The adult statures of a sample of 71 Canadian boys from the Saskatchewan Longitudinal Growth Study were predicted using the original TW Mark 1 and the new TW Mark 2 prediction equations. The subjects had a mean chronological age of 11.59 years (SD = 0.30), a mean RUS bone age of 11.62 'years' (SD = 1.18), a mean height of 145.0 cm (SD = 6.98) and a mean measured adult height of 177.2 cm (SD = 6.65). The Mark 2 equations improved the predictions over Mark 1 by an average of 0.2-0.6 cm and slightly reduced the range of errors. No improvement in the prediction of boys above the 75th centile of British standards was noted but 60-70% of boys below the 25th centile predicted better with the Mark 2 equations. This pattern may well be repeated in more extreme subjects. About 80% of individuals who predicted badly with the Mark 1 equations, i.e. with errors equal to or greater than 5 cm, improved their predictions when Mark 2 equations were used.
According to Metropolitan Life, the criteria used in placing individuals into frame size classes on the basis of elbow breadth should result in a 25-50-25% (small-medium-large) distribution. This assumption was evaluated using a large sample of Canadians (n = 19,305). Results indicated that the hypothesized distribution was not achieved in either males or females; few subjects were classified as large frame. The small percentage of subjects classified as large frame resulted in a skewing of the weight categorizations in males, but not in females.
The relationship of Quetelet index (w/h2), or body mass index (BMI), with the sum of skinfolds at five sites, two skinfold-corrected limb girths, and two bone breadths were studied in a cross-sectional sample of 12,282 men and 6,593 women aged 20-70 years. The correlations of the BMI with skinfolds (0.50), bone breadths (0.51), and girths (0.58) were too low for individual prediction. Contingency tables of the BMI and sum of skinfold categories further indict its use for the purpose of assessing adiposity status or monitoring change in individuals.
Height, weight, and tissue accrual were determined in 60 male and 53 female adolescents measured annually over six years using standard anthropometry and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Annual velocities were derived, and the ages and magnitudes of peak height and peak tissue velocities were determined using a cubic spline fit to individual data. Individuals were rank ordered on the basis of sex and age at peak height velocity (PHV) and then divided into quartiles: early (lowest quartile), average (middle two quartiles), and late (highest quartile) maturers. Sex- and maturity-related comparisons in ages and magnitudes of peak height and peak tissue velocities were made. Males reached peak velocities significantly later than females for all tissues and had significantly greater magnitudes at peak. The age at PHV was negatively correlated with the magnitude of PHV in both sexes. At a similar maturity point (age at PHV) there were no differences in weight or fat mass among maturity groups in both sexes. Late maturing males, however, accrued more bone mineral and lean mass and were taller at the age of PHV compared to early maturers. Thus, maturational status (early, average, or late maturity) as indicated by age at PHV is inversely related to the magnitude of PHV in both sexes. At a similar maturational point there are no differences between early and late maturers for weight and fat mass in boys and girls.