Malmö, in the south of Sweden, has, over the past 15 years, achieved a reduction in the mortality rate of 10% as a result of adjuvant drug treatment (adjuvant chemo- and hormone therapy). The drop in the mortality rate by means of a quality assured early diagnosis programme, reduces the mortality rate for breast cancer by 34% so that in South Sweden these methods have reduced the death rate for breast cancer by a total of 44% although the incident rate has increased by 1.25%. It follows that a quality assured early diagnosis programme is by far the most effective method of reducing the mortality rate for breast cancer, whereby breast cancer constitutes the main cause of death from cancer in women. The effectiveness of early diagnosis is dependent on experience with these methods whereby the learning curve, even in the case of specialists, does not reach a maximum until there has been at least 6-8 years experience and a minimum of 8000 patients have been seen. A reduction in the mortality rate can only be achieved if a large number of the population takes part (in Sweden, 89% of women contacted) and only applies to the age group 40-70. In the case of younger women (40-50 years) the reduction in the death rate in Sweden lies at 30%. For cost-benefit reasons this age group has not yet been recommended for routine screening in Sweden, apart from in clinical studies. Screening is only effective with complete quality control of technical equipment and personnel as stipulated in the European guidelines for screening mammography (August 1997 edition, EU Commission (EUREF). The risks of radiation exposure, with a threshold value of 5 mGy per breast (X-ray in two planes), is so minimal that it is as yet not measurable. The induction of breast cancer through annual screening mammography is estimated theoretically at 4 indicated cases of breast cancer to 1 million female years. Theoretically these induced cases of breast cancer can be cured by early diagnosis. A reduction in the mortality rate of 34% is a tremendous advantage for women. Since breast cancer is the main cause of death in women between the ages of 38 and 51 and screening considerably cheaper than other preventive measures (cervical smear, dialysis in kidney disease, safety belts, medication to lower cholesterol levels) the introduction of quality assured screening is an essential priority towards improving the health of women in society today. It has been proved (Netherlands) that the cost of screening is far lower than the expense incurred in the treatment of women in the metastatic stage of their cancer illness before death.
Residents of geothermal areas have higher incidence of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, breast cancer, prostate cancer, and kidney cancers than others. These populations are exposed to chronic low-level ground gas emissions and various pollutants from geothermal water. The aim was to assess whether habitation in geothermal areas and utilisation of geothermal water is associated with risk of cancer according to duration of residence.
The cohort obtained from the census 1981 was followed to the end of 2013. Personal identifier was used in record linkage with nation-wide emigration, death, and cancer registries. The exposed population, defined by community codes, was located on young bedrock and had utilised geothermal water supply systems since 1972. Two reference populations were located by community codes on older bedrock or had not utilised geothermal water supply systems for as long a period as had the exposed population. Adjusted hazard ratio (HR), 95% confidence intervals (CI) non-stratified and stratified on cumulative years of residence were estimated in Cox-model.
The HR for all cancer was 1.21 (95% CI 1.12-1.30) as compared with the first reference area. The HR for pancreatic cancer was 1.93 (1.22-3.06), breast cancer, 1.48 (1.23-1.80), prostate cancer 1.47 (1.22-1.77), kidney cancer 1.46 (1.03-2.05), lymphoid and haematopoietic tissue 1.54 (1.21-1.97), non-Hodgkin´s lymphoma 2.08 (1.38-3.15) and basal cell carcinoma of the skin 1.62 (1.35-1.94). Positive dose-response relationship was observed between incidence of cancers and duration of residence, and between incidence of cancer and degree of geothermal/volcanic activity in the comparison areas.
The higher cancer incidence in geothermal areas than in reference areas is consistent with previous findings. As the dose-response relationships were positive between incidence of cancers and duration of residence, it is now more urgent than before to investigate the chemical and physical content of the geothermal water and of the ambient air of the areas to detect recognized or new carcinogens.
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The purpose of this study was to estimate the incidence and prognostic value of axillary lymph node micrometastases (Nmic) of 2 mm or less in breast carcinomas. Results are based on data from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG). The study was carried out as a nationwide, population-based trial with a study series consisting of 6,959 women under 75 years of age registered in the national DBCG data base from 1 January 1990 to 31 October 1994. All patients had contracted operable primary breast carcinoma, stage I-III, classified according to the TNM system as T1-T3, N0-N1, M0. Women with four or more metastatic axillary lymph nodes were excluded. All patients were treated systematically according to approved national guidelines and treatment protocols. Metastases were recognized microscopically on haematoxylin and eosin-stained sections. In case of doubt immunohistochemical staining for cytokeratin was performed. There was no serial sectioning. Micrometastases were tumour deposits of 2 mm or smaller, and accordingly included deposits of 0.2 mm and smaller. With a median observation time of 10 years and 2 months, women with Nmic (N=427) experienced a significantly worse overall survival (OS) compared with node-negative (Nneg) women (N=4,767) (relative risk (RR)=1.20, 95% CI: 1.01-1.43), irrespective of menopausal status. Women with macrometastases (Nmac) (N=1,765) had significantly worse final outcome than women with Nmic (RR=1.54, 95% CI: 1.29-1.85), irrespective of menopausal status. Multivariate analysis adjusted for patient-, histopathologic-, and loco-regional therapeutic variables showed that cases with Nmic had a significantly higher risk of death relative to Nneg cases (adjusted RR=1.49, 95% CI: 1.18-1.90). Interaction analysis showed that the number of nodes examined had a significant impact on adjusted relative risk of death according to axillary status. Furthermore, the number of nodes involved significantly influenced adjusted risk of death in the Nmic compared to the Nmac series. In conclusion, the results of the present study revealed worse final outcome in women with Nmic compared with Nneg, where all Nmic cases received adjuvant systemic treatment. Interaction analysis showed that the number of retrieved axillary nodes and the number of affected nodes had a different influence on survival related to axillary status. The different risk pattern in Nmic vs Nmac patients indicates that Nmic cases do not show the traditional risk pattern as revealed by the Nmac cases, in which increasing number of positive nodes is associated with an orderly increasing adjusted RR.
Of 2231 women with stage I, II or III breast cancer who were registered and seen between 1971 and 1979 and followed to the end of 1981, 48 (2.2%) had synchronous and 58 (2.6%) asynchronous bilateral breast cancer. The unadjusted incidence rate for a second breast cancer was 6.4/1000 breast-years at risk, compared with a rate of 0.70 for the risk of a first breast cancer in women. When calculated from the date of diagnosis of the first breast cancer the survival rate was better for the group with asynchronous disease than for the group with synchronous disease or for a group with unilateral disease, but when calculated from the date of diagnosis of the second cancer the rate was the same in all three groups. Comparison of known risk factors showed a significant association between the development of bilateral cancer and a later age at the birth of the first child and a longer interval between menarche and that birth. There was a trend towards greater age and more stage III cancer in the group with synchronous disease. There was no correlation between receiving radiotherapy for the first breast cancer and development of the second cancer. Annual mammography and clinical examination of asymptomatic women at a cancer centre resulted in the detection of a significantly higher proportion of minimal breast cancers in the second breast compared with the first. Such screening practices should be even more valuable in the earlier detection of unilateral breast cancer in asymptomatic women who have not had breast cancer.
University of Tampere, Faculty of Social Sciences, Epidemiology Group, Arvo, Arvo Ylpön katu 34, 33520 Tampere, Finland; Petrov National Research Medical Center of Oncology, Leningradskaya 68, Pesochny, Saint-Petersburg, 197758, Russia. Electronic address: email@example.com.
Breast and cervical cancer are among the leading causes of preventable cancer deaths in women in Russia. The aim of this study is to analyze changes in breast and cervical cancer incidence and mortality trends using data from the Russian State Cancer Registry.
The age-standardized rates of cervical cancer incidence (1993-2013) and mortality (1980-2013) were analyzed using piecewise linear regression. Age-period-cohort models were used to estimate the temporal effects and provide future predictions.
Breast and cervical cancer incidence rates uniformly increased over two decades from 33.0 to 47.0 per 100,000 and from 10.6 to 14.2 per 100,000, respectively. Breast cancer mortality rates however declined from 17.6 to 15.7 in 2013, while cervical cancer mortality increased steadily from 5.6 to 6.7. Breakpoints in the risk occurred in cohorts born 1937-1953, indicating a recent generational decrease in breast cancer mortality, but a concomitant increase in cervical cancer. Cervical cancer has already surpassed breast cancer in terms of years of life lost (YLL) (23.4 per death vs 18.5 in 2009-2013), while future projections suggest that the annual YLL could reach 1.2 million for cervical cancer and (decline to) 1.8 million for breast cancer by the year 2030.
The temporal patterns of breast cancer incidence and mortality in Russia are in line with other countries in Europe, although cervical cancer rates and the risk of occurrence in recent generations is rapidly increasing; these trends underscore the need to place immediate priority in national cervical vaccination and screening programs.
There is a four to fivefold variation in breast cancer incidence rates across different countries. The lowest rates are observed in Asia, and the highest rates are observed in western Europe and North America. The incidence of breast cancer has increased in all countries since 1960. We studied in detail (whenever possible) the changes in incidence and mortality between 1955 and 1990 in four age groups (35-44, 45-54, 55-64 and 65-74) for 11 "representative" countries (USA, England and Wales, Norway, Hungary, Yugoslavia, Spain, Colombia, Singapore, Japan, India and China). The largest increase in incidence took place in Japan and Singapore. The incidence rate for women aged 35-44 in Japan doubled between 1960 and 1985 and by 1985 was roughly two thirds the USA rate. There has been essentially no change in mortality rates in the USA, England and Wales or Norway, whereas there has been a 50-60% increase in Japan, Singapore and Hungary. Most of the observed increase in incidence rates in the USA, England and Wales and Norway may be "artefactual", that is, due to changes in screening patterns. Screening may also have contributed to the rate increase in other countries, but outside western Europe and North America the major part of the increase is likely to be due to changes in known and suspected breast cancer risk factors.
The age-standardized breast cancer mortality rate for Canadian females increased only slightly during the period 1941-1971. In contrast, the age-standardized breast cancer incidence rate for Saskatchewan females more than doubled during the same period. In the interval 1954-1973 there were significant increases in the age-specific mortality rates for females 50-64 years old and in the age-specific incidence rates for five of the six age groups in the 45 to 74 year range. Breast cancer mortality rates during 1970-1972 varied considerably by province. Age-specific rates in the 30-69 year range were significantly and negatively correlated with the proportions by province of married women first married at age 15-19. In Canada and Saskatchewan, respectively, the age-specific breast cancer mortality and incidence rates for females 40-59 years old were significantly and negatively correlated with cohort fertility rates at age 20-24. These data support the hypothesis that early pregnancy protects against breast cancer. The sharp decline in fertility rates since 1960 may result in an increased incidence of breast cancer in the future.