diagnosis, namely 9.9 (95% confidence limit, 3.8-25.8) before the age of 50 and 1.9 (95% confidence limit, 1.1-3.2) after that age. The incidence ratio of bilateral to unilateral disease was used as an estimate of the lifetime risk of developing a second primary in this stable and well-defined population. This calculation revealed cumulative risk figures of 13.3% and 3.5% for women younger and older than 50 years, respectively, at first diagnosis. It was concluded that the occurrence of bilateral disease, which reflects a multicentric neoplastic transformation of the breast epithelium, is a characteristic of early-occurring (premenopausal) disease.
Agreement between hopelessness/helplessness and Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale in healthy individuals and in patients with benign breast disease and breast cancer: a prospective case-control study in Finland.
The relation between scoring for hopelessness/helplessness and the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) in healthy study subjects (HSS) and in patients with benign breast disease (BBD) and breast cancer (BC) has not been compared in a prospective study. We, therefore, investigated hopelessness and helplessness scores versus the MADRS in 115 patients.
In the Kuopio Breast Cancer Study, 115 women with breast symptoms were evaluated for hopelessness and helplessness, and for the MADRS before any diagnostic procedures were carried out.
In the self-rating score (SRS), hopelessness/helplessness versus the MADRS were highly significantly positively correlated in the HSS, BBD and BC groups. In the SRS, the weighted kappa values for hopelessness/helplessness versus the MADRS in the HSS, BBD and BC groups were also statistically significant. There was also a significant positive correlation in the examiner-rating score (ERS) for hopelessness versus the MADRS in the HSS, BBD and BC groups and for helplessness versus the MADRS in the HSS, BBD and BC groups. The unweighted kappa values in the ERS for hopelessness versus the MADRS were statistically highly significant for the HSS, BBD and BC groups and those for helplessness versus the MADRS in the HSS and BBD groups were statistically significant.
A new finding with clinical relevance in the present work is the agreement between hopelessness/helplessness scores and MADRS in the SRS and ERS. In the breast cancer diagnostic unit, the identification of hopeless/helpless persons is essential in suicide prevention and it is important to assess and treat hopelessness/helplessness even though an individual may report few depressive symptoms.
To study the association between alcohol consumption and risk of benign proliferative epithelial disorders (BPED) of the breast (conditions which are thought to have premalignant potential).
The study was undertaken within the 56,537 women in the Canadian National Breast Screening Study (NBSS) who completed self-administered dietary questionnaires. (The NBSS is a randomized controlled trial of screening for breast cancer in women aged 40-59 years at recruitment.)
The study subjects were the 657 women in the dietary cohort who were diagnosed with biopsy-confirmed incident BPED. For comparative purposes, a subcohort consisting of a random sample of 5681 women was selected from the full dietary cohort. After exclusions for various reasons, the analyses were based on 557 cases and 5028 non-cases.
When compared to non-drinkers, rate ratios (95% CI) for those consuming > 0 and 10 and 20 and 30 g day(-1) were 0.35 (0.27-0.45), 0.26 (0.18-0.39), 0.29 (0.18-0.48), and 0.23 (0.13-0.40), respectively (the associated P value for the trend was 0.089). Similar findings were obtained from analyses conducted separately in the screened and control arms of the NBSS, in premenopausal and postmenopausal women, and for non-atypical and atypical forms of BPED, and there was little difference between the results for screen-detected and interval-detected BPED.
Alcohol consumption was associated with a non-dose-dependent reduction in risk of BPED.
The study purpose was to assess association of symptoms at screening visits with detection of breast cancer among women aged 50-69 years during the period 2006-2010. Altogether 1.2 million screening visits were made and symptoms (lump, retraction, secretion etc.) were reported either by women or radiographer. Breast cancer risk was calculated for each symptom separately using logistic regression [odds ratio (OR)] and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Of the 1,198,410 screening visits symptoms were reported in 298,220 (25%) visits. Breast cancer detection rate for women with and without symptoms was 7.8 per 1,000 and 4.7 per 1,000 screening visits, respectively, whereas lump detected 32 cancers per 1,000 screens. Women with lump or retraction had an increased risk of breast cancer, OR?=?6.47, 95% CI 5.89-7.09 and OR?=?2.19, 95% CI 1.92-2.49, respectively. The sensitivity of symptoms in detecting breast carcinoma was 35.5% overall. Individual symptoms sensitivity and specificity ranged from, 0.66 to 14.8% and 87.4 to 99.7%, respectively. Of 5,541 invasive breast cancers, 1,993 (36%) reported symptoms at screen. Breast cancer risk among women with lump or retraction was higher in large size tumors (OR?=?9.20, 95% CI 8.08-10.5) with poorly differentiated grades (OR?=?5.91, 95% CI 5.03-6.94) and regional lymph nodes involvement (OR?=?6.47, 95% CI 5.67-7.38). This study was done in a setting where breast tumors size is generally small, and symptoms sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing breast tumors were limited. Importance of breast cancer symptoms in the cancer prevention and control strategy needs to be evaluated also in other settings.
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The main purpose of the present thesis has been to estimate the frequency of malignant, premalignant and benign morphological changes in the female breast and evaluate their possible interrelationship. The method used was a conventional but detailed and systematic examination, both macroscopically and histologically of all available breast tissue. Consequently autopsi material has been the natural basis of the studies. Three groups of women have been examined: 1. A consecutive series of 110 younger women, mean age 39 years, undergoing medicolegal autopsy at the Institute of Forensic Medicine in Copenhagen, Denmark, from October 1983 to July 1984. 2. A consecutive series of 83 unselected, elderly women, mean age 67 years, undergoing autopsy at a large community hospital in Esbjerg, Jutland, Denmark, from November 1976 to May 1977. 3. A consecutive series of 84 women, mean age 74 years, dying with a known diagnosis of breast cancer and undergoing autopsy at two community hospitals in the Copenhagen area, (Glostrup and Frederiksberg), Denmark, from November 1982 to December 1984. The main results were: 1. In younger women clinically occult in situ breast cancer lesions occurred with surprisingly high frequency, 18%, a result which may influence the planning of future screening programs. 2. In elderly women, dying from a number of various reasons, invasive breast carcinomas were found with a frequency corresponding to the life-long risk of Danish women having this disease diagnosed clinically, 8%. Occult in situ carcinomas were found in 18%. 3. In women dying with a clinical diagnosis of breast cancer, the frequency of malignant histological changes in the opposite breast (metastases, invasive and in situ breast carcinomas) was unexpectedly high, 80%, a result which should be taken into consideration during clinical follow-up after treatment for breast cancer.
Departments of Clinical Radiology, Surgery, and Clinical Pathology, Kuopio University Hospital, PO Box 1777, Puijonlaaksontie 2, 70210 Kuopio, Finland; Units of Radiology and Pathology and Forensic Medicine at Institute of Clinical Medicine, Biocenter Kuopio, and Cancer Center of Eastern Finland, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.
To compare the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonographically (US)-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) and core-needle biopsy (CNB) of the axillary lymph nodes (LNs) of patients with newly diagnosed invasive breast cancer.
This prospective single-center study had institutional review board approval, and written informed consent was obtained. Between April 2011 and March 2012, 178 consecutive patients (182 axillae) were evaluated by using axillary US. Sixty-six axillae fulfilled the inclusion criteria (cortical thickness greater than 2 mm or abnormal morphologic characteristics), and patients with these axillae underwent US-guided axillary LN biopsy. Both FNAB and CNB were obtained from the same suspicious LN. Patients with biopsy-proved metastasis underwent axillary clearance, and those with a negative biopsy underwent sentinel LN biopsy with completion axillary clearance if needed. Diagnostic performance was calculated separately for US, FNAB, and CNB. Statistical differences in sensitivities were evaluated by using the McNemar test.
From the total study population, 45.6% (83 of 182 axillae) had metastases. A total of 66 axillae underwent both FNAB and CNB. The sensitivity for US was 61.4% (51 of 83 axillae), and specificity was 84.8% (84 of 88 axillae). The sensitivities for FNAB and CNB were 72.5% (37 of 51 axillae) and 88.2% (45 of 51 axillae), respectively (P = .008). Specificity for both was 100% (15 of 15 axillae). The negative predictive value for FNAB was 81.7%, and that for CNB was 91.2%. The positive predictive value was 100% for both methods.
When accurate preoperative staging of the axilla is needed in patients with newly diagnosed invasive breast cancer, CNB is more sensitive than FNAB.
BACKGROUND: Sentinel lymph node biopsy is an established staging method in early breast cancer. After a negative biopsy, most institutions will not perform a completion axillary dissection. The present study reports the current axillary recurrence (AR) rate, overall and disease-free survival in the Swedish Multicenter Cohort Study. METHODS: From 3534 patients with primary breast cancer
The evidence regarding fatty acids and breast cancer risk is inconclusive. Adipose tissue fatty acids can be used as biomarkers of fatty acid intake and of endogenous fatty acid exposure. Fatty acids in adipose tissue are correlated owing to common dietary sources and shared metabolic pathways, which group fatty acids into naturally occurring patterns. We aimed to prospectively investigate associations between adipose tissue fatty acid patterns and long-term risk of total breast cancer and breast cancer subtypes characterised by oestrogen and progesterone receptor status (ER and PR).
This case-cohort study was based on data from the Danish cohort Diet, Cancer and Health. At baseline, a fat biopsy and information on lifestyle and reproductive factors were collected. From the 31 original fatty acids measured, patterns of fatty acids were identified using the treelet transform. During a median follow-up of 5.3 years, 474 breast cancer cases were identified. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals of risk of total breast cancer and of subtypes according to quintiles of factor score were determined by weighted Cox proportional hazards regression.
After adjustment for potential confounders, factor scores for the seven patterns identified by the treelet transform were not associated with risk of total breast cancer, nor with risk of ER+, ER-, PR+ or PR- tumours.
No clear associations between the patterns of fatty acids at baseline and long-term risk of total breast cancer or ER+, ER-, PR+ or PR- tumours were observed.
To study elderly women > or = 60 years of age diagnosed with breast cancer and analyze this cohort according to death from breast cancer and death due to comorbidities. Patients aged 60-69 years of age were included in routine mammography screening, but not women aged > or = 70 years. This enabled a comparison between the 2 groups regarding screening effect, tumor size and survival in breast cancer.
A consecutive sample of 311 breast cancer patients > or = 60 years of age from 1991 were analyzed according to tumor size at diagnosis, frequencies of lymph node metastasis, tumor histological grade and stage, ploidy, proliferation index, stem-line-scatter index and survival rate in breast cancer and other causes of death. Tumor size was compared to a patient group aged 60-69 from 1987, before the introduction of mammography screening in Sweden.
In the screening group a significant reduction in tumor size was found at diagnosis compared to the sample from 1987 (p or = 70 years (p
Breast cancer and early retirement: Associations with disease characteristics, treatment, comorbidity, social position and participation in a six-day rehabilitation course in a register-based study in Denmark.
The purpose of this register-based study was to identify factors related to disease, treatment, sociodemographics and comorbidity associated with taking early retirement among women treated for breast cancer, and to evaluate the risk for taking early retirement among breast cancer survivors who attended a six-day rehabilitation course.
The study population consisted of 856 women who attended the rehabilitation course and a comparison group of 1 805 women who did not attend the course identified through the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group. We obtained information on receipt of unemployment benefits, sickness benefits and early retirement pension for each of the years 1996-2007. Multivariate cox-regression models were used to analyze disease-specific, treatment-related, comorbidity and sociodemographics factors associated with early retirement after breast cancer and to evaluate the effect of attending a rehabilitation course on taking early retirement.
The rate of retirement was higher for women with somatic comorbidity (hazard ratio [HR], 1.91; 95% CI, 1.3; 2.9 for score 1, and HR 1.42; 95% CI, 0.7; 2.7 for score =2), previous depression (HR, 2.29; 95% CI, 1.7; 3.2) or having received sickness benefits in the year before their breast cancer diagnosis (HR, 3.75; 95% CI, 1.8; 7.8). Living with a partner was associated with a reduced hazard ratio for taking early retirement (HR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.5-0.9). Having received chemotherapy, alone or in combination with anti-hormone treatment, reduced the hazard ratio (HR, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.3; 0.8 and HR, 0.5; 95% CI, 0.3; 0.8, respectively). The rate of retirement was higher for women the year after attending the rehabilitation course but returned to unity by three years.
The results of this study contribute to the identification of at-risk women and point to the need for tailored rehabilitation to avoid unnecessary marginalization of breast cancer survivors due to permanent labor market withdrawal.