504 overweight children admitted to hospital between 1921 and 1947 were followed up for 40 years by questionnaires at 10 year intervals. The mean weight for height (W/H) standard deviation score (SDS) reached a maximum in puberty (+3.5). The SDS fell to about +1 in adulthood. 47% patients were still obese (SDS greater than +1) in adulthood; 84.6% of these had SDS more than +2 in childhood. The degree of obesity in the family (parents and grandparents) and the degree of overweight in puberty were the most important factors for weight level in adulthood. Even when their food intake was in accordance with recommended levels, obese children had higher than normal weight as adults. Excessive overweight in puberty (SDS greater than +3) was associated with higher than expected morbidity and mortality in adult life. Weight-reducing measures should be started early in life to improve the unfavourable long-term prognosis for very obese children.
Although the influence of body mass index on cancer risk has been intensively investigated, few epidemiologic studies have examined the association of adult height with risk of cancer. We assessed the association of height with risk of all cancer and of 19 site-specific cancers in the Canadian National Breast Screening Study, a prospective cohort of nearly 90,000 women. Weight and height were measured at enrollment, and information on reproductive and medical history as well as lifestyle exposures was obtained by means of questionnaire. After exclusions, 5,679 incident invasive cancers were identified among 88,256 women. We used Cox proportional hazards model to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) per 10 cm increase in height. All tests of statistical significance were two sided. All cancers combined and ten specific sites (colorectum, colon, premenopausal breast, postmenopausal breast, endometrium, ovary, kidney, thyroid, melanoma and leukemia) showed statistically significant positive associations with height. The HR for all cancers combined was 1.13 (95% CI: 1.08-1.18), and the magnitude of the associations for specific sites ranged from HR 1.11 (95% CI: 1.03-1.20) for postmenopausal breast cancer to HR 1.51 (95% CI: 1.27-1.80) for melanoma. Our study provides strong support for a positive association of adult height with risk of certain cancers. The underlying biological mechanisms are not clear but may differ by anatomic site.
BACKGROUND: Adult height and insulin are thought to modify the development of breast cancer. However, little is known about the association between height and 17beta-estradiol, a key factor in breast carcinogenesis, and whether insulin modifies such an association. METHODS: Among 204 healthy women, ages 25 to 35 years, who participated in the Energy Balance and Breast Cancer Aspect I study, adult height (in centimeters) and fasting serum concentrations of insulin (pmol/L) were measured. 17beta-Estradiol concentrations were measured in daily saliva samples throughout an entire menstrual cycle through RIA. Age and multivariate linear regression models were used to study the association between adult height and 17beta-estradiol levels throughout an entire menstrual cycle and whether serum levels of fasting insulin may modify such an association. RESULTS: The women had a mean age of 30.7 years, adult height of 166.9 cm, and serum insulin of 85.7 pmol/L. For each increase of one SD in insulin levels in the upper tertile of adult height, the adjusted level of 17beta-estradiol increased by 3.1 pmol/L (95% confidence interval, 1.1-5.2), equivalent to a 17.3% higher mean average concentration of 17beta-estradiol. Women with an adult height > or =170 cm (upper tertile) and insulin levels >101 pmol/L (upper quartile) experienced, on average, 41% higher 17beta-estradiol levels throughout the entire menstrual cycle compared with women with the same adult height and insulin levels
The authors studied the anthropometric measurements to predict low back pain (LBP) in a cohort of growing adolescents.
The cohort consisted of all the fourth-grade school children of the western school district of Helsinki, Finland, in the spring of 1986. They were examined annually from the mean age of 11.8 to 13.8 years.
The forward bending test, measurements of total arm length, pelvic equilibrium, and spinal pantographs were carried out by the same physiatrist. A standardized pain questionnaire presented at the final examination obtained the history of LBP. Of the original cohort of 1060 children, those 859 (408 girls and 451 boys) who participated in all the examinations and had not had LBP until the age of 12.8 years were included in this study.
The 1-year (from 12.8 to 13.8 years) incidence of LBP was 18.4% in girls and 16.9% in boys. Trunk asymmetry measured by the forward bending test and sitting height were significant determinants of the incidence of LBP. In the whole cohort, the odds ratio (OR) of trunk asymmetry adjusted for all the other risk determinants was 1.19 and its confidence interval (CI) was 1.00-1.39 per one standard deviation increase of the trunk hump. In the multivariate analysis comprising both sexes, OR per one standard deviation increase of sitting height was 1.24, (95% CI 1.03-1.46). In boys, standing height (OR 1.40, 95% CI 1.13-1.65, per one standard deviation) and sitting height (OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.09-1.63, per one standard deviation) were positively associated with the risk of LBP. These associations were not significant in girls.
Sitting height and trunk asymmetry may contribute to LBP in pubertal children. The role of anthropometric characteristics seems, however, modest.
OBJECTIVES: Few risk factors for prostate cancer are known, but both endocrine changes and dietary factors have been implicated in the etiology of the disease. Anthropometry may therefore provide a tool in the search for carcinogenic mechanisms connected to these suggested causal components. METHODS: We have studied the association between body size and prostate cancer risk in a prospective study of 22,248 Norwegian men. During 12 years of follow-up, 642 men developed cancer of the prostate. A possible association between anthropometry (height, weight, body mass index (BMI), and lean body mass (LBM)) and prostate cancer risk was assessed using Cox regression analysis. RESULTS: Overall, we observed no significant trend for any of the variables studied, although an excess risk of prostate cancer with increasing height was suggested by an age-adjusted relative risk of 1.2 (95% CI = 0.9-1.6) for the tallest compared to the shortest quintile of men. None of the other three variables (weight, BMI, and LBM) displayed any consistent relation with the risk of prostate cancer. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that these results do not indicate a strong association between anthropometric factors and risk of prostate cancer.
OBJECTIVE: To determine to what extent self-reported and objective data on socio-economic status (SES) are associated with overweight/obesity among 15 to 16-year-old ethnic Norwegians. DESIGN: A cross-sectional questionnaire study on health and health-related behaviors. SUBJECTS: All school children aged 15-16 years old in 2000 and 2001 in Oslo, Norway. Response rate 88% (n=7343). This article is based on the data from the 5498 ethnic Norwegians. MEASUREMENTS: Self-reported height and weight were used to measure overweight (including obesity) as defined by the International Obesity Task Force cutoffs at the nearest half-year intervals. SES was determined by register data from Statistics Norway on residential area, parental education and income and by adolescent self-reported measures on parental occupation and adolescents' educational plans. RESULTS: The prevalence of overweight/obesity was low, but higher among boys (11%) than among girls (6%). Parental education (four levels) showed the clearest inverse gradients with overweight/obesity (boys: 18, 13, 10 and 7%; girls: 11, 6, 6 and 4%). Parental education remained significantly associated with overweight/obesity when adding occupation and income to the model for the boys, whereas there were no significant associations in the final model for the girls. Overweight/obesity was associated with a lower odds ratio of planning for higher education (college/university) among boys only. CONCLUSION: For the boys, parental education was most strongly associated with overweight/obesity, and the association between overweight/obesity and educational plans appears to imply downward social mobility. The relationships between the various SES measures and overweight/obesity appeared more interrelated for the girls.
BACKGROUND: Short body height is associated with increased risk for coronary heart disease; however, mechanisms are not fully explained. In this study, associations between body height and serum cholesterol, non-high-density lipoprotein (non-HDL cholesterol) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol) were investigated. METHODS: Prospective cohort study of middle-aged men from Helsingborg, Sweden starting 1990. Two birth-year cohorts were invited at 37, 40 and 43 years of age; participation at baseline was 991 (68%). Serum and HDL cholesterol, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, weight, height, waist and hip circumferences were measured. Non-HDL cholesterol, body mass index (BMI) and waist/ hip ratio (WHR) were calculated. The participants completed a questionnaire covering lifestyle variables. RESULTS: There were statistically significant inverse correlations between body height and serum cholesterol (-0.11) and non-HDL cholesterol (-0.12). One standard deviation, 6.7 cm, taller body height was associated with a lower serum cholesterol (-0.12 mmol/l) and a lower non-HDL cholesterol (-0.13 m mol/l; p
OBJECTIVE: To study whether lifestyle factors and/or chronic disease are associated with the age-related decline of total and free testosterone in men, or if these factors might be associated with the variation of total and free testosterone but not with their age-related decline. DESIGN: A population-based, cross-sectional study was used. METHODS: Total testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels were analyzed and free testosterone levels were calculated in 1563 men participating in the Tromsø study in 1994/1995. Anthropometric characteristics were also measured and two standardized questionnaires completed, including lifestyle factors and medical history. The data were analyzed with multiple linear regression analysis of covariance, and logistic regression. RESULTS: Total and free testosterone were inversely associated (P=0.001 and P
Some individuals report weak appetite sensations and thus, have higher susceptibility to overeating. The aim of this study was (1) to evaluate the reliability of the satiety quotient (SQ), a marker of satiety efficiency; (2) to characterize the biopsychobehavioural profiles of individual presenting low satiety efficiency, i.e. the low satiety phenotype and (3) to document the impact of a weight loss program on these profiles. Sixty-nine obese men (BMI 33.6±3.0 kg/m², age 41.5±5.7 years) participated in a 16-week, non-restrictive weight loss intervention. Visual analog scales for appetite sensations in response to a test-meal were completed twice at baseline. Blood samples were collected before and during one test-meal. Questionnaires were administered before and after the intervention. The mean SQ showed good reliability (ICC=0.67). Baseline SQ scores tended to be negatively correlated with external hunger, anxiety and night eating symptoms (p