Previous studies have indicated that fat distribution is important in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). We investigated the association between fat distribution, as measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and the incidence of stroke.
A cohort of 2751 men and women aged =40 years was recruited. Baseline levels of abdominal, gynoid and total body fat were measured by DXA. Body mass index (BMI, kg?m(-2)) was calculated. Stroke incidence was recorded using the regional stroke registry until subjects reached 75 years of age.
During a mean follow-up time of 8 years and 9 months, 91 strokes occurred. Of the adiposity indices accessed abdominal fat mass was the best predictor of stroke in women (hazard ratio (HR)=1.66, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.23-2.24 per standard deviation increase), whereas the ratio of gynoid fat to total fat mass was associated with a decreased risk of stroke (HR=0.72, 95% CI=0.54-0.96). Abdominal fat mass was the only of the adiposity indices assessed that was found to be a significant predictor of stroke in men (HR=1.49, 95% CI=1.06-2.09). The associations between abdominal fat mass and stroke remained significant in both women and men after adjustment for BMI (HR=1.80, 95% CI=1.06-3.07; HR=1.71, 95% CI=1.13-2.59, respectively). However, in a subgroup analyses abdominal fat was not a significant predictor after further adjustment for diabetes, smoking and hypertension.
Abdominal fat mass is a risk factor for stroke independent of BMI, but not independent of diabetes, smoking and hypertension. This indicates that the excess in stroke risk associated with abdominal fat mass is at least partially mediated through traditional stroke risk factors.
Differences in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAT) fat cell size and number (cellularity) are linked to insulin resistance. Men are generally more insulin resistant than women but it is unknown whether there is a gender dimorphism in SAT cellularity. The objective was to determine SAT cellularity and its relationship to insulin sensitivity in men and women.
In a cohort study performed at an outpatient academic clinic in Sweden, 798 women and 306 men were included. Estimated SAT mass (ESAT) was derived from measures of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and a formula. SAT biopsies were obtained to measure mean fat cell size; SAT adipocyte number was obtained by dividing ESAT with mean fat cell weight. Fat cell size was also compared with level of insulin sensitivity in vivo.
Over the entire range of body mass index (BMI) both fat cell size and number correlated positively with ESAT in either sex. On average, fat cell size was larger in men than in women, which was driven by significantly larger fat cells in non-obese men compared with non-obese women; no gender effect on fat cell size was seen in obese subjects. For all subjects fat cell number was larger in women than men, which was driven by a gender effect among non-obese individuals (P
Despite adiponectin's presumed role in fatty acid oxidation and energy homeostasis, little is known about the effect of gene variants on substrate oxidation, energy expenditure, and adiposity-related phenotypes.
We examined the effects of genetic variation in adiponectin (ADIPOQ) and adiponectin receptors 1 and 2 (ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2) on resting metabolic rate, respiratory quotient (RQ), and adiposity-related phenotypes.
We studied the associations of ADIPOQ, ADIPOR1, and ADIPOR2 polymorphisms with resting metabolic rate, RQ, and body mass index, percentage body fat, sum of 6 skinfold thicknesses, waist circumference, and total, subcutaneous, and visceral fat in 759 participants in the Québec Family Study.
The ADIPOQ 45T-->G single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was significantly (P = 0.0002 to 0.04) associated with overall adiposity and abdominal adiposity; the rare homozygotes (G/G) had a leaner phenotype than did the carriers of the common allele. One SNP each in the putative promoter of ADIPOR1 (ie, -3882T-->C) and ADIPOR2 (ie, IVS1 -1352G-->A) was associated with RQ (P = 0.03 and 0.04, respectively), and the association was even stronger in nonobese persons (P = 0.02 and 0.003). Carriers of the common alleles (ADIPOR1 T and ADIPOR2 G alleles) had a lower RQ than did the rare homozygotes. A significant genotype-by-genotype interaction (P = 0.0002 to 0.02) was found between SNPs in the promoters of ADIPOQ (-3971A-->G) and ADIPOR1 (-3882T-->C). Subjects carrying the minor ADIPOQ allele (G allele) who were rare homozygotes (C/C) for the ADIPOR1 SNP had a higher RQ (P = 0.003) and greater overall (P G variant contributes to overall fatness and abdominal obesity are confirmed. Moreover, variants in the promoter region of both ADIPOR genes contribute to substrate oxidation.
Comment In: Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Jan;85(1):1-217209169
Immigrants from South Asia to Western countries have a high prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) associated with obesity. We investigated the relationship between diabetes and adipose tissue distribution in a group of younger T2DM subjects from Norway and Pakistan. Eighteen immigrant Pakistani and 21 Norwegian T2DM subjects (age 29-45, 49% men) were included. They underwent anthropometrical measurements including bioelectrical impedance analysis, CT scans measuring fatty infiltration in liver and adipose and muscle tissue compartments in mid-abdomen and thigh, a euglycemic clamp, and blood samples for serum insulin and plasma glucose, adipokines and inflammation markers. Adipose tissue distribution was similar in Norwegians and Pakistanis. Pakistanis, but not Norwegians, showed a negative correlation between insulin sensitivity and visceral adipose tissue (VAT, rs = - 0.704, p = 0.003). Subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) correlated to leptin in both Pakistanis and Norwegians (rs = 0.88, p
Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and air displacement plethysmography (ADP) are commonly used to assess body composition. Accurate body fat measures are valuable in a variety of populations. Because DXA, the reference standard, is expensive and labour-intensive, determining whether these two methods are interchangeable is important.
Forty-five female undergraduate students aged 21 to 33 with body mass indexes of 18.3 to 28.6 kg/m² were recruited from the University of Guelph. Each participant underwent one full-body DXA scan and one ADP assessment, to determine total percent fat mass (%FM).
The Pearson's correlation between %FM(DXA) (27.1 ± 4.8) and %FM(ADP) (26.1 ± 5.5) indicated good association (r=0.88, p
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown that both female and male obesity may delay time-to-pregnancy (TTP). Little is known about central adiposity or weight gain and fecundability in women. METHODS: We examined the association between anthropometric factors and TTP among 1651 Danish women participating in an internet-based prospective cohort study of pregnancy planners (2007-2008). We categorized body mass index (BMI = kg/m(2)) as underweight ( or =35). We used discrete-time Cox regression to estimate fecundability ratios (FRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), controlling for potential confounders. RESULTS: We found longer TTPs for overweight (FR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.70-1.00), obese (FR = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.58-0.97), and very obese (FR = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.42-0.88) women, compared with normal weight women. After further control for waist circumference, FRs for overweight, obese, and very obese women were 0.72 (95% CI = 0.58-0.90), 0.60 (95% CI = 0.42-0.85) and 0.48 (95% CI = 0.31-0.74), respectively. Underweight was associated with reduced fecundability among nulliparous women (FR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.63-1.06) and increased fecundability among parous women (FR = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.08-2.39). Male BMI was not materially associated with TTP after control for female BMI. Compared with women who maintained a stable weight since age 17 (-5 to 4 kg), women who gained > or =15 kg had longer TTPs (FR = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.59-0.88) after adjustment for BMI at age 17. Associations of waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio with TTP depended on adjustment for female BMI: null associations were observed before adjustment for BMI and weakly positive associations were observed after adjustment for BMI. CONCLUSIONS: Our results confirm previous studies showing reduced fertility in overweight and obese women. The association between underweight and fecundability varied by parity.
This study evaluated to what extent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and two types of bioimpedance analysis (BIA) yield similar results for body fat mass (FM) in men and women with different levels of obesity and physical activity (PA).
The study population consisted of 37-81-year-old Finnish people (82 men and 86 women). FM% was estimated using DXA (GE Lunar Prodigy) and two BIA devices (InBody (720) and Tanita BC 418 MA). Subjects were divided into normal, overweight, and obese groups on the basis of clinical cutoff points of BMI, and into low PA (LPA) and high PA (HPA) groups. Agreement between the devices was calculated by using the Bland-Altman analysis.
Compared to DXA, both BIA devices provided on average 2-6% lower values for FM% in normal BMI men, in women in all BMI categories, and in both genders in both HPA and LPA groups. In obese men, the differences were smaller. The two BIA devices provided similar means for groups. Differences between the two BIA devices with increasing FM% were a result of the InBody (720) not including age in their algorithm for estimating body composition.
BIA methods provided systematically lower values for FM than DXA. However, the differences depend on gender and body weight status pointing out the importance of considering these when identifying people with excess FM.
Few studies have examined which lifestyle factors relate to the development of fat distribution. Therefore, the identification of the determinants of changes in fat deposition is highly relevant.
The association between the change in physical activity (PA) and the subsequent changes in regional body fat distributions was examined. In total, 1,236 men and 1,201 women were included at baseline and participated in the Danish MONICA (MONItoring Trends and Determinants in CArdiovascular Disease) study. A questionnaire was used to assess PA at 5 and 11 years after baseline examination, while waist circumference (WC) and hip circumference (HC) were measured at both follow-ups.
Among men, WC increased in the constant active group to a lesser extent than in the non-constant active group (3.4 vs. 4.1 cm; p = 0.03) concerning leisure time physical activities (LTPA). A similar pattern was observed for both WC and HC in relation to occupational physical activities (OPA) (p = 0.02). Among women, the results went in the same direction for LTPA, whereas the associations with OPA were in the opposite direction (p = 0.001).
LTPA and OPA were associated with reduced subsequent 6-year changes in regional fat distribution for men. For women, no associations were observed in relation to WC; however, OPA seemed to increase HC among women.
This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate whether body fat distribution, physical activity levels and dietary intakes are associated with insomnia and/or obstructive sleep apnea among overweight middle-aged men. Participants were 211 Finnish men aged 30-65 years. Among the 163 overweight or obese participants, 40 had insomnia only, 23 had obstructive sleep apnea only, 24 had comorbid insomnia and obstructive sleep apnea and 76 were without sleep disorder. The remaining 48 participants had normal weight without sleep disorder. Fat mass, levels of physical activity and diet were assessed by dual-energy X-ray densitometry, physical activity questionnaire and 3-day food diary, respectively. Among the overweight participants, we found that: (i) groups with sleep disorders had higher fat mass in trunk and android regions than the group without sleep disorder (P = 0.048-0.004); (ii) the insomnia-only group showed a lower level of leisure-time physical activity (436.9 versus 986.5 MET min week(-1) , P = 0.009) and higher intake of saturated fatty acids (14.8 versus 12.7 E%, P = 0.011) than the group without sleep disorder; and (iii) the comorbid group had a lower level of leisure-time physical activity (344.4 versus 986.5 MET min week(-1) , P = 0.007) and lower folate intake (118.9 versus 152.1 µg, P = 0.002) than the group without sleep disorder, which were independent of body mass index. The results suggest that central obesity is associated with insomnia and/or obstructive sleep apnea. In addition, low levels of leisure-time physical activity and poor dietary intakes are related to insomnia or comorbid insomnia and obstructive sleep apnea among overweight men.
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether physical activity attenuates the effect of the FTO rs9939609 polymorphism on body fat estimates in adolescents. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Athens, Greece; Dortmund, Germany; Ghent, Belgium; Heraklion, Greece; Lille, France; Pécs, Hungary; Rome, Italy; Stockholm, Sweden; Vienna, Austria; and Zaragoza, Spain, from October 2006 to December 2007. PARTICIPANTS: Adolescents from the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence Cross-Sectional Study (n = 752). MAIN EXPOSURE: Physical activity. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The FTO rs9939609 polymorphism was genotyped. Physical activity was assessed by accelerometry. We measured weight, height, waist circumference, and triceps and subscapular skinfolds; body mass index (BMI [calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared]) and body fat percentage were calculated. RESULTS: The A allele of the FTO polymorphism was significantly associated with higher BMI (+0.42 per risk allele), higher body fat percentage (+1.03% per risk allele), and higher waist circumference (+0.85 cm per risk allele). We detected significant or borderline gene x physical activity interactions for the studied body fat estimates (for interaction, P = .02, .06, and .10 for BMI, body fat percentage, and waist circumference, respectively). Indeed, the effect of the FTO rs9939609 polymorphism on these body fat parameters was much lower in adolescents who met the daily physical activity recommendations (ie, >/=60 min/d of moderate to vigorous physical activity) compared with those who did not: +0.17 vs +0.65 per risk allele in BMI, respectively; +0.40% vs +1.70% per risk allele in body fat percentage, respectively; and +0.60 vs +1.15 cm per risk allele in waist circumference, respectively. CONCLUSION: Adolescents meeting the daily physical activity recommendations may overcome the effect of the FTO rs9939609 polymorphism on obesity-related traits.