A 3-year physical activity intervention program increases the gain in bone mineral and bone width in prepubertal girls but not boys: the prospective copenhagen school child interventions study (CoSCIS).
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of increasing the amount of time spent in physical education classes on bone mineral accrual and gain in bone size in prepubertal Danish children. A total of 135 boys and 108 girls, aged 6-8 years, were included in a school-based curriculum intervention program where the usual time spent in physical education classes was doubled to four classes (180 min) per week. The control group comprised age-matched children (62 boys and 76 girls) recruited from a separate community who completed the usual Danish school curriculum of physical activity (90 min/week). Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to evaluate bone mineral content (BMC; g), bone mineral density (g/cm(2)), and bone width at the calcaneus and distal forearm before and after 3 years of intervention. Anthropometrics and Tanner stages were evaluated on the same occasions. General physical activity was measured with an accelerometer worn for 4 days. In girls, the intervention group had a 12.5% increase (P = 0.04) in distal forearm BMC and a 13.2% increase (P = 0.005) in distal forearm scanned area compared with girls in the control group. No differences were found between the intervention and control groups in boys. Increasing the frequency of physical education classes for prepubertal children is associated with a higher accrual of bone mineral and higher gain in bone size after 3 years in girls but not in boys.
Non-expert clinical practitioners who had received bone density reports based on 10-year absolute fracture risk were surveyed to determine their response to this new system. Absolute fracture risk reporting was well received and was strongly preferred to traditional T-score-based reporting. Non-specialist physicians were particularly supportive of risk-based bone mineral density (BMD) reporting.
Absolute risk estimation is preferable to risk categorization based upon BMD alone. The objective of this study was to specifically assess the response of non-expert clinical practitioners to this approach.
In January 2006, the Province of Manitoba, Canada, started reporting 10-year osteoporotic fracture risks for patients aged 50 years and older based on the hip T-score, gender, age, and multiple clinical risk factors. In May 2006 and October 2006, a brief anonymous survey was sent to all physicians who had requested a BMD test during 2005 and 206 responses were received.
When asked whether the report contained the information needed to manage patients, the mean score for the absolute fracture risk report was higher than for the T-score-based report (p
The objective of the study was to assess the short- and long-term effects of adhesive capsulitis (frozen shoulder) on the bone mineral density (BMD) of the affected extremity. BMD and clinical status of 22 patients (group A) with active-phase unilateral adhesive capsulitis and 31 patients (group B) with a previous adhesive capsulitis (average 9 years before the examination) were determined. BMD was measured from the proximal humerus, humeral shaft, radial shaft, ulnar shaft, and distal forearm of both upper extremities using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). In group A, the mean BMD of the affected extremity, as compared with that of the unaffected side, was significantly lower in the proximal humerus (-5.6%; p = 0.001) and humeral shaft (-3.0%; p = 0.008). The radial shaft, ulnar shaft, and distal forearm showed no significant side-to-side differences. In contrast, in group B, the affected-to-unaffected side BMD differences were small and statistically insignificant. Compared with the 31 patients in group B, the relative side-to-side BMD difference of the 22 patients with active-phase disease (group A) was significantly lower in the proximal humerus (-5.6% vs. -1.5%, p = 0.009). In the other sites, groups A and B showed no significant differences. In conclusion, this study indicates that adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder results in significant bone loss in the humerus of the affected extremity, but in the long term, capsulitis-induced bone loss shows good recovery.
Adjuvant endocrine therapy compromises bone health in patients with breast cancer, causing osteopenia, osteoporosis, and fractures. Antiresorptive treatments such as bisphosphonates prevent and counteract these side-effects. In this trial, we aimed to investigate the effects of the anti-RANK ligand antibody denosumab in postmenopausal, aromatase inhibitor-treated patients with early-stage hormone receptor-positive breast cancer.
In this prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial, postmenopausal patients with early hormone receptor-positive breast cancer receiving treatment with aromatase inhibitors were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive either denosumab 60 mg or placebo administered subcutaneously every 6 months in 58 trial centres in Austria and Sweden. Patients were assigned by an interactive voice response system. The randomisation schedule used a randomly permuted block design with block sizes 2 and 4, stratified by type of hospital regarding Hologic device for DXA scans, previous aromatase inhibitor use, and baseline bone mineral density. Patients, treating physicians, investigators, data managers, and all study personnel were masked to treatment allocation. The primary endpoint was time from randomisation to first clinical fracture, analysed by intention to treat. As an additional sensitivity analysis, we also analysed the primary endpoint on the per-protocol population. Patients were treated until the prespecified number of 247 first clinical fractures was reached. This trial is ongoing (patients are in follow-up) and is registered with the European Clinical Trials Database, number 2005-005275-15, and with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00556374.
Between Dec 18, 2006, and July 22, 2013, 3425 eligible patients were enrolled into the trial, of whom 3420 were randomly assigned to receive denosumab 60 mg (n=1711) or placebo (n=1709) subcutaneously every 6 months. Compared with the placebo group, patients in the denosumab group had a significantly delayed time to first clinical fracture (hazard ratio [HR] 0·50 [95% CI 0·39-0·65], p
Comment In: Lancet. 2015 Aug 1;386(9992):409-1026040500
High peak bone mass and strong bone phenotype are known to be partly explained by physical activity during growth but there are few prospective studies on this topic. In this 28-year follow-up of Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study cohort, we assessed whether habitual childhood and adolescence physical activity or inactivity at the age of 3-18 years were associated with adult phenotype of weight-bearing tibia and the risk of low-energy fractures. Baseline physical activity and data on clinical, nutritional and lifestyle factors were assessed separately for females and males aged 3-6-years (N=395-421) and 9-18-years (N=923-965). At the age of 31-46-years, the prevalence of low-energy fractures was assessed with a questionnaire and several tibial traits were measured with pQCT (bone mineral content (BMC; mg), total and cortical cross-sectional areas (mm(2)), trabecular (for the distal site only) and cortical (for the shaft only) bone densities (mg/cm(3)), stress-strain index (SSI; mm(3), for the shaft only), bone strength index (BSI; mg(2)/cm(4), for the distal site only) and the cortical strength index (CSI, for the shaft only)). For the statistical analysis, each bone trait was categorized as below the cohort median or the median and above and the adjusted odds ratios (OR) were determined. In females, frequent physical activity at the age of 9-18-years was associated with higher adulthood values of BSI, total and cortical areas, BMC, CSI and SSI at the tibia independently of many health and lifestyle factors (ORs 0.33-0.53, P=0.05; P-values for trend 0.002-0.05). Cortical density at the tibial shaft showed the opposite trend (P-value for trend 0.03). Similarly in males, frequent physical activity was associated with higher values of adult total and cortical areas and CSI at the tibia (ORs 0.48-0.53, P=0.05; P-values for trend 0.01-0.02). However, there was no evidence that childhood or adolescence physical activity was associated with lower risk of low energy fractures during the follow-up. In conclusion, frequent habitual physical activity in adolescence seems to confer benefits on tibial bone size and geometry in adulthood.
Old age carries a markedly increased risk of osteoporotic fractures with subsequent disability, dependency and premature death. Timely detection and treatment reduces fracture risk and particular attention should be drawn to age.
To assess the impact of age on referral for osteoporosis screening.
Dual energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) at the Osteoporosis Clinic in North Denmark was reorganised from 2010. Risk factors, anthropometry and bone mineral density were recorded and considered in the reply and recommendations to the referring doctor. We report data from the 8,131 consecutive evaluations in 7914 individuals at the Osteoporosis Clinic from January 1st 2010 through December 31st 2012.
Risk factor data were available in >96% and DXA in 98%. Population DXA frequency decreased markedly after the 7th decade and was performed yearly in 1.2% of the population aged >80 years in North Denmark. The >80 years group had more fragility fractures and lower T-scores (p80 years was a dominant risk factor for fragility fracture (OR 2.4, 95% CI 2.0-2.9; p
The risk of hip fracture rises rapidly with age, and is particularly high in women. This increase in fracture risk reflects both the age-related change in the risk of falling and decrements in the strength of the proximal femur. To better understand the extent to which proximal femoral density, structure and strength change with age as a function of gender, we have carried out a longitudinal analysis of proximal femoral volumetric quantitative computed tomographic (vQCT) images in men and women, analyzing changes in trabecular and cortical bone properties, and using subject-specific finite element modeling (FEM) to estimate changes in bone strength. In the AGES-Reykjavik Study vQCT scans of the hip were performed at a baseline visit in 2002-2006 and at a second visit 5.05±0.25 years later. From these, 223 subjects (111 men, 112 women, aged 68-87 years) were randomly selected. The subjects were evaluated for longitudinal changes in three bone variables assessed in a region similar to the total femur region quantified by DXA: areal bone mineral density (aBMD), trabecular volumetric bone mineral density (tBMD) and the ratio of cortical to total tissue volume (cvol/ivol). They were also evaluated for changes in bone strength using FEM models of the left proximal femur. Models were analyzed under single-limb stance loading (F(Stance)), which approximates normal physiologic loading of the hip, as well as a load approximating a fall onto the posterolateral aspect of the greater trochanter (F(Fall)). We computed five-year absolute and percentage changes in aBMD, tBMD, cvol/ivol, F(Fall) and F(Stance). The Mann-Whitney Test was employed to compare changes in bone variables between genders and the Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test was used to compare changes in bone strength between loading conditions. Multiple (linear) regression was employed to determine the association of changes in F(Fall) and F(Stance) with baseline age and five-year weight loss. Both men and women showed declines in indices of proximal femoral density and structure (aBMD: men -3.9±6.0%, women -6.1±6.2%; tBMD: men -14.8±20.3%, women -23.9±26.8%; cvol/ivol: men -2.6±4.6%, women -4.7±4.8%, gender difference: p
Background: Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) often develop alterations in body composition in terms of their proportions of lean mass and fat mass, as well as reduced bone mineral density (BMD). However, there are limited data on the skeletal muscle index (SMI) and percentage fat (fat %) for young adults with childhood-onset IBD. Our aim was to investigate the body compositions of these patients, with the focus on SMI and fat %.Methods: Body composition was estimated by dual x-ray absorptiometry for 94 young adults with childhood-onset IBD aged 18-27?years, 65 of whom had ulcerative colitis. The Z-scores for SMI, fat %, and BMD were calculated using the normative data from 1,289 individuals with corresponding age. Based on the SMI and fat % Z-scores, each patient was classified as having a body composition profile that was: (i) normal; (ii) obese (fat % Z-score >1); (iii) myopenic (SMI Z-score
It is not clear whether ankle fractures predict future osteoporotic fractures in women, and whether diabetes influences this relationship. We found that a prior ankle fracture does not predict subsequent osteoporotic fractures in women with or without diabetes.
We aimed to determine: (1) whether a prior ankle fracture was a risk factor for a subsequent major osteoporotic fracture in older women; (2) whether this risk was modified by the presence of diabetes; (3) the risk factors for ankle fracture in older women.
We identified 3,054 women age 50 years and older with diabetes and 9,151 matched controls using the Manitoba Bone Density Program database. Multivariable regression models were used to examine factors associated with prior ankle fracture, and the importance of prior ankle fracture as a predictor of subsequent major osteoporotic fracture during a mean 4.8 years of observation.
A prior ankle fracture was not a significant predictor of subsequent major osteoporotic fracture for women with diabetes (hazard ratio [HR] 1.13; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.68-1.83; p = 0.623) or women without diabetes (HR 1.16; 95% CI, 0.79-1.71; p = 0.460), and there was no interaction between diabetes and ankle fracture after pooling all women in the cohort (p = 0.971). The presence of diabetes was not independently associated with prior ankle fracture (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.14 [95% CI, 0.93-1.38], p = 0.200), whereas higher body mass index (adjusted OR 1.04 per standard deviation increase [95% CI, 1.03-1.06], p 6 ambulatory diagnostic groups) (adjusted OR 1.81 [95% CI, 1.40-2.36], p