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Food-borne botulism in Alaska, 1947-1985: Epidemiology and clinical findings

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature2583
Source
Journal of Infectious Diseases. 157(6):1158-1162
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-1988
Author
R B Wainwright
W L Heyward
J P Middaugh
C L Hatheway
A P Harpster
T R Bender
Author Affiliation
Arctic Investigations Laboratory, Center for Infectious Diseases, Anchorage, Alaska
Source
Journal of Infectious Diseases. 157(6):1158-1162
Date
Jun-1988
Language
English
Geographic Location
U.S.
Publication Type
Article
Physical Holding
Alaska Medical Library
Keywords
Botulism, type A
Botulism, type B
Botulism, type E
Clostridium botulinum
Diet, traditional
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Alaska
Botulinum Toxins - isolation & purification
Botulism - epidemiology - ethnology
Child
Child, Preschool
Disease Outbreaks
Female
Food Contamination
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Retrospective Studies
Abstract
We reviewed records of all food-borne outbreaks of botulism in Alaska from 1947 through 1985. Fifty-nine confirmed or suspected outbreaks with 156 cases were reported. All outbreaks occurred in Alaska Natives and were associated with eating traditional Alaska Native foods. Forty-four (75%) of the outbreaks were laboratory confirmed and involved 133 persons. The overall annual incidence of confirmed or suspected botulism was 8.6 cases per 100,000 population. Seventeen persons died, an overall case-fatality rate of 11%. Type E toxin accounted for 32 (73%) laboratory-confirmed outbreaks; type A, six (14%); and type B, five (11%). Forty-one cases demonstrated botulinal toxin in one or more specimens (serum, gastric contents, or stool). Of the 41 botulinal toxin-positive persons, 38 (93%) had at least three of the commonly recognized pentad of signs or symptoms--nausea and vomiting, dysphagia, diplopia, dilated and fixed pupils, or dry mouth and throat--and 20 (49%) required respiratory assistance.
Notes
From: Fortuine, Robert et al. 1993. The Health of the Inuit of North America: A Bibliography from the Earliest Times through 1990. University of Alaska Anchorage. Citation number 1854.
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Four outbreaks of botulism in Ungava Bay, Nunavik, Quebec.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature209266
Source
Can Commun Dis Rep. 1997 Feb 15;23(4):30-2
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-15-1997
Author
J F Proulx
V. Milor-Roy
J. Austin
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health, Nunavik Regional Board of Health and Social Services, Kuujjuaq, Quebec.
Source
Can Commun Dis Rep. 1997 Feb 15;23(4):30-2
Date
Feb-15-1997
Language
English
French
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Botulinum Toxins - isolation & purification
Botulism - epidemiology
Child
Disease Outbreaks
Female
Humans
Inuits
Male
Meat - microbiology
Middle Aged
Quebec - epidemiology
Rural Health
PubMed ID
9136226 View in PubMed
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From the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Outbreak of botulism type E associated with eating a beached whale--western Alaska, July 2002.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature186565
Source
JAMA. 2003 Feb 19;289(7):836-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-19-2003

Observations on the distribution and ecology of Clostridium botulinum type E in Alaska.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature1733
Source
Canadian Journal of Microbiology. 1975 Jun; 21(6):920-926.
Publication Type
Article
Date
1975
Author
Miller, L.G.
Author Affiliation
Arctic Health Research Center
Source
Canadian Journal of Microbiology. 1975 Jun; 21(6):920-926.
Date
1975
Language
English
Geographic Location
U.S.
Multi-National
Publication Type
Article
Physical Holding
Alaska Medical Library
Keywords
Botulism, type E
Diet, traditional
Environmental health
Culture survey
Zoonosis
Alaska
Animals
Botulinum Toxins - isolation & purification
Clostridium botulinum - enzymology - isolation & purification
Ecology
Food Microbiology
Gelatin - metabolism
Otters - microbiology
Peptide Hydrolases
Salmon - microbiology
Seals, Earless - microbiology
Soil Microbiology
Temperature
Walruses - microbiology
Water Microbiology
Whales - microbiology
Abstract
Environmental samples collected along the coastline and from the interior of Alaska were examined for the presence of Clostridium botulinum. Clostridium botulinum type E was detected in soils from 5 of 12 beaches; in 7 of 115 non-coastal soil samples; in sediments from six of eight locales; in gills of salmon from two fishing areas; and in the feces of 1 of 44 colonic samples from marine mammals. The basic biochemical characteristics of the isolates were determined. Tube tests for demonstrating gelatin liquefaction proved insensitive with these strains, whereas a plate test detected gelatinase in all isolates. The presence of multiple nidi and the continual discharge of organic materials into the environment may contribute to the perpetuation of botulinum spores by which foods prepared form marine animals become contaminated. An emphasis should be placed upon the need for measures to reduce environmental contamination, to reduce contamination during food preparation, and to alert continually the population of the hazard wherever botulism is endemic.
Notes
From: Fortuine, Robert et al. 1993. The Health of the Inuit of North America: A Bibliography from the Earliest Times through 1990. University of Alaska Anchorage. Citation number 1847.
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The prevalence of Clostridium botulinum in European river lamprey (Lampetra fluviatilis) in Finland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature170513
Source
Int J Food Microbiol. 2006 Jun 15;109(3):234-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-15-2006
Author
Lauri O Merivirta
Miia Lindström
K Johanna Björkroth
Hannu J Korkeala
Author Affiliation
Department of Food and Environmental Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 66, FIN-00014, Finland. lauri.merivirta@fimnet.fi
Source
Int J Food Microbiol. 2006 Jun 15;109(3):234-7
Date
Jun-15-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Botulinum Toxins - isolation & purification
Clostridium botulinum - isolation & purification
Consumer Product Safety
Finland - epidemiology
Food Contamination - analysis - prevention & control
Food Handling - methods - standards
Food Packaging
Humans
Lampreys - microbiology
Polymerase Chain Reaction - methods
Prevalence
Risk factors
Seafood - microbiology
Spores, Bacterial - isolation & purification
Temperature
Vacuum
Abstract
The prevalence of Clostridium botulinum types A, B, E and F in river lampreys caught in Finnish rivers was determined for the first time using a quantitative PCR-MPN (most probable number) analysis. One of 67 raw whole lampreys (1.5%) was positive for the botulinum neurotoxin type E gene, with the estimated C. botulinum count being 100spores/kg. Two type E strains were isolated from the positive sample and confirmed as different genotypes by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Although the current procedure of bringing the charcoal-broiled lampreys to market has been without any further packaging or extended storage, interest towards increasing the shelf life of the product by vacuum-packaging is increasing. Our results demonstrate that C. botulinum type E may constitute a safety hazard in processed lampreys from the Baltic Sea area if packaging and extended shelf lives are to be used. To control the potential risk, a storage temperature of 3 degrees C or below should be recommended for these products.
PubMed ID
16504325 View in PubMed
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