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4-Nonylphenol and bisphenol A in Swedish food and exposure in Swedish nursing women.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature125631
Source
Environ Int. 2012 Aug;43:21-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2012
Author
Irina Gyllenhammar
Anders Glynn
Per Ola Darnerud
Sanna Lignell
Rob van Delft
Marie Aune
Author Affiliation
National Food Agency, P.O. Box 622, 75126 Uppsala, Sweden. irina.gyllenhammar@slv.se
Source
Environ Int. 2012 Aug;43:21-8
Date
Aug-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Animals
Benzhydryl Compounds
Breast Feeding - statistics & numerical data
Diet - statistics & numerical data
Endocrine Disruptors - analysis - blood - metabolism
Environmental monitoring
Environmental Pollutants - analysis - blood - metabolism
Female
Food analysis
Food Contamination - statistics & numerical data
Fruit - chemistry
Humans
Maternal Exposure - statistics & numerical data
Meat - analysis - statistics & numerical data
Phenols - analysis - blood - metabolism
Sweden
Vegetables - chemistry
Young Adult
Abstract
4-Nonylphenol (NP) and bisphenol A (BPA) are phenolic substances used in high volumes by the industry. Studies on cells and in experimental animals have shown that both these compounds can be classified as estrogenic hormone disrupters. Information about the exposure of humans to NP and BPA is still scarce, especially regarding levels in human blood. The first aim of this study was to investigate possible sources of NP and BPA exposure from food, by analyzing the levels of NP and BPA from a Swedish food market basket, based on the Swedish per capita food consumption. A second aim was to investigate blood serum levels of NP and BPA, as well as NP-ethoxylates, among young women in Sweden (n=100). Moreover, associations between food consumption and blood NP and BPA levels were studied. In food, NP was to some extent found at levels above limit of quantification (LOQ 20 ng/g fresh weight) in fruits, cereal products, vegetables, and potatoes. BPA levels above LOQ (2 ng/g fresh weight) were found in fish, meats, potatoes, and dairy products. The estimated mean intakes per capita were (medium bound) 27 µg NP/day and 3.9 µg BPA/day, showing that food is a source of BPA and NP in the general Swedish population. In blood serum, free NP above limit of detection (LOD 0.5 ng/g) was detected in 46% of the study participants while detectable levels of total NP (LOD 0.8 ng/g) were observed in 43%. The corresponding percentages for BPA were 25% and 22%, respectively. The results indicate that there is a continuous source of exposure to NP and BPA that is high enough for free NP and BPA to be detected in some consumers. Among the participants with quantifiable levels of free and total NP (n=38), 85% (median, range: 38-112%) of the NP was present as free NP. For BPA 76% (49-109%) was detected as free BPA (n=15). All women had levels of ethoxylates of NP below LOD (0.1-0.7 ng/g). A significantly higher total consumption of fruits and vegetables was reported in questionnaires by participants with NP levels at or above LOD than among women with levels below LOD. This result is supporting the market basket results of relatively high NP levels in these types of food.
PubMed ID
22466019 View in PubMed
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Age at adiposity rebound and body mass index trajectory from early childhood to adolescence; differences by breastfeeding and maternal immigration background.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature283643
Source
Pediatr Obes. 2017 Feb;12(1):75-84
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2017
Author
M. Besharat Pour
A. Bergström
M. Bottai
J. Magnusson
I. Kull
T. Moradi
Source
Pediatr Obes. 2017 Feb;12(1):75-84
Date
Feb-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adiposity - physiology
Adolescent
Body mass index
Body Weight
Breast Feeding - statistics & numerical data
Child
Child, Preschool
Emigration and Immigration - statistics & numerical data
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Linear Models
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Mothers
Risk factors
Sweden
Abstract
This paper aims to assess association between breastfeeding and maternal immigration background and body mass index development trajectories from age 2 to 16?years.
A cohort of children born in Stockholm during 1994 to 1996 was followed from age 2 to 16?years with repeated measurement of height and weight at eight time points (n?=?2278). Children were categorized into groups by breastfeeding status during the first 6?months of life and maternal immigration background. Body mass index (BMI) trajectories and age at adiposity rebound were estimated using mixed-effects linear models.
Body mass index trajectories were different by breastfeeding and maternal immigration status (P-value?
PubMed ID
26910193 View in PubMed
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Antibiotic exposure in pregnancy and risk of coeliac disease in offspring: a cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature258878
Source
BMC Gastroenterol. 2014;14:75
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Karl Mårild
Johnny Ludvigsson
Yolanda Sanz
Jonas F Ludvigsson
Source
BMC Gastroenterol. 2014;14:75
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Anti-Bacterial Agents - therapeutic use
Breast Feeding - statistics & numerical data
Celiac Disease - epidemiology
Child
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Female
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Intestines - microbiology
Male
Microbiota
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Complications, Infectious - drug therapy
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects - epidemiology
Proportional Hazards Models
Prospective Studies
Questionnaires
Risk factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
The infant microbiota may play a pathogenic role in coeliac disease (CD). Antibiotic treatment in pregnancy is common and could significantly impact the infant microbiota. In this study, we aimed to investigate the association between antibiotic exposure during pregnancy and CD in offspring.
Prospective questionnaire data on antibiotic exposure in pregnancy were available in 8729 children participating in the All Babies in Southeast Sweden (ABIS) cohort study, and of these 46 developed CD until December 2006. Cox regression estimated hazard ratios (HRs) for CD in the offspring among mothers exposed to antibiotics during pregnancy, with adjustment for parent-reported diary data on breastfeeding, age at gluten introduction and number of infections in the child's first year of life.
Of the 1836 children exposed to antibiotics during pregnancy, 12 (0.7%) children developed CD as compared with 34/6893 (0.5%) unexposed children (HR = 1.33; 95% CI = 0.69-2.56). Risk estimates remained unchanged after adjustment for breastfeeding, age at gluten introduction and infection load in the child's first year of life (HR = 1.28; 95% CI = 0.66-2.48).
We found no statistically significant association between antibiotic exposure during pregnancy and CD in offspring. This lack of association may either be true or the result of limited statistical power.
Notes
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PubMed ID
24731164 View in PubMed
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Anxiety about food supply in cree women with infants in Quebec.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature29821
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2005 Feb;64(1):55-64
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2005
Author
Noreen D Willows
Rose Iserhoff
Lily Napash
Lucie Leclerc
Tanya Verrall
Author Affiliation
Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta. noreen.willows@ualberta.ca
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2005 Feb;64(1):55-64
Date
Feb-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Anxiety - epidemiology
Bottle Feeding - trends
Breast Feeding - statistics & numerical data
Child Development - physiology
Confidence Intervals
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Food Supply
Humans
Infant
Infant Food
Infant Nutrition
Infant, Newborn
Male
Maternal Behavior - psychology
Nutritional Requirements
Odds Ratio
Population Groups
Prevalence
Probability
Quebec
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Retrospective Studies
Risk assessment
Socioeconomic Factors
Abstract
OBJECTIVES: The objectives were to document the prevalence of maternal anxiety about food supply in Cree women who had 9-month-old infants, and to understand maternal and infant characteristics associated with anxiety. STUDY DESIGN: The design was descriptive and combined both cross-sectional and retrospective analyses. METHODS: The study took place in nine Cree communities in northern Quebec. Data on maternal characteristics in pregnancy (age, parity, anemia, smoking status) and infant characteristics (gestational age, birth weight, weight and hemoglobin concentration at 9 months old) were obtained from medical records. At 9 months postpartum, mothers were asked about infant feeding practices, the health of their infant, and the question, "Do you ever worry you don't have enough money to buy your children food to eat?" Affirmative responses were considered evidence for anxiety about food supply. Pricing data was collected for commercial baby food, formula, milk and water in the communities and, for comparison, in the large urban city of Montreal. RESULTS: 245 woman-infant pairs participated. One-fifth (20.8%) of mothers were anxious about food supply. The prevalences of anxiety in women who had anemia, or smoked, during pregnancy, or who bottle-fed their 9-month-old infants, were 44.4%, 27.5% and 24.0%, respectively. The corresponding prevalences of anxiety in women who did not have anemia, who did not smoke, or who breastfed without bottle-feeding at 9-months postpartum, were 19.0%, 13.6% and 6.7%. The adjusted ORs for anxiety were 3.10 (95% CI, 1.11-8.65), 2.12 (95% CI, 1.05-4.29) and 3.87 (95% CI, 1.12-13.36) for anemia, smoking and bottle-feeding, respectively. Prevalences of anemia and infection were comparable between infants of mothers who did and did not express anxiety. However, infants whose mothers had anemia during pregnancy had higher prevalences of anemia (44.0% vs. 24.6%, p = 0.04) and infection (77.8% vs. 50.2%, p = 0.03) at 9 months old. CONCLUSION: Women who had anxiety about food supply for their children had characteristics that distinguished them from women who did not have anxiety. Anxiety was associated with anemia and smoking during pregnancy, and with bottle-feeding at 9 months postpartum.
PubMed ID
15776993 View in PubMed
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Are weaning foods causing impaired iron and zinc status in 1-year-old Swedish infants? A cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature58965
Source
Acta Paediatr. 1998 Jun;87(6):618-22
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-1998
Author
L A Persson
M. Lundström
B. Lönnerdal
O. Hernell
Author Affiliation
Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Umeå University, Sweden.
Source
Acta Paediatr. 1998 Jun;87(6):618-22
Date
Jun-1998
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Distribution
Analysis of Variance
Blood Chemical Analysis
Breast Feeding - statistics & numerical data
Cohort Studies
Deficiency Diseases - epidemiology - etiology
Female
Ferritin - blood - deficiency
Food, Fortified
Hemoglobins - analysis
Humans
Incidence
Infant
Infant Food - adverse effects
Infant, Newborn
Iron - blood - deficiency
Male
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Sex Distribution
Sweden - epidemiology
Weaning
Zinc - blood - deficiency
Abstract
We analysed whether 12-month-old Swedish infants who have been fed iron-fortified and relatively zinc-rich foods, according to current recommendations, have adequate iron and zinc status. A cohort of 76 healthy, full term Swedish infants was followed regarding feeding habits and growth from birth to 12 months of age, when haemoglobin, iron and zinc status were evaluated. Twenty-six percent of the infants had low (
PubMed ID
9686651 View in PubMed
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Association between short birth intervals and schizophrenia in the offspring.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature61538
Source
Schizophr Res. 2004 Sep 1;70(1):49-56
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-1-2004
Author
Luc Smits
Carsten Pedersen
Preben Mortensen
Jim van Os
Author Affiliation
Department of Epidemiology, Universiteit Maastricht, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands. luc.smits@epid.unimaas.nl
Source
Schizophr Res. 2004 Sep 1;70(1):49-56
Date
Sep-1-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Birth Intervals - statistics & numerical data
Breast Feeding - statistics & numerical data
Cohort Studies
Female
Folic Acid Deficiency - metabolism
Humans
Population Surveillance
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Complications
Prospective Studies
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Schizophrenia - diagnosis - epidemiology
Time Factors
Vitamin B 6 Deficiency - metabolism
Abstract
Pregnancy burdens maternal folate reserves. Postpartum restoration to normal folate values may take up to 1 year. Maternal folate deficiency during early pregnancy has been hypothesized as a cause of schizophrenia in the offspring. We investigated whether the risk of schizophrenia is increased in persons conceived shortly after another birth. A population-based cohort was established of 1.43 million persons born in Denmark between 1950 and 1983, yielding 17.6 million person-years of follow-up. Schizophrenia in cohort members (5095 cases) and their siblings and parents was identified by linkage with the Danish Psychiatric Case Register. Relative risks of schizophrenia were estimated by use of log-linear Poisson regression. As compared to intervals of 45 months and longer, the schizophrenia risk ratio was 1.14 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.97 to 1.35) for interbirth intervals of up to 15 months, 1.32 (95% CI, 1.12 to 1.56) for intervals of 15 to 17 months, 1.38 (95% CI, 1.18 to 1.61), for intervals of 18 to 20 months and 1.13 (95% CI, 1.00 to 1.29) for intervals of 21 to 26 months. Relative risks did not essentially change after adjustment for age, sex, calendar year of diagnosis, maternal and paternal age, history of mental illness in a parent or sibling, sibship size, place of birth, and distance to younger sibling. These results show an association between short birth intervals and schizophrenia in the offspring. Although maternal folate depletion may play a role in this association, we cannot rule out other explanations such as maternal stress during pregnancy and childhood infections.
PubMed ID
15246463 View in PubMed
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The associations between maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index or gestational weight change during pregnancy and body mass index of the child at 3 years of age.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature121203
Source
Int J Obes (Lond). 2012 Oct;36(10):1325-31
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2012
Author
U M Stamnes Køpp
K. Dahl-Jørgensen
H. Stigum
L. Frost Andersen
Ø. Næss
W. Nystad
Author Affiliation
Department of Paediatrics, Sørlandet Hospital HF, Kristiansand, Norway. unni.mette.kopp@sshf.no
Source
Int J Obes (Lond). 2012 Oct;36(10):1325-31
Date
Oct-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Body mass index
Breast Feeding - statistics & numerical data
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Fathers - statistics & numerical data
Feeding Behavior
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Mothers - statistics & numerical data
Norway - epidemiology
Obesity - epidemiology - prevention & control
Population Surveillance
Pregnancy
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects - epidemiology
Questionnaires
Risk factors
Smoking - epidemiology
Weight Gain
Abstract
To estimate the associations between maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) or gestational weight change (GWC) during pregnancy and offspring BMI at 3 years of age, while taking several pre-and postnatal factors into account.
The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study is a population-based pregnancy cohort study of women recruited from all geographical areas of Norway.
The study includes 31?169 women enrolled between 2000 and 2009 through a postal invitation sent to women at 17-18 weeks of gestation. Data collected from 5898 of the fathers were included. MAIN OUTCOME MESURES: Offspring BMI at 3 years was the main outcome measured in this study.
Mean maternal pre-pregnancy BMI was 24.0 kg?m(-2) (s.d. 4.1), mean GWC in the first 30 weeks of gestation was 9.0 kg (s.d. 4.1) and mean offspring BMI at 3 years of age was 16.1 kg?m(-2) (s.d. 1.5). Both maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and GWC were positively associated with mean offspring BMI at 3 years of age. Pre-pregnancy BMI and GWC also interacted, and the strength of the interaction between these two factors was strongly associated with the increase in offspring BMI among mothers who gained the most weight during pregnancy and had the highest pre-pregnancy BMI. Our findings show that results could be biased by not including pre-pregnant paternal BMI.
This large population-based study showed that both maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and GWC were positively associated with mean offspring BMI at 3 years of age.
Notes
Comment In: Int J Obes (Lond). 2012 Oct;36(10):1259-6023044902
PubMed ID
22929211 View in PubMed
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Background factors of molar-incisor hypomineralization in a group of Finnish children.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature268536
Source
Acta Odontol Scand. 2014 Nov;72(8):963-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2014
Author
Emma Wuollet
Sakari Laisi
Eija Salmela
Anneli Ess
Satu Alaluusua
Source
Acta Odontol Scand. 2014 Nov;72(8):963-9
Date
Nov-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Agriculture - statistics & numerical data
Breast Feeding - statistics & numerical data
Child
Child Care - statistics & numerical data
Cohort Studies
Dental Enamel Hypoplasia - epidemiology
Educational Status
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Income
Male
Mothers - education
Prevalence
Residence Characteristics
Retrospective Studies
Rural Health - statistics & numerical data
Smoking - epidemiology
Social Class
Socioeconomic Factors
Urban Health - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization (MIH) is a common developmental enamel defect characterized by demarcated opacities in permanent molars and incisors. Its etiology still remains unclear. The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to assess if the socioeconomic environment of the child is associated with MIH.
The study was located in two rural towns and three urban cities in Finland. A total of 818 children, between 7-13 years old, were examined for MIH using the evaluation criteria in line with those of the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry, but excluding opacities smaller than 2 mm in diameter. The mothers filled in a questionnaire which included questions related to the family's way of living (e.g. area of residency, farming, day care attendance) and socioeconomic status (family income, number of mother's school years, level of maternal education).
The prevalence of MIH in the study population was 17.1%. Family income, urban residency and day care attendance were associated with MIH in the univariate analysis. In the multivariate analysis using binary logistic regression, only urban residency during a child's first 2 years of life remained associated with MIH. The prevalence of MIH in urban areas was 21.3% and in rural areas 11.5% (OR = 2.18, CI = 1.35-3.53, p = 0.001).
The prevalence of MIH was related to urban residency and could not be explained by any other factor included in the study.
PubMed ID
25005624 View in PubMed
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Being born in Manitoba: a look at perinatal health issues.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature186717
Source
Can J Public Health. 2002 Nov-Dec;93 Suppl 2:S33-8
Publication Type
Article
Author
Patricia J Martens
Shelley Derksen
Teresa Mayer
Randy Walld
Author Affiliation
Manitoba Centre for Health Policy, Department of Community Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB. Pat_Martens@cpe.umanitoba.ca
Source
Can J Public Health. 2002 Nov-Dec;93 Suppl 2:S33-8
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Birth Rate - trends
Breast Feeding - statistics & numerical data
Cross-Sectional Studies
Health Policy
Health promotion
Health Status Indicators
Humans
Infant
Infant care
Infant Mortality - trends
Infant Welfare - ethnology - statistics & numerical data
Infant, Low Birth Weight
Infant, Newborn
Infant, Premature
Manitoba - epidemiology
Population Surveillance
Regional Health Planning
Registries
Risk factors
Rural Health
Social Class
Urban health
Abstract
The Manitoba Centre for Health Policy was commissioned by Manitoba's provincial health department to examine the health of newborns born 1994 through 1998, using three indicators: preterm birth (
PubMed ID
12580388 View in PubMed
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Bottle-feeding and the Risk of Pyloric Stenosis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature121048
Source
Pediatrics. 2012 Oct;130(4):e943-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2012
Author
Camilla Krogh
Robert J Biggar
Thea K Fischer
Morten Lindholm
Jan Wohlfahrt
Mads Melbye
Author Affiliation
Department of Epidemiology Research, Statens Serum Institut, 5 Ørestads Boulevard, DK-2300 Copenhagen S, Denmark. ckr@ssi.dk
Source
Pediatrics. 2012 Oct;130(4):e943-9
Date
Oct-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Bottle Feeding - adverse effects - statistics & numerical data
Breast Feeding - statistics & numerical data
Cohort Studies
Denmark
Female
Health Surveys
Humans
Infant
Male
Proportional Hazards Models
Pyloric Stenosis, Hypertrophic - etiology - surgery
Registries
Risk factors
Abstract
Bottle-feeding has been suggested to increase the risk of pyloric stenosis (PS). However, large population-based studies are needed. We examined the effect of bottle-feeding during the first 4 months after birth, by using detailed data about the timing of first exposure to bottle-feeding and extensive confounder information.
We performed a large population-based cohort study based on the Danish National Birth Cohort, which provided information on infants and feeding practice. Information about surgery for PS was obtained from the Danish National Patient Register. The association between bottle-feeding and the risk of PS was evaluated by hazard ratios (HRs) estimated in a Cox regression model, adjusting for possible confounders.
Among 70148 singleton infants, 65 infants had surgery for PS, of which 29 were bottle-fed before PS diagnosis. The overall HR of PS for bottle-fed infants compared with not bottle-fed infants was 4.62 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.78-7.65). Among bottle-fed infants, risk increases were similar for infants both breast and bottle-fed (HR: 3.36 [95% CI: 1.60-7.03]), formerly breastfed (HR: 5.38 [95% CI: 2.88-10.06]), and never breastfed (HR: 6.32 [95% CI: 2.45-16.26]) (P = .76). The increased risk of PS among bottle-fed infants was observed even after 30 days since first exposure to bottle-feeding and did not vary with age at first exposure to bottle-feeding.
Bottle-fed infants experienced a 4.6-fold higher risk of PS compared with infants who were not bottle-fed. The result adds to the evidence supporting the advantage of exclusive breastfeeding in the first months after birth.
Notes
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