The primary purpose of this investigation was to examine the physiological profile of a National Hockey League (NHL) team over a period of 26 years. All measurements were made at a similar time of year (pre-season) in 703 male (mean age +/- SD = 24 +/- 4 y) hockey players. The data were analyzed across years, between positions (defensemen, forwards, and goaltenders), and between what were deemed successful and non-successful years using a combination of points acquired during the season and play-off success. Most anthropometric (height, mass, and BMI) and physiological parameters (absolute and relative VO2 peak, relative peak 5 s power output, abdominal endurance, and combined grip strength) showed a gradual increase over the 26 year period. Defensemen were taller and heavier, had higher absolute VO2 peak, and had greater combined grip strength than forwards and goaltenders. Forwards were younger and had higher values for relative VO2 peak. Goaltenders were shorter, had less body mass, a higher sum of skinfolds, lower VO2 peak, and better flexibility. The overall pre-season fitness profile was not related to team success. In conclusion, this study revealed that the fitness profile for a professional NHL ice-hockey team exhibited increases in player size and anaerobic and aerobic fitness parameters over a 26 year period that differed by position. However, this evolution of physiological profile did not necessarily translate into team success in this particular NHL franchise.
Among people born at term, low birth weight is associated with early puberty. Early maturation may be on the pathway linking low birth weight with cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Subjects born preterm with very low birth weight (VLBW;
OBJECTIVES: Obesity and other anthropometric measures are clearly related to risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), although debate remains as to which measures are most important and how the impact of obesity varies over the life course. AIM: We aimed to investigate these issues in a large cohort of Swedish women. The Women's Lifestyle and Health Cohort Study includes 49 259 women, aged 30-50 years at baseline (1991-1992) when an extensive questionnaire was completed. METHODS: Women were given standard instructions for self-measurement of anthropometric characteristics. Women were followed through linkages to national registries until December 2003, during which time 256 cases of incident fatal CHD or nonfatal myocardial infarction occurred. RESULTS: Waist circumference was associated with increased CHD risk after multivariate adjustment for confounders (HR = 1.9; 95% CI:1.1-3.3; highest versus lowest quartile), whereas height, weight and hip circumference were not. Measures of obesity were strongly related to CHD, and after mutual adjustment, waist-hip ratio (HR = 1.9, 95% CI: 1.2-3.2) was more closely related to CHD risk than BMI (HR = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.0-2.4). Risk of CHD was increased in women who remained heavy, those who were heavy at age 18, and those with low birth weight. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, there is strong evidence for supporting control of obesity, in particular avoidance of abdominal obesity, as a strategy to prevent CHD.
To evaluate three guidelines for selecting short children for diagnostic workup in a general pediatric clinic.
All patients (n = 131) aged 3.00-9.99 years who were referred for growth failure to a general pediatric clinic were evaluated for their medical history and growth and examined. All of them underwent the same standardized diagnostic workup. Retrospectively, the criteria for the diagnostic workup from three guidelines (proposed in the Netherlands, Finland and the UK) were applied, and their sensitivity was assessed. A Dutch reference sample (n = 958) was used for calculating population specificity.
In 23 patients (17.6%), a pathological cause of their growth failure was found. The sensitivity of the original Dutch, Finnish and British guidelines was 73.9, 78.3 and 56.5% and their specificity 98.5, 83.7 and 95.8%, respectively. When adding recent growth deflection to the Dutch guideline, sensitivity increased to 87%, but specificity decreased markedly (to 87%).
The proposed cutoff values for height standard deviation score and distance to target height/mid-parental height, as used in the Netherlands and Finland, are effective for population growth monitoring, and superior to the monitoring algorithm in the UK. Growth deflection irrespective of height is an important sign of acquired growth disorders, but its specificity is too low for population screening.
OBJECTIVES: To examine whether the smaller size of infants born to primiparous, short, or thin mothers is associated with increased risks of perinatal mortality. STUDY DESIGN: We compared gestational age-specific patterns of "revealed" small-for-gestational-age (SGA) birth (number of SGA births expressed as a proportion of fetuses remaining in utero at each gestational age) with the patterns for perinatal mortality among singleton late fetal deaths and live births (n = 791,523) to Swedish mothers in 1992 to 2001. RESULTS: Based on a single standard for SGA, primiparae were at substantially higher risk of revealed SGA throughout gestation, paralleling the pattern for perinatal mortality. However, for short and thin women, risks of revealed SGA were much more consistent with those for perinatal mortality when SGA was based on height-specific or body mass index-specific standards, respectively, rather than on the single standard. Overweight and obese mothers had lower revealed SGA rates based on either standard but higher perinatal mortality rates. CONCLUSIONS: Slower fetal growth due to maternal short stature or low prepregnancy body mass index appears to be physiologic, whereas the slower growth of fetuses born to primiparous women is associated with higher risks of perinatal death.
BACKGROUND: The purpose of the study was to examine the height and weight in Nordic children during the years around World War II (WWII), and compare them with the nutritional situation during the same period. METHODS: Information on food consumption and energy intake were obtained from the literature. Anthropometric data were collected from the Nordic capitals and cover the period from 1930 to 1960 for ages 7-13 years. RESULTS: The greatest energy restriction took place in Norway (20%), followed by Finland (17%), while Sweden and Denmark had a restriction of 4-7% compared to pre-war levels. The most pronounced effect of WWII on height and weight is seen in Norwegian children, while some effect is observed for the youngest children in Finland. Little or no effect is seen in Sweden and Denmark. CONCLUSION: The Nordic children were affected by WWII in terms of a transient reduction in temporal trends in height and weight, and the magnitude of this decrease was associated with the severity of the energy restriction prevailing in the respective country during the war. These findings warrant further studies of the chronic diseases associated with height and weight for cohorts being in their growth periods during WWII.
OBJECTIVES: To assess the associations of birthweight, contemporary body mass index and height with insulin resistance in children. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: From Estonia (n = 1174) and Denmark (n = 1018), 2192 school children aged 9 and 15 years were randomly selected. MAIN OUTCOMES: Insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment), triglyceride levels, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and systolic blood pressure. RESULTS: There was an inverse association between birthweight and insulin resistance and a positive association between contemporary body mass index and insulin resistance. With adjustment for maternal and paternal educational level, income, smoking and body mass index, an increase of one unit of sex, age and country standardized body mass index z-score was associated with a 5% (95% CI: 2, 7%) increase in homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) score and a one-unit z-score increase in birthweight with a 2% (95% CI: 0, 5%) decrease in HOMA score. In the 9-year-old age group, height was positively associated with insulin resistance [for a one-unit increase in height z-score HOMA score increased by 30% (95% CI: 14, 50%)], but in the 15-year-old age group there was no association between height and insulin resistance (4% (95% CI: -5, 14%), P for interaction with age group = 0.001). For both ages, those in the lowest third of the birthweight distribution and highest third of the body mass index distribution were most insulin resistant and, among 9-year olds, those in the lowest third of the birthweight distribution and highest third of the height distribution were most insulin resistant. Birthweight was only inversely associated with systolic blood pressure when adjustment was made for either contemporary body mass index or height and there was no association between birthweight and high-density lipoprotein or triglyceride concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, these results suggest that a slow intrauterine growth trajectory and/or a fast post-natal growth trajectory is associated with greater insulin resistance in childhood.
Little is known about the relationship between growth and lipoprotein profile. We aimed to analyze common genetic and environmental factors in the association of height from late childhood to adulthood and pubertal timing with serum lipid and lipoprotein subclass profile.
A longitudinal cohort of Finnish twin pairs (FinnTwin12) was analyzed using self-reported height at 11-12, 14, 17 years and measured stature at adult age (21-24 years). Data were available for 719 individual twins including 298 complete pairs. Serum lipids and lipoprotein subclasses were measured by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Multivariate variance component models for twin data were fitted. Cholesky decomposition was used to partition the phenotypic covariation among traits into additive genetic and unique environmental correlations.
In men, the strongest associations for both adult height and puberty were observed with total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, intermediate-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein particle subclasses (max. r = -0.19). In women, the magnitude of the correlations was weaker (max. r = -0.13). Few associations were detected between height during adolescence and adult lipid profile. Early onset of puberty was related to an adverse lipid profile, but delayed pubertal development in girls was associated with an unfavorable profile, as well. All associations were mediated mainly by additive genetic factors, but unique environmental effects cannot be disregarded.
Early puberty and shorter adult height relate to higher concentrations of atherogenic lipids and lipoprotein particles in early adulthood. Common genetic effects behind these phenotypes substantially contribute to the observed associations.
OBJECTIVE: To study whether lifestyle factors and/or chronic disease are associated with the age-related decline of total and free testosterone in men, or if these factors might be associated with the variation of total and free testosterone but not with their age-related decline. DESIGN: A population-based, cross-sectional study was used. METHODS: Total testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels were analyzed and free testosterone levels were calculated in 1563 men participating in the Tromsø study in 1994/1995. Anthropometric characteristics were also measured and two standardized questionnaires completed, including lifestyle factors and medical history. The data were analyzed with multiple linear regression analysis of covariance, and logistic regression. RESULTS: Total and free testosterone were inversely associated (P=0.001 and P
Although recent cross-sectional findings indicate that markers of biological age (BA) mediate chronological age (CA) differences in cognitive performance, little is known about their influence on actual cognitive changes.
The purpose of this investigation is to examine CA and BA as predictors of 12-year cognitive change in a longitudinal sample of older adults.
Data from the Victoria Longitudinal Study (VLS) were examined for 125 adults between 67 and 95 years of age. Biomarkers, including visual and auditory acuity, grip strength, peak expiratory flow, blood pressure, and body mass index, were submitted to a factor analysis and a composite BA variable was computed based on factor loadings. Intraindividual change across 5 waves of measurement (3-year intervals) was examined as a function of CA and BA for 5 cognitive domains: verbal processing speed, working memory, reasoning, episodic memory, and semantic memory.
The latent structure of biomarkers was consistent with previous investigations of functional age and a common factor view of biological aging. Results of hierarchical linear modeling showed that BA predicted actual cognitive change (decline) independent of CA.
As a predictor of cognitive performance in late life, CA is a proxy for biological and environmental influences. We have shown that biological influences are independent predictors of actual cognitive change in older adults. This supports the view that cognitive decline is not due to aging per se, but rather is likely due to causal factors that operate along the age continuum.