Influence of bioactive additions from natural vegetable raw materials--silybum marianum--in the content of bread products on health and metabolism was studied. It is shown bread products with silybum marianum to be effective medicine with general restorative influence, increasing internal protection resources, capacity for work and vital activity.
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether diet is an independent determinant for total homocysteine (tHcy) levels. DESIGN: Data on background variables was collected by questionnaire interviews, food intake by one 24 h recall and tHcy levels in a blood sample in 310 healthy men (mean age, 38 y). SETTING: Two oil producing platforms in the Norwegian sector in the north sea. RESULTS: The arithmetic mean (s.d.) and median tHcy levels were 10.4 (2.9) mumol/L and 9.9 mumol/L, respectively. In a covariance analysis, mean adjusted plasma tHcy decreased by 7-21% from no intake to highest category of intake of bread, vegetables, and skimmed milk, and increased by 8-9% from less than 30% to above 35% energy from fat, and from no intake to one liter or more for coffee. Smokers had a lower intake of cereals, bread vegetables and fruits, but ate more fat and meat. Thus, smoking may have an indirect effect on the tHcy level through its effect on diet. In a multiple regression model, bread and vegetables were negatively associated with tHcy, while fat was positively associated. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that changes in diet may be an important means to lower the tHcy level in the overall population, and that dietary advice should be considered in subjects diagnosed with elevated tHcy levels.
This paper describes the identification of important allergens from the granary weevil (Sitophilus granarius) (Sg). Sera from Danish bakers whose skin prick tests were positive to extracts of Sg were screened for IgE against Sg extracts. We found that 54% (n = 66) had elevated levels of IgE (RAST classes 1-3, by luminescent immunoassay) against whole-body extracts of Sg. The specificity of patient IgE was investigated in an inhibition-dot immunoblotting assay. IgE binding was inhibited in all sera but two, thus indicating that the patients' IgE was indeed specific for the Sg extract. In crossed immunoelectrophoresis, 23 different proteins were identified. All RAST-positive sera were investigated in crossed radioimmuno-electrophoresis. At least 11 proteins in the Sg extract were capable of binding IgE. All individual sera reacted with at least four different proteins. The two most prominent allergens bound IgE from 88% and 100%, respectively, of the patients. These two are considered to be the most important allergens from Sg, and will be useful as markers in environmental immunochemical assays to detect allergens in samples from bakeries, grain stores, etc.
The glycemic index (GI) is a ranking of foods based on their glycemic effect compared with a standard food. It has been used to classify carbohydrate foods for various applications, including diabetes, sports, and appetite research. The purpose of these tables is to bring together all of the published data on the GIs of individual foods for the convenience of users. In total, there are almost 600 separate entries, including values for most common Western foods, many indigenous foods, and pure sugar solutions. The tables show the GI according to both the glucose and white bread (the original reference food) standard, the type and number of subjects tested, and the source of the data. For many foods there were two or more published values, so the mean +/- SEM was calculated and is shown together with the original data. These tables reduce unnecessary repetition in the testing of individual foods and facilitate wider application of the GI approach.
Composite flour blends containing wheat (W), fababean (F), cottonseed and sesame flours were formulated to provide the FAO/WHO/UNU protein requirements for the 2-5 year old child, and evaluated in pan and flat bread applications. Water absorption of composite flour doughs was up to 35% greater than the control but gluten strength and slurry viscosities were markedly reduced. Loaf volume and specific volume of pan breads prepared from composite flours were 25-60% less than that of the control bread but flat breads tolerated the protein supplements extremely well. The W/F flat bread, containing 27% of fababean flour, received acceptable taste, texture and colour scores and was only slightly inferior to the control in puffing and layer separation. Additions of cottonseed or sesame flours to the W/F blend failed to improve sensory properties of the flat breads.
The human selenium status in 10 locations of Irkutsk region (n = 216) is estimated using serum and hair selenium as biological markers. Extremely low serum selenium was typical for the inhabitants of Angara area (63-84 mcg/l). Hair selenium varied from 504 mcg/kg to 718 mcg/kg, the lowest values being found in Shelehov and Angarsk, the highest--in Karam and Mama. Low selenium concentrations were found also in the main food products: cereals--49-89 mcg/kg, meat--234-489 mcg/kg of dry weight, bread--106-180 mcg/kg of dry weight.
OBJECTIVE: To compare non-responders and responders to a dietary survey with respect to demographic variables and intention to choose selected breakfast foods, and to examine if there was any systematic change in number of food items reported during a 7 d recording period. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Mölndal, Sweden. SUBJECTS: All pupils in 5th, 7th and 9th grades in the municipality were asked to complete a questionnaire during school hours. All those present (n = 1584, 92% of total) answered questions about lifestyle factors and about intentions, attitudes and beliefs concerning high-fibre bread and milk with varying fat content. All subjects in the initial sample were asked to fill in a 7 d record of food consumed. Acceptable food records were completed by 69% of the initial participants. RESULTS: Subjects not completing the food record differed significantly from participants with respect to demographic, lifestyle and dietary factors. Dropout was more common among those who reported not usually eating breakfast and among those intending to drink whole milk for breakfast. A decline in reported food items during the recording period was also observed. CONCLUSIONS: Two sources of bias were observed here, one indicating significant differences between non-participants and participants, the other suggesting the presence of a time-dependent trend in number of recorded foods. It is likely such biases are present in other dietary surveys involving schoolchildren, and should be taken into consideration in the design, analysis and interpretation of such studies.