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25(OH)D levels in trained versus sedentary university students at 64° north.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature290407
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2017; 76(1):1314414
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Date
2017
Author
Scott P Jerome
Kendra D Sticka
Theresia M Schnurr
Sally J Mangum
Arleigh J Reynolds
Kriya L Dunlap
Author Affiliation
a Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry , University of Alaska Fairbanks , Fairbanks , AK , USA.
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2017; 76(1):1314414
Date
2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Arctic Regions
Athletes - statistics & numerical data
Body Weights and Measures
Diet - statistics & numerical data
Dietary Supplements
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
Female
Humans
Male
Metabolic Equivalent
Sedentary lifestyle
Students
Sunlight
Universities
Vitamin D - administration & dosage
Vitamin D Deficiency - blood - epidemiology
Young Adult
Abstract
25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) deficiency is associated with compromised bone mineralisation, fatigue, suppressed immune function and unsatisfactory skeletal muscle recovery. We investigated the risk of 25(OH)D insufficiency or deficiency in endurance athletes compared to sedentary non-athletes living at 64° north.
University student-athletes (TS) and sedentary students (SS) volunteered to participate in this study. TS engaged in regular exercise while SS exercised no more than 20 minutes/week. Metabolic Equivalent of Task (MET) scores for participants were determined. Vitamin D intake was assessed using the National Cancer Institute's 24-hour food recall (ASA24). Fasting plasma 25(OH)D levels were quantified via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
TS reported higher activity levels than SS as assessed with MET-minutes/week and ranking of physical activity levels (p
Notes
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PubMed ID
28452288 View in PubMed
Less detail

A 26 year physiological description of a National Hockey League team.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature156070
Source
Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2008 Aug;33(4):753-60
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2008
Author
H A Quinney
Randy Dewart
Alex Game
Gary Snydmiller
Darren Warburton
Gordon Bell
Author Affiliation
Faculty of Physical Education and Recreation, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada.
Source
Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2008 Aug;33(4):753-60
Date
Aug-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Anthropometry - methods
Body Height - physiology
Body mass index
Body Weights and Measures - methods - statistics & numerical data
Canada
Energy Metabolism - physiology
Hand Strength - physiology
Hockey - physiology - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Male
Oxygen Consumption - physiology
Physical Endurance - physiology
Physical Fitness - physiology
Skinfold thickness
Time
Young Adult
Abstract
The primary purpose of this investigation was to examine the physiological profile of a National Hockey League (NHL) team over a period of 26 years. All measurements were made at a similar time of year (pre-season) in 703 male (mean age +/- SD = 24 +/- 4 y) hockey players. The data were analyzed across years, between positions (defensemen, forwards, and goaltenders), and between what were deemed successful and non-successful years using a combination of points acquired during the season and play-off success. Most anthropometric (height, mass, and BMI) and physiological parameters (absolute and relative VO2 peak, relative peak 5 s power output, abdominal endurance, and combined grip strength) showed a gradual increase over the 26 year period. Defensemen were taller and heavier, had higher absolute VO2 peak, and had greater combined grip strength than forwards and goaltenders. Forwards were younger and had higher values for relative VO2 peak. Goaltenders were shorter, had less body mass, a higher sum of skinfolds, lower VO2 peak, and better flexibility. The overall pre-season fitness profile was not related to team success. In conclusion, this study revealed that the fitness profile for a professional NHL ice-hockey team exhibited increases in player size and anaerobic and aerobic fitness parameters over a 26 year period that differed by position. However, this evolution of physiological profile did not necessarily translate into team success in this particular NHL franchise.
PubMed ID
18641719 View in PubMed
Less detail

Accelerometer measured level of physical activity indoors and outdoors during preschool time in Sweden and the United States.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature130954
Source
J Phys Act Health. 2012 Aug;9(6):801-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2012
Author
Anders Raustorp
Peter Pagels
Cecilia Boldemann
Nilda Cosco
Margareta Söderström
Fredrika Mårtensson
Author Affiliation
School of Sport Sciences, Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden.
Source
J Phys Act Health. 2012 Aug;9(6):801-8
Date
Aug-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accelerometry - statistics & numerical data
Body mass index
Body Weights and Measures
Child, Preschool
Cross-Cultural Comparison
Exercise
Female
Humans
Male
North Carolina - epidemiology
Sex Factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Time Factors
United States - epidemiology
Abstract
It is important to understand the correlates of physical activity (PA) to influence policy and create environments that promote PA among preschool children. We compared preschoolers' PA in Swedish and in US settings and objectively examined differences boys' and girls' indoor and outdoor PA regarding different intensity levels and sedentary behavior.
Accelerometer determined PA in 50 children with mean age 52 months, (range 40-67) was recorded during preschool time for 5 consecutive weekdays at 4 sites. The children wore an Actigraph GTIM Monitor.
Raleigh preschool children, opposite to Malmö preschoolers spent significantly more time indoors than outdoors (P
PubMed ID
21952100 View in PubMed
Less detail

Acylation stimulating protein is higher in Inuit from Nunavik compared to a southern Quebec population.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature98475
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2009 Dec;68(5):421-32
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2009
Author
Jessica D Smith
Katherine Cianflone
Eric Dewailly
Marie-Ludivine Château-Degat
Marie-Claude Vohl
Pierre Julien
Author Affiliation
Institut Universitaire de Cardiologie et de Pneumologie de Québec, Y2186, 2725 Chemin Ste-foy, Ste-Foy G1V 4G5, Canada.
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2009 Dec;68(5):421-32
Date
Dec-2009
Language
English
Geographic Location
Canada
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acylation
Adipokines - blood
Adult
Aged
Body Weights and Measures
Cross-Sectional Studies
European Continental Ancestry Group
Female
Humans
Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins - blood
Inuits
Male
Metabolic Syndrome X - blood - ethnology
Middle Aged
Myocardial Ischemia - blood - ethnology
Quebec - epidemiology
Sex Factors
Vitamin A - blood
Abstract
OBJECTIVES: The Inuit of Nunavik in northern Quebec have a lower risk for ischemic heart disease (IHD) compared to Caucasian populations. Acylation stimulating protein (ASP), which is involved in the storage of dietary fat, may play a role. The objective of the study was to determine plasma concentration of ASP in an Inuit and a southern Quebec Caucasian population. STUDY DESIGN: This is a cross-sectional study evaluating the relationship between ASP and dietary factors, such as retinol, whose intake is higher in the Inuit. As well, concentrations of ASP were evaluated in relationship to components of the metabolic syndrome. METHODS: Medical history was collected via a questionnaire and anthropometric measurements and blood samples were collected. RESULTS: ASP was significantly higher in both the Inuit men and women compared to Caucasian men (66.1 +/- 4.1 nM vs 27.5 +/- 2.5 nM, p
Notes
RefSource: Int J Circumpolar Health. 2009 Dec;68(5):419-20
PubMed ID
20044961 View in PubMed
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Adiposity, compared with masculinity, serves as a more valid cue to immunocompetence in human mate choice.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature118562
Source
Proc Biol Sci. 2013 Jan 22;280(1751):20122495
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-22-2013
Author
Markus J Rantala
Vinet Coetzee
Fhionna R Moore
Ilona Skrinda
Sanita Kecko
Tatjana Krama
Inese Kivleniece
Indrikis Krams
Author Affiliation
Department of Biology, Section of Ecology, University of Turku, 20014 Turku, Finland.
Source
Proc Biol Sci. 2013 Jan 22;280(1751):20122495
Date
Jan-22-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adipose Tissue
Adiposity - genetics
Adult
Body Weights and Measures
Choice Behavior
Cues
European Continental Ancestry Group
Face
Female
Finland
Hepatitis B Antibodies - blood
Humans
Immunocompetence - genetics
Immunoenzyme Techniques
Latvia
Male
Masculinity
Regression Analysis
Sexual Behavior - physiology
Testosterone - blood
Abstract
According to the 'good genes' hypothesis, females choose males based on traits that indicate the male's genetic quality in terms of disease resistance. The 'immunocompetence handicap hypothesis' proposed that secondary sexual traits serve as indicators of male genetic quality, because they indicate that males can contend with the immunosuppressive effects of testosterone. Masculinity is commonly assumed to serve as such a secondary sexual trait. Yet, women do not consistently prefer masculine looking men, nor is masculinity consistently related to health across studies. Here, we show that adiposity, but not masculinity, significantly mediates the relationship between a direct measure of immune response (hepatitis B antibody response) and attractiveness for both body and facial measurements. In addition, we show that circulating testosterone is more closely associated with adiposity than masculinity. These findings indicate that adiposity, compared with masculinity, serves as a more important cue to immunocompetence in female mate choice.
Notes
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PubMed ID
23193134 View in PubMed
Less detail

Adverse environments: investigating local variation in child growth.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature162415
Source
Am J Hum Biol. 2007 Sep-Oct;19(5):676-83
Publication Type
Article
Author
Tina Moffat
Tracey Galloway
Author Affiliation
Department of Anthropology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8S 4L9. moffatcs@mcmaster.ca
Source
Am J Hum Biol. 2007 Sep-Oct;19(5):676-83
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Body Weights and Measures
Canada - epidemiology
Child
Child Development - physiology
Cross-Sectional Studies
Environment
Female
Humans
Male
Socioeconomic Factors
Abstract
Epigenetic and life history approaches to child growth are centered on the relationship between the organism and its environment. However, defining and operationalizing the concept of environment is challenging, in light of the multiple variables that influence growth. Moreover, the concept of adaptation as it applies to child growth is seldom considered in the developed country context. This paper presents a study of children living in three neighborhoods in the City of Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. Two of the communities are considered adverse environments on the basis of low socioeconomic status, and their inner city, industrial location. In contrast to children living in the higher socioeconomic status area, children in these adverse environments display negative growth indicators, i.e., somewhat constrained linear growth in one and risk for overweight and obesity in both. Although both these inner city neighborhoods constitute adverse environments, they differ in ways that have a significant impact on children's growth. We argue for a definition of "adverse environment" that is broadly based, incorporating a range of physical, social, and temporal factors that are highly localized and sensitive to community-level influences on growth and health. As well, we consider whether higher prevalence of overweight and obesity is adaptive in any way to these adverse environments and conclude that they are more likely to be deleterious than adaptive in either the long or short term.
PubMed ID
17636529 View in PubMed
Less detail

Age at menarche and digit ratio (2D:4D): relationships with body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, and bulimia symptoms in women.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature127991
Source
Body Image. 2012 Mar;9(2):302-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2012
Author
Kirsten A Oinonen
Jessica L Bird
Author Affiliation
Health, Hormones, and Behaviour Laboratory, Department of Psychology, Lakehead University, Canada. koinonen@lakeheadu.ca
Source
Body Image. 2012 Mar;9(2):302-6
Date
Mar-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Androgens
Body Image
Body Weights and Measures - methods - psychology
Bulimia - diagnosis - psychology
Canada
Drive
Female
Fingers
Heterosexuality - psychology
Humans
Menarche - psychology
Personal Satisfaction
Predictive value of tests
Questionnaires
Thinness - psychology
Young Adult
Abstract
This study examined the hypothesis that lower prenatal androgen exposure and earlier puberty are associated with more dysfunctional eating attitudes and behaviors. Relationships between both age at menarche (AAM) and 2D:4D (a marker of prenatal androgen exposure), and EDI-2-Body Dissatisfaction, EDI-2-Drive for Thinness, and EDI-2-Bulimia scores, were examined in women using correlations and regressions. Earlier menarche was associated with higher drive for thinness after controlling for BMI and negative affect, but only in women who were not exclusively heterosexual. Higher 2D:4D was associated with higher Bulimia and Body Dissatisfaction scores, but only in exclusively heterosexual women, and relationships disappeared when covariates were controlled. Later AAM and higher 2D:4D were unique predictors of higher Bulimia scores for exclusive heterosexuals when BMI was controlled. These findings suggest future research should examine sexual orientation as a mediator or moderator of prenatal and postnatal organizational hormonal effects on women's disordered eating attitudes and behaviors.
PubMed ID
22245563 View in PubMed
Less detail

Anthropometric measures and the risk of endometrial cancer, overall and by tumor microsatellite status and histological subtype.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature113894
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 2013 Jun 15;177(12):1378-87
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-15-2013
Author
Ernest K Amankwah
Christine M Friedenreich
Anthony M Magliocco
Rollin Brant
Kerry S Courneya
Thomas Speidel
Wahida Rahman
Annie R Langley
Linda S Cook
Author Affiliation
Department of Cancer Epidemiology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Florida, USA.
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 2013 Jun 15;177(12):1378-87
Date
Jun-15-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Factors
Aged
Alberta
Body mass index
Body Weights and Measures
Contraceptives, Oral - administration & dosage
Endometrial Neoplasms - classification - epidemiology - genetics
Estrogen Replacement Therapy
Female
Humans
Menarche
Menopause
Microsatellite Instability
Microsatellite Repeats
Middle Aged
Obesity - epidemiology
Parity
Socioeconomic Factors
Abstract
Obesity is an established risk factor for endometrial cancer, but this association is not well understood for subtypes of endometrial cancer. We evaluated the association of recent and adult-life obesity with subtypes of endometrial cancer based on microsatellite status (microsatellite-stable (MSS) vs. microsatellite-instable (MSI)) and histology (type I vs. type II). Analyses were based on a population-based case-control study (524 cases and 1,032 controls) conducted in Alberta, Canada (2002-2006) and included the following groupings of subtypes: MSS = 337 and MSI = 130; type I = 458 and type II = 66. Logistic and polytomous logistic regression were used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for overall endometrial cancer and subtypes of endometrial cancer, respectively. The risks of all subtypes of endometrial cancer, except type II, increased with an increase in all of the anthropometric characteristics examined. The risks for MSI tumors were suggestively stronger than those for MSS tumors; the risk with high (=30) body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) was significantly stronger for MSI tumors (odds ratio = 4.96, 95% confidence interval: 2.76, 8.91) than for MSS tumors (odds ratio = 2.33, 95% confidence interval: 1.66, 3.28) (P-heterogeneity = 0.02). Obesity is associated with most subtypes of endometrial cancer, and further studies are warranted to elucidate the biological mechanisms underlying the stronger risk for the MSI subtype with a high body mass index.
Notes
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PubMed ID
23673247 View in PubMed
Less detail

Anthropometrics, body composition, and aerobic fitness in Norwegian home guard personnel.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature269153
Source
J Strength Cond Res. 2014 Nov;28(11):3206-14
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2014
Author
Anders Aandstad
Rune Hageberg
Ingar M Holme
Sigmund A Anderssen
Source
J Strength Cond Res. 2014 Nov;28(11):3206-14
Date
Nov-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adiposity
Adolescent
Adult
Body Composition
Body mass index
Body Weights and Measures
Exercise Test
Humans
Male
Military Personnel
Norway
Obesity - diagnosis
Oxygen consumption
Physical Fitness - physiology
Waist Circumference
Young Adult
Abstract
The Norwegian Home Guard (HG) consists of soldiers and officers who primarily live a civilian life but are typically called in for military training a few days per year. Although full-time soldiers and officers are monitored annually on physical fitness, no such assessments are performed on regular HG personnel. Data on physical fitness of similar forces from other nations are also scarce. Thus, the main aim of this study was to collect reference data on physical fitness in HG personnel. A total of 799 male soldiers and officers from the regular and the rapid reaction HG force participated in this study. Between 13 and 19% of the subjects were obese, according to measured body mass index, waist circumference and estimations of body fat. The mean (95% confidence interval) estimated peak oxygen uptake from the 20-m shuttle run test was 50.1 (49.7-50.6) mL·kg·minute. Personnel from the rapid reaction force had a more favorable body composition compared with the regular HG personnel, whereas no differences were found for peak oxygen uptake. The physical demands on HG personnel are not well defined, but we believe that the majority of Norwegian HG soldiers and officers have a sufficient aerobic fitness level to fulfill their planned HG tasks. The gathered data can be used by military leaders to review the ability of the HG to perform expected military tasks, to serve as a future reference material for secular changes in HG fitness level, and for comparison purposes among similar international reserve forces.
PubMed ID
24832972 View in PubMed
Less detail

Antler size provides an honest signal of male phenotypic quality in roe deer.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature78933
Source
Am Nat. 2007 Apr;169(4):481-93
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2007
Author
Vanpé Cécile
Gaillard Jean-Michel
Kjellander Petter
Mysterud Atle
Magnien Pauline
Delorme Daniel
Van Laere Guy
Klein François
Liberg Olof
Hewison A J Mark
Author Affiliation
Laboratoire Comportement et Ecologie de la Faune Sauvage, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, BP 52627, F-31326 Castanet-Tolosan Cedex, France. cecile.vanpe@toulouse.inra.fr
Source
Am Nat. 2007 Apr;169(4):481-93
Date
Apr-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Factors
Animals
Antlers - growth & development
Body Weights and Measures
Climate
Deer - growth & development
Ecosystem
France
Male
Models, Biological
Phenotype
Population Density
Selection (Genetics)
Sexual Behavior, Animal - physiology
Sweden
Territoriality
Abstract
Identifying factors shaping secondary sexual traits is essential in understanding how their variation may influence male fitness. Little information is available on the allocation of resources to antler growth in territorial ungulates with low sexual size dimorphism. We investigated phenotypic and environmental factors affecting both absolute and relative antler size of male roe deer in three contrasting populations in France and Sweden. In the three populations, we found marked age-specific variation in antler size, with an increase in both absolute and relative antler size between yearling and prime-age stages, followed by a decrease (senescence) for males older than 7 years. Antler size increased allometrically with body mass. This increase was particularly strong for senescent males, suggesting the evolution of two reproductive tactics: heavy old males invested particularly heavily in antler growth (potentially remaining competitive for territories), whereas light old males grew small antlers (potentially abandoning territory defense). Finally, environmental conditions had little effect on antler size: only population density negatively affected absolute antler size in one of the three populations. Antler size may therefore provide an honest signal of male phenotypic quality in roe deer. We discuss the implications of these results in terms of territory tenure and mating competition.
PubMed ID
17273980 View in PubMed
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