The nuclear accident at Chernobyl accounted for an acute radiation syndrome in 237 persons on the site. Triage was the initial problem and was carried out according to clinical and biological criteria; evaluating the doses received was based on these criteria. Thirty one persons died and only 1 survived a dose higher than 6 Gy. Skin radiation burns which were due to inadequate decontamination, greatly worsened prognosis. The results of 13 bone marrow transplantations were disappointing, with only 2 survivors. Some time after the accident, these severely irradiated patients are mainly suffering from psychosomatic disorders, in the USSR, some areas have been significantly contaminated and several measures were taken to mitigate the impact on population: evacuating 135,000 persons, distributing prophylactic iodine, establishing standards and controls on foodstuff. Radiation phobia syndrome which developed in many persons, is the only sanitary effect noticed up to now. Finally, in Europe, there was only an increase in induced abortions and this was totally unwarranted. If we consider the risk of radiation induced cancer, an effect might not be demonstrated.
AIM: Aplastic anaemia following hepatitis may develop in as many as 1 of 3 patients with non-A, non-B and non-C hepatitis. Several causative factors have been discussed, such as viral infections and autoimmunity. Here we describe the natural history of this condition in 7 children and investigate possible hepatitis-causing agents. METHODS: We reviewed the medical records, bone marrow and liver biopsies of 7 children with severe hepatitis, with or without liver failure, who subsequently had developed aplastic anaemia. RESULTS: The median time from onset of hepatic symptoms until diagnosed onset of aplasia was 54 days. No associated viral infections could be identified. On liver biopsy, a majority had lobular inflammation but lacked signs of autoimmune hepatitis, findings compatible with a viral aetiology. Three of 6 children had low reticulocyte counts already at onset of hepatitis. All, but one patient is alive at median follow-up of 8 years. CONCLUSION: The unknown pathogenetic mechanism appears to target liver and bone marrow simultaneously, because half of the children concomitantly had low reticulocyte counts and severe liver failure.
OBJECTIVES: Cell homing optimisation after transplantation is critical in myocardial infarction (MI) cell therapy. DESIGN: Eight pigs were randomized to receiving autologous purified (111)indium-labeled bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMCs) (10(8) cells/2 ml) by intramyocardial (IM) (n=4) or by intracoronary (IC) (n=4) transplantation after 90 minutes occlusion of the CX-coronary artery. Dual isotope SPECT imaging was performed 2 and 24 hours postoperatively. Two animals were additionally analyzed on the sixth postoperative day. Tissue samples from the major organs were analyzed. RESULTS: In SPECT imaging revealed that BMMCs administered using IM injection remained in the injured area. In contrast, minor proportion of IC transplanted cells remained in the myocardium, as most of the cells showed homing in the lungs. Analysis of the biopsies showed a seven-fold greater number of cells in the myocardium for the IM method and a 10-fold greater number of cells in the lungs in the IC group (p
One hundred and eight adult patients with acute leukemia were diagnosed in the middle Norwegian health region during the 5-year period 1984-88, giving an incidence rate of 4.6/100,000 per year. Nine patients had acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), 93 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and 6 patients acute leukemia without definite sub-classification. The median age of AML patients was 66 years. Thirty-five patients (median age 78 years) were found non-suitable for cytotoxic drugs, while 58 AML patients (median age 57 years) were given aplasia-inducing drug combinations according to one of three treatment programs depending on the time of diagnosis and age, in order to induce remission. Six patients were given oral drugs or low dose ara-C. All patients were followed until death or for an observation time of more than 5 years (median 7 years). The overall long term survival was found to be 12/108 for all acute leukemias, 8/93 for AML patients and 4/9 for ALL patients. For the AML patients given intravenous aplasia-inducing drugs the remission rate was 0.65, the median remission duration 12.2 months and the 5-year survival rate 0.19. For 31 AML patients, (median age 41 years), started on an intensive chemotherapy program, the 5-year survival rate was 0.32 and the relapse-free 5-year survival rate for the 22 patients entering complete remission was also 0.32.
Despite the fact that glutamine is not considered to be an essential amino acid, it is the amino acid found in the greatest concentration both in plasma (26%) as in skeletal muscle (75%). These levels may decrease in post-operative, trauma, or critical patients. Glutamine performs many functions in which its demand may be increased, such as: it is a precursor of the synthesis of nucleotides; it is an activator of the protein synthesis and at the same time it inhibits the degradation; it is an activator of glycogen synthesis; it is a metabolic substrate for rapidly replicating cells; it is an energy source for the enterocyte which is so important for maintaining the integrity and the function of the intestinal barrier, and the consumption thereof may be increased under conditions of stress. The administration of glutamine intravenously leads to two physical-chemical problems; the first is its low solubility in water; at 20 degrees C this is only 36 g/l, and the second problem is its low chemical stability in an aqueous solution at 22-24 degrees C, this being 11 days. This problem has led the industry to research two dipeptides of glutamine; L-alanyl-glutamine, and L-glycyl L-glutamine, both of which are much more soluble and much more stable. At present there is still a controversy regarding the dosage of glutamine and its dipeptides, with the dose being 0.19-0.29 g/kg/day of L-glutamine or its dipeptide forms, in surgical post-operative periods or to prevent bacterial translocation, and in patients who are candidates for bone marrow transplants, the administered dose has been 0.37-0.57 g/kg/day. The purpose of this study is to review the existing bibliography regarding the efficacy of L-glutamine or its dipeptides in four possible indications for its application in the daily clinical practice, such as: a) In post-operative surgical patients of major or medium surgery, glutamine or its dipeptides reduces the losses of muscular glutamine and its catabolism, showing a less negative nitrogen balance. b) Whether it avoids bacterial translocation. c) Whether it favors the response of the immunological system. d) Whether in patients who are candidates for bone marrow transplants this decreases the side effects due to chemotherapy and radiotherapy such as mucositis, or whether it decreases the number of days of neutrophil recovery. At present, on the European market there are two commercially available brands of glutamine dipeptides: Dipeptiven, by Fresenius Laboratories, Germany. A 100 ml vial which corresponds to 20 g of L-alanyl L-glutamine (8.2 g of alanine + 13.46 g of L-glutamine). This is added to the standard amino acid solution. Glamin, Pharmacia and Upjohn Laboratory, Sweden. This is an amino acid solution with 13.4% essential and non-essential amino acids which are equivalent to 22.4 g of nitrogen/l, and which contain 30.27 g L-glycyl-L-glutamine (10.27 g of glycine + 20 g of L-glutamine).
Lewis rats that were given injections of 10(6) to 10(8) (Lewis X Brown Norway) F1 hybrid bone marrow cells produce predominantly, if not exclusively, 19S lymphocytotoxic antibodies. A number of Lewis rats that received transplants of perfused renal allografts from bone marrow donors at, or near, the peak of IgM response survival for well over 200 days with good renal function and no histological evidence of chronic rejection. All long-surviving rats had detectable lymphocytotoxic antibodies up to 120 days after allografting; late enhancing antibodies had the restricted specificity possibly identical or similar to anti-I region antisera. All rats bearing prolonged renal allografts were unable to accept donor-specific skin grafts or to respond with specific lymphocytotoxic antibodies following skin grafting. The possible involvement of non-complement-fixing 19S alloantibodies in active enhancement of rat renal allografts is discussed.
Six children (aged 9 months to 10 and 5/12 years) with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) have undergone allogeneic BMT in Sweden. In two of the children unrelated donors were used. Parents were available as donors in two of the cases and siblings in the other two. Conditioning before BMT consisted of etoposide, busulfan and cyclophosphamide with the addition of ATG in two cases and OKT 3 in one case. For post-transplant immunosuppression, i.v. methotrexate and cyclosporin A (CsA) were used in five cases, and in one child CsA was combined with methylprednisolone. Of the six children, four are alive and well 2 and 3/12 to 3 and 1/12 years after BMT. One child, who had an unrelated donor with one DR-antigen mismatch, died 30 days after BMT of fulminant grade IV GVHD. Another patients, seropositive for CMV, received marrow from an unrelated HLA-A, -B, -DR and -DP identical donor. After an initially uneventful course, CMV was isolated from her leukocytes. Seven months after BMT she developed a progressive obstructive chronic bronchiolitis and succumbed to respiratory insufficiency 14 months after the transplant. This study supports the view that BMT is the treatment of choice in HLH, particularly if an HLA-identical related donor is available.
The results of 1904 allogeneic HLA identical sibling donor bone marrow transplants performed in 52 European centers between 1979 and 1986 and reported to the EBMT leukemia registry were analysed by geographical location of the transplant. Patients were grouped into six regions: United Kingdom, Nordic Group, Benelux, France, Central Europe and Southern Europe. There were significant differences between these regions with respect to patient population and outcome. The relative proportion of the three major disease categories, stage and subtype of the diseases, graft-versus-host disease prevention methods, donor recipient sex combinations, age of the patient, year of the transplant and the time intervals from diagnosis to transplant, from diagnosis to first complete remission for acute leukemia and the time from first complete remission to the transplant varied from region to region. The analysis of outcome parameters showed a significant difference in relapse incidence from region to region. This influence of region was confirmed in a multivariate analysis and was independent of the other factors known to affect outcome. Leukemia-free survival and transplant-related mortality were not different. The reasons for these differences could not be explained by the data in the registry. We conclude that regional factors must be considered when bone marrow transplant data are compared and we postulate that pretransplant factors probably affect outcome more than was previously realized.