To present data on body size, lifestyle and health status in students in their final year in high schools in Gothenburg area, Sweden, with specific attention to origin and gender.
Weight, height and waist circumference were measured by standardized procedures. Self-administered questionnaires described dietary habits, sleep, physical activity, body image, country of origin and general health.
Eighty-six percent of participants, (2600 girls, 2714 boys, mean age 18.6 years) were of Nordic origin, 86% reported no chronic health problems and 14%/19% of girls/boys were overweight or obese. Girls consumed more vegetables and fruits and fewer sweet drinks than boys, while breakfast consumption was most common in Nordic groups. Boys reported more positive answers than girls regarding body image. Nordic girls had more negative body image and higher morbidity compared with other groups.
Within this generally healthy cohort, boys were more likely to be overweight/obese than girls, although paradoxically boys were more satisfied with their appearance. Nordic girls constitute a group with particularly high risk of reporting low body self-esteem and chronic morbidity. In the longer term, the current cross-sectional data on body size, lifestyle and health will provide important baseline information for future follow-up studies of health outcomes in later life.
Section for Epidemiology and Social Medicine (EPSO), Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden. Electronic address: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Well-being is affected by the environment, including societal changes. In this study, specific dimensions of well-being were compared in two cohorts of Swedish adolescents born 16 years apart.
Two groups of 18-year-olds, "Grow up Gothenburg" 1974 and 1990 birth cohorts, completed a self-reported questionnaire including the Gothenburg Well-Being in adolescence scale (GWBa). In addition, height and weight were measured, resulting in 4,362 participants (1974 birth cohort) and 5,151 participants (1990 birth cohort) with age, height, weight, and well-being data. The GWBa consists of a total score and five dimensions: mood, physical condition, energy, self-esteem, and stress balance.
Total well-being was significantly lower in the later-born cohort, and the greatest difference was seen for the dimension stress balance (feeling calm, unconcerned, unstressed, and relaxed), although effect sizes were modest. In both boys and girls, well-being was lower for all dimensions in the later-born cohort, with the exception of Self-esteem in girls, which was higher in the later-born cohort. In both cohorts, boys reported higher well-being than girls for all dimensions. The mean body mass index z-score was higher in boys from the later-born cohort, but after adjusting for weight status, the differences in well-being between the cohorts persisted.
Well-being was lower in the later-born cohort, particularly for the dimension stress balance. Differences were not explained by the shift in weight status indicating that other societal changes have had an impact on well-being levels. Managing high levels of stress might be an area of intervention in adolescents for improved well-being.
We explored factors related to early catch-up growth in healthy children in Göteborg, Sweden. Most (82.9%) infants born small for gestational age (SGA) showed catch-up growth during their first 6 months, and 94.3% reached a final height within the normal range. At 6 months, 21 SGA children remained short and 45 non-SGA babies fell below the -2 SDS cutoff in height. Of these 66 short infants, 10 (15.2%) remained short into adulthood and 56 showed spontaneous catch-up growth. Fetal growth should be defined by body size at 6 months of age rather than at birth because most SGA infants catch up before 6 months, and furthermore, fetal growth regulatory mechanisms, such as insulin-like growth factor-I and -II, are the primary growth-promoting factors until 6 months of age.
Responsiveness to GH treatment can be estimated by both growth and ?IGF-I. The primary aim of the present study was to investigate if mimicking the physiological increase during puberty in GH secretion, by using a higher GH dose could lead to pubertal IGFs in short children with low GH secretion. The secondary aim was to explore the relationship between IGF-I, IGFBP-3 and the IGF-I/IGFBP-3 ratio and gain in height.
A multicentre, randomized, clinical trial (TRN88-177) in 104 children (90 boys), who had received GH 33 µg/kg/day during at least 1 prepubertal year. They were followed from GH start to adult height (mean, 7.5 years; range, 4.6-10.7). At onset of puberty, children were randomized into three groups, to receive 67 µg/kg/day (GH(67)) given once (GH(67x1); n?=?30) or divided into two daily injection (GH(33x2); n?=?36), or to remain on a single 33 µg/kg/day dose (GH(33x1); n?=?38). The outcome measures were change and obtained mean on-treatment IGF-I(SDS), IGFBP3(SDS) and IGF-I/IGFBP3 ratio(SDS) during prepuberty and puberty. These variables were assessed in relation to prepubertal, pubertal and total gain in heightSDS.
Mean prepubertal increases 1 year after GH start were: 2.1 IGF-I(SDS), 0.6 IGFBP3(SDS) and 1.5 IGF-I/IGFBP3ratio(SDS). A significant positive correlation was found between prepubertal ?IGFs and both prepubertal and total gain in height(SDS). During puberty changes in IGFs were GH dose-dependent: mean pubertal level of IGF-I(SDS) was higher in GH(67) vs GH(33) (p?=?0.031). First year pubertal ?IGF-I(SDS) was significantly higher in the GH(67)vs GH(33) group (0.5 vs -0.1, respectively, p?=?0.007), as well as ?IGF-I(SDS) to the pubertal mean level (0.2 vs -0.2, p?=?0.028). In multivariate analyses, the prepubertal increase in '?IGF-I(SDS) from GH start' and the 'GH dose-dependent pubertal ?IGF-I(SDS)' were the most important variables for explaining variation in prepubertal (21 %), pubertal (26 %) and total (28 %) gain in height(SDS).
TRN 88-177, not applicable 1988.
The dose-dependent change in IGFs was related to a dose-dependent pubertal gain in height(SDS). The attempt to mimic normal physiology by giving a higher GH dose during puberty was associated with both an increase in IGF-I and a dose-dependent gain in height(SDS).
BACKGROUND: The timing and magnitude of pubertal growth in relation to fetal, infancy and childhood growth have not been explored. METHODS: We used data from a longitudinal growth study of 3650 full-term healthy children who were born in Gothenburg, Sweden in 1973-1975. This analysis included 2738 children with height and weight measurements available both in early life and during adolescence. RESULTS: We found that faster linear growth during infancy and childhood was associated with earlier peak height velocity during adolescence. In contrast, greater height and body mass index (BMI) at birth were associated with later peak height velocity in adolescence. Children with faster linear growth and greater BMI in infancy and childhood had less height gain between ages 8 and 18. However, greater height and BMI at birth were associated with more height gain between ages 8 and 18 after adjusting for height and BMI in childhood. CONCLUSIONS: Both length and BMI (at birth, in infancy and during childhood) are associated with the timing and magnitude of pubertal growth. Being small at birth is associated with early puberty and a reduced height gain during adolescence.
To evaluate effects of growth hormone (GH) treatment on behaviour and psychosocial characteristics in short-stature children.
99 referred prepubertal non-familiar short-stature children (32 GH deficiency; 67 idiopathic short stature) aged 3-11 years, randomized to fixed or individual GH doses and their parents completed questionnaires (Child Behaviour Checklist, Birleson Depression Self-Report Scale, Abbreviated Parent-Teacher Questionnaire, I Think I Am, Well-Being Visual-Analogue Scales for Short-Stature Children) at baseline (BL) and after 3, 12, and 24 months.
At BL, children showed higher levels of internalizing behaviour (p
Computerized mathematical models describing absolute and relative individual growth during puberty in both cm and standard deviation (SD)-scores are lacking. The present study aimed to fill this gap, by applying the QEPS-model that delineates mathematically the specific pubertal functions of the total growth curve.
Study population used was the individual growth curves of the longitudinally followed cohort GrowUp1974 Gothenburg (n = 2280). The QEPS-model describes total height as (T)otal-function: a combination of four shape-invariant growth functions, modified by time-scale and height-scale parameters: a (Q)uadratic-function for the continuous growth from fetal life to adulthood; a negative (E)xponential-function adds the rapid, declining fetal/infancy growth; a (P)ubertal-function the specific pubertal growth spurt; a (S)top-function the declining growth until adult height. A constructed variable, MathSelect, was developed for assessing data-quality. CIs and SD-scores for growth estimates were calculated for each individual. QEPS-model estimates used for pubertal growth; from the T-function: onset of puberty as minimal height velocity (AgeT ONSET ); mid-puberty as peak height velocity (AgeT PHV ); end of puberty as height velocity decreased to 1 cm/year (AgeT END ); duration of different intervals and gain (AgeT ONSET-END and Tpubgain); from the P-function: onset of puberty, estimated as growth at 1% or 5% (AgeP1 , AgeP5); mid-puberty as 50% (AgeP50) and PHV (AgeP PHV ); end of pubertal growth at 95 or 99% (AgeP95, AgeP99); duration of different intervals and pubertal gain (Ppubgain; P max ); from the QES-function: gain (QESpubgain) . RESULTS: Application of these mathematical estimates for onset, middle and end of puberty of P-function, QES-function, and T-function during puberty showed: the later the onset of puberty, the greater the adult height; pubertal gain due to the P-function growth was independent of age at onset of puberty; boys had higher total gain during puberty due to P-function growth than to QES-function growth; for girls it was reversed.
QEPS is the first growth model to provide individualized estimates of both the specific pubertal growth function and the total growth during puberty, with accompanying SD-scores and Cis for each individual. These QEPS-derived estimates enable more in-depth analysis of different aspects of pubertal growth than previously possible.
Cites: BMC Med Inform Decis Mak. 2007 Dec 12;7:4018076760
To examine perceived height during the first 24 months of growth hormone (GH) treatment in short prepubertal children.
Ninety-nine 3- to 11-year-old short prepubertal children with either isolated GH deficiency (n = 32) or idiopathic short stature (n = 67) participated in a 24-month randomized trial of individualized or fixed-dose GH treatment. Children's and parents' responses to three perceived height measures: relative height (Silhouette Apperception Test), sense of height (VAS short/tall), and judgment of appropriate height (yes/no) were compared to measured height.
Children and parents overestimated height at start (72%, 54%) and at 24 months (52%, 30%). Short children described themselves as tall until 8.2 years (girls) and 9 years (boys). Prior to treatment, 38% of children described their height as appropriate and at 3 months, 63%. Mother's height, parental sense of the child's tallness and age explained more variance in children's sense of tallness (34%) than measured height (0%).
Short children and parents overestimate height; a pivotal age exists for comparative height judgments. Even a small gain in height may be enough for the child to feel an appropriate age-related height has been reached and to no longer feel short.