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Abdominal and gynoid adiposity and the risk of stroke.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature136783
Source
Int J Obes (Lond). 2011 Nov;35(11):1427-32
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2011
Author
F. Toss
P. Wiklund
P W Franks
M. Eriksson
Y. Gustafson
G. Hallmans
P. Nordström
A. Nordström
Author Affiliation
Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
Source
Int J Obes (Lond). 2011 Nov;35(11):1427-32
Date
Nov-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Abdominal Fat - pathology - radiography
Absorptiometry, Photon
Adult
Age Distribution
Aged
Body Fat Distribution
Body mass index
Cardiovascular Diseases - epidemiology - pathology
Cohort Studies
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Hypertension - epidemiology - pathology
Incidence
Male
Middle Aged
Obesity - complications - epidemiology - pathology - radiography
Proportional Hazards Models
Risk factors
Stroke - epidemiology - etiology - pathology
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Previous studies have indicated that fat distribution is important in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). We investigated the association between fat distribution, as measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and the incidence of stroke.
A cohort of 2751 men and women aged =40 years was recruited. Baseline levels of abdominal, gynoid and total body fat were measured by DXA. Body mass index (BMI, kg?m(-2)) was calculated. Stroke incidence was recorded using the regional stroke registry until subjects reached 75 years of age.
During a mean follow-up time of 8 years and 9 months, 91 strokes occurred. Of the adiposity indices accessed abdominal fat mass was the best predictor of stroke in women (hazard ratio (HR)=1.66, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.23-2.24 per standard deviation increase), whereas the ratio of gynoid fat to total fat mass was associated with a decreased risk of stroke (HR=0.72, 95% CI=0.54-0.96). Abdominal fat mass was the only of the adiposity indices assessed that was found to be a significant predictor of stroke in men (HR=1.49, 95% CI=1.06-2.09). The associations between abdominal fat mass and stroke remained significant in both women and men after adjustment for BMI (HR=1.80, 95% CI=1.06-3.07; HR=1.71, 95% CI=1.13-2.59, respectively). However, in a subgroup analyses abdominal fat was not a significant predictor after further adjustment for diabetes, smoking and hypertension.
Abdominal fat mass is a risk factor for stroke independent of BMI, but not independent of diabetes, smoking and hypertension. This indicates that the excess in stroke risk associated with abdominal fat mass is at least partially mediated through traditional stroke risk factors.
PubMed ID
21343905 View in PubMed
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Abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue cellularity in men and women.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature294588
Source
Int J Obes (Lond). 2017 10; 41(10):1564-1569
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
10-2017
Author
D P Andersson
E Arner
D E Hogling
M Rydén
P Arner
Author Affiliation
Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet and Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
Source
Int J Obes (Lond). 2017 10; 41(10):1564-1569
Date
10-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Absorptiometry, Photon
Adipocytes - cytology
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Body Composition
Body Fat Distribution
Body mass index
Female
Humans
Insulin Resistance
Male
Middle Aged
Sex Characteristics
Subcutaneous Fat, Abdominal - cytology
Sweden
Young Adult
Abstract
Differences in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAT) fat cell size and number (cellularity) are linked to insulin resistance. Men are generally more insulin resistant than women but it is unknown whether there is a gender dimorphism in SAT cellularity. The objective was to determine SAT cellularity and its relationship to insulin sensitivity in men and women.
In a cohort study performed at an outpatient academic clinic in Sweden, 798 women and 306 men were included. Estimated SAT mass (ESAT) was derived from measures of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and a formula. SAT biopsies were obtained to measure mean fat cell size; SAT adipocyte number was obtained by dividing ESAT with mean fat cell weight. Fat cell size was also compared with level of insulin sensitivity in vivo.
Over the entire range of body mass index (BMI) both fat cell size and number correlated positively with ESAT in either sex. On average, fat cell size was larger in men than in women, which was driven by significantly larger fat cells in non-obese men compared with non-obese women; no gender effect on fat cell size was seen in obese subjects. For all subjects fat cell number was larger in women than men, which was driven by a gender effect among non-obese individuals (P
Notes
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PubMed ID
28630459 View in PubMed
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Adiponectin and adiponectin receptor gene variants in relation to resting metabolic rate, respiratory quotient, and adiposity-related phenotypes in the Quebec Family Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature165769
Source
Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Jan;85(1):26-34
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2007
Author
Ruth J F Loos
Stéphanie Ruchat
Tuomo Rankinen
Angelo Tremblay
Louis Pérusse
Claude Bouchard
Author Affiliation
Human Genomics Laboratory, Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70808, USA.
Source
Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Jan;85(1):26-34
Date
Jan-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adiponectin - genetics - metabolism
Adipose Tissue - metabolism
Adult
Basal Metabolism - genetics - physiology
Body Composition - genetics
Body Fat Distribution
Body mass index
Female
Gene Frequency
Genetic Predisposition to Disease
Genetic Variation
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Middle Aged
Obesity - genetics - metabolism
Oxygen Consumption - genetics - physiology
Phenotype
Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
Promoter Regions, Genetic
Quebec
Receptors, Adiponectin
Receptors, Cell Surface - genetics - metabolism
Abstract
Despite adiponectin's presumed role in fatty acid oxidation and energy homeostasis, little is known about the effect of gene variants on substrate oxidation, energy expenditure, and adiposity-related phenotypes.
We examined the effects of genetic variation in adiponectin (ADIPOQ) and adiponectin receptors 1 and 2 (ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2) on resting metabolic rate, respiratory quotient (RQ), and adiposity-related phenotypes.
We studied the associations of ADIPOQ, ADIPOR1, and ADIPOR2 polymorphisms with resting metabolic rate, RQ, and body mass index, percentage body fat, sum of 6 skinfold thicknesses, waist circumference, and total, subcutaneous, and visceral fat in 759 participants in the Québec Family Study.
The ADIPOQ 45T-->G single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was significantly (P = 0.0002 to 0.04) associated with overall adiposity and abdominal adiposity; the rare homozygotes (G/G) had a leaner phenotype than did the carriers of the common allele. One SNP each in the putative promoter of ADIPOR1 (ie, -3882T-->C) and ADIPOR2 (ie, IVS1 -1352G-->A) was associated with RQ (P = 0.03 and 0.04, respectively), and the association was even stronger in nonobese persons (P = 0.02 and 0.003). Carriers of the common alleles (ADIPOR1 T and ADIPOR2 G alleles) had a lower RQ than did the rare homozygotes. A significant genotype-by-genotype interaction (P = 0.0002 to 0.02) was found between SNPs in the promoters of ADIPOQ (-3971A-->G) and ADIPOR1 (-3882T-->C). Subjects carrying the minor ADIPOQ allele (G allele) who were rare homozygotes (C/C) for the ADIPOR1 SNP had a higher RQ (P = 0.003) and greater overall (P G variant contributes to overall fatness and abdominal obesity are confirmed. Moreover, variants in the promoter region of both ADIPOR genes contribute to substrate oxidation.
Notes
Comment In: Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Jan;85(1):1-217209169
PubMed ID
17209173 View in PubMed
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Adipose tissue distribution in relation to insulin sensitivity and inflammation in Pakistani and Norwegian subjects with type 2 diabetes.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature267601
Source
Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 2014 Nov;74(8):700-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2014
Author
Cecilie Wium
Heidi B Eggesbø
Thor Ueland
Annika E Michelsen
Peter A Torjesen
Pål Aukrust
Kåre Birkeland
Source
Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 2014 Nov;74(8):700-7
Date
Nov-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Abdominal Fat - pathology - radiography
Adipokines - blood
Adult
Body Fat Distribution
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - blood - ethnology - pathology
Female
Humans
Inflammation Mediators - blood
Insulin Resistance
Male
Middle Aged
Muscle, Skeletal - pathology
Norway
Organ Specificity
Pakistan - ethnology
Abstract
Immigrants from South Asia to Western countries have a high prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) associated with obesity. We investigated the relationship between diabetes and adipose tissue distribution in a group of younger T2DM subjects from Norway and Pakistan. Eighteen immigrant Pakistani and 21 Norwegian T2DM subjects (age 29-45, 49% men) were included. They underwent anthropometrical measurements including bioelectrical impedance analysis, CT scans measuring fatty infiltration in liver and adipose and muscle tissue compartments in mid-abdomen and thigh, a euglycemic clamp, and blood samples for serum insulin and plasma glucose, adipokines and inflammation markers. Adipose tissue distribution was similar in Norwegians and Pakistanis. Pakistanis, but not Norwegians, showed a negative correlation between insulin sensitivity and visceral adipose tissue (VAT, rs = - 0.704, p = 0.003). Subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) correlated to leptin in both Pakistanis and Norwegians (rs = 0.88, p
Notes
Comment In: Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 2015 Sep;75(5):434-525874480
Comment In: Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 2015 Sep;75(5):438-925916836
Comment In: Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 2015 Sep;75(5):44025916835
PubMed ID
25223599 View in PubMed
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Air displacement plethysmography for fat-mass measurement in healthy young women.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature133936
Source
Can J Diet Pract Res. 2011;72(2):85-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
2011
Author
Heather L Edwards
Janis A Randall Simpson
Andrea C Buchholz
Author Affiliation
Department of Family Relations and Applied Nutrition, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada.
Source
Can J Diet Pract Res. 2011;72(2):85-7
Date
2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Absorptiometry, Photon
Adipose Tissue - anatomy & histology
Adult
Anthropometry - methods
Body Fat Distribution
Canada
Female
Humans
Plethysmography, Whole Body
Young Adult
Abstract
Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and air displacement plethysmography (ADP) are commonly used to assess body composition. Accurate body fat measures are valuable in a variety of populations. Because DXA, the reference standard, is expensive and labour-intensive, determining whether these two methods are interchangeable is important.
Forty-five female undergraduate students aged 21 to 33 with body mass indexes of 18.3 to 28.6 kg/m² were recruited from the University of Guelph. Each participant underwent one full-body DXA scan and one ADP assessment, to determine total percent fat mass (%FM).
The Pearson's correlation between %FM(DXA) (27.1 ± 4.8) and %FM(ADP) (26.1 ± 5.5) indicated good association (r=0.88, p
PubMed ID
21645430 View in PubMed
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An internet-based prospective study of body size and time-to-pregnancy.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature98836
Source
Hum Reprod. 2010 Jan;25(1):253-64
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2010
Author
Lauren A Wise
Kenneth J Rothman
Ellen M Mikkelsen
Henrik Toft Sørensen
Anders Riis
Elizabeth E Hatch
Author Affiliation
Department of Epidemiology, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA. lwise@bu.edu
Source
Hum Reprod. 2010 Jan;25(1):253-64
Date
Jan-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Body Fat Distribution
Body mass index
Body Size
Body Weight
Denmark
Female
Fertility
Humans
Internet
Male
Obesity - complications
Overweight
Parity
Pregnancy
Prospective Studies
Thinness - complications
Time Factors
Waist Circumference
Waist-Hip Ratio
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown that both female and male obesity may delay time-to-pregnancy (TTP). Little is known about central adiposity or weight gain and fecundability in women. METHODS: We examined the association between anthropometric factors and TTP among 1651 Danish women participating in an internet-based prospective cohort study of pregnancy planners (2007-2008). We categorized body mass index (BMI = kg/m(2)) as underweight ( or =35). We used discrete-time Cox regression to estimate fecundability ratios (FRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), controlling for potential confounders. RESULTS: We found longer TTPs for overweight (FR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.70-1.00), obese (FR = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.58-0.97), and very obese (FR = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.42-0.88) women, compared with normal weight women. After further control for waist circumference, FRs for overweight, obese, and very obese women were 0.72 (95% CI = 0.58-0.90), 0.60 (95% CI = 0.42-0.85) and 0.48 (95% CI = 0.31-0.74), respectively. Underweight was associated with reduced fecundability among nulliparous women (FR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.63-1.06) and increased fecundability among parous women (FR = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.08-2.39). Male BMI was not materially associated with TTP after control for female BMI. Compared with women who maintained a stable weight since age 17 (-5 to 4 kg), women who gained > or =15 kg had longer TTPs (FR = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.59-0.88) after adjustment for BMI at age 17. Associations of waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio with TTP depended on adjustment for female BMI: null associations were observed before adjustment for BMI and weakly positive associations were observed after adjustment for BMI. CONCLUSIONS: Our results confirm previous studies showing reduced fertility in overweight and obese women. The association between underweight and fecundability varied by parity.
PubMed ID
19828554 View in PubMed
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Assessing body composition with DXA and bioimpedance: effects of obesity, physical activity, and age.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature159040
Source
Obesity (Silver Spring). 2008 Mar;16(3):700-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2008
Author
Eszter Völgyi
Frances A Tylavsky
Arja Lyytikäinen
Harri Suominen
Markku Alén
Sulin Cheng
Author Affiliation
Department of Health Sciences, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.
Source
Obesity (Silver Spring). 2008 Mar;16(3):700-5
Date
Mar-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Absorptiometry, Photon
Adult
Age Factors
Aged
Algorithms
Body Composition
Body Fat Distribution
Electric Impedance
Exercise
Female
Finland
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Obesity - physiopathology
Overweight - physiopathology
Reproducibility of Results
Sex Factors
Abstract
This study evaluated to what extent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and two types of bioimpedance analysis (BIA) yield similar results for body fat mass (FM) in men and women with different levels of obesity and physical activity (PA).
The study population consisted of 37-81-year-old Finnish people (82 men and 86 women). FM% was estimated using DXA (GE Lunar Prodigy) and two BIA devices (InBody (720) and Tanita BC 418 MA). Subjects were divided into normal, overweight, and obese groups on the basis of clinical cutoff points of BMI, and into low PA (LPA) and high PA (HPA) groups. Agreement between the devices was calculated by using the Bland-Altman analysis.
Compared to DXA, both BIA devices provided on average 2-6% lower values for FM% in normal BMI men, in women in all BMI categories, and in both genders in both HPA and LPA groups. In obese men, the differences were smaller. The two BIA devices provided similar means for groups. Differences between the two BIA devices with increasing FM% were a result of the InBody (720) not including age in their algorithm for estimating body composition.
BIA methods provided systematically lower values for FM than DXA. However, the differences depend on gender and body weight status pointing out the importance of considering these when identifying people with excess FM.
PubMed ID
18239555 View in PubMed
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Associations between initial change in physical activity level and subsequent change in regional body fat distributions.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature105539
Source
Obes Facts. 2013;6(6):552-60
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
Author
Kelechi A Ezekwe
Amanda R A Adegboye
Michael Gamborg
Berit L Heitmann
Source
Obes Facts. 2013;6(6):552-60
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Body Fat Distribution
Denmark
Exercise
Female
Hip
Humans
Leisure Activities
Life Style
Male
Middle Aged
Physical Exertion
Questionnaires
Waist Circumference
Work
Abstract
Few studies have examined which lifestyle factors relate to the development of fat distribution. Therefore, the identification of the determinants of changes in fat deposition is highly relevant.
The association between the change in physical activity (PA) and the subsequent changes in regional body fat distributions was examined. In total, 1,236 men and 1,201 women were included at baseline and participated in the Danish MONICA (MONItoring Trends and Determinants in CArdiovascular Disease) study. A questionnaire was used to assess PA at 5 and 11 years after baseline examination, while waist circumference (WC) and hip circumference (HC) were measured at both follow-ups.
Among men, WC increased in the constant active group to a lesser extent than in the non-constant active group (3.4 vs. 4.1 cm; p = 0.03) concerning leisure time physical activities (LTPA). A similar pattern was observed for both WC and HC in relation to occupational physical activities (OPA) (p = 0.02). Among women, the results went in the same direction for LTPA, whereas the associations with OPA were in the opposite direction (p = 0.001).
LTPA and OPA were associated with reduced subsequent 6-year changes in regional fat distribution for men. For women, no associations were observed in relation to WC; however, OPA seemed to increase HC among women.
PubMed ID
24356461 View in PubMed
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Associations of disordered sleep with body fat distribution, physical activity and diet among overweight middle-aged men.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature268366
Source
J Sleep Res. 2015 Aug;24(4):414-24
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2015
Author
Xiao Tan
Markku Alén
Shu Mei Cheng
Tuija M Mikkola
Jarkko Tenhunen
Arja Lyytikäinen
Petri Wiklund
Fengyu Cong
Antti Saarinen
Ina Tarkka
Markku Partinen
Sulin Cheng
Source
J Sleep Res. 2015 Aug;24(4):414-24
Date
Aug-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adiposity
Adult
Aged
Body Fat Distribution
Body mass index
Comorbidity
Cross-Sectional Studies
Diet - statistics & numerical data
Dietary Fats - administration & dosage
Exercise - physiology
Finland - epidemiology
Folic Acid - administration & dosage
Food Habits
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Motor Activity - physiology
Obesity - epidemiology
Obesity, Abdominal - epidemiology
Overweight - epidemiology
Sleep Apnea, Obstructive - epidemiology
Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders - epidemiology
Surveys and Questionnaires
Abstract
This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate whether body fat distribution, physical activity levels and dietary intakes are associated with insomnia and/or obstructive sleep apnea among overweight middle-aged men. Participants were 211 Finnish men aged 30-65 years. Among the 163 overweight or obese participants, 40 had insomnia only, 23 had obstructive sleep apnea only, 24 had comorbid insomnia and obstructive sleep apnea and 76 were without sleep disorder. The remaining 48 participants had normal weight without sleep disorder. Fat mass, levels of physical activity and diet were assessed by dual-energy X-ray densitometry, physical activity questionnaire and 3-day food diary, respectively. Among the overweight participants, we found that: (i) groups with sleep disorders had higher fat mass in trunk and android regions than the group without sleep disorder (P = 0.048-0.004); (ii) the insomnia-only group showed a lower level of leisure-time physical activity (436.9 versus 986.5 MET min week(-1) , P = 0.009) and higher intake of saturated fatty acids (14.8 versus 12.7 E%, P = 0.011) than the group without sleep disorder; and (iii) the comorbid group had a lower level of leisure-time physical activity (344.4 versus 986.5 MET min week(-1) , P = 0.007) and lower folate intake (118.9 versus 152.1 µg, P = 0.002) than the group without sleep disorder, which were independent of body mass index. The results suggest that central obesity is associated with insomnia and/or obstructive sleep apnea. In addition, low levels of leisure-time physical activity and poor dietary intakes are related to insomnia or comorbid insomnia and obstructive sleep apnea among overweight men.
PubMed ID
25644747 View in PubMed
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Attenuation of the effect of the FTO rs9939609 polymorphism on total and central body fat by physical activity in adolescents: the HELENA study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature97468
Source
Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2010 Apr;164(4):328-33
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2010
Author
Jonatan R Ruiz
Idoia Labayen
Francisco B Ortega
Vanessa Legry
Luis A Moreno
Jean Dallongeville
David Martínez-Gómez
Szilvia Bokor
Yannis Manios
Donatella Ciarapica
Frederic Gottrand
Stefaan De Henauw
Denes Molnár
Michael Sjöström
Aline Meirhaeghe
Author Affiliation
Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Biosciences and Nutrition at NOVUM, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden. ruizj@ugr.es
Source
Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2010 Apr;164(4):328-33
Date
Apr-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adipose Tissue - physiology
Adolescent
Body Fat Distribution
Body mass index
Cross-Sectional Studies
Europe
Exercise
Female
Humans
Male
Obesity - genetics - prevention & control
Polymorphism, Genetic
Proteins - genetics
Waist Circumference
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether physical activity attenuates the effect of the FTO rs9939609 polymorphism on body fat estimates in adolescents. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Athens, Greece; Dortmund, Germany; Ghent, Belgium; Heraklion, Greece; Lille, France; Pécs, Hungary; Rome, Italy; Stockholm, Sweden; Vienna, Austria; and Zaragoza, Spain, from October 2006 to December 2007. PARTICIPANTS: Adolescents from the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence Cross-Sectional Study (n = 752). MAIN EXPOSURE: Physical activity. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The FTO rs9939609 polymorphism was genotyped. Physical activity was assessed by accelerometry. We measured weight, height, waist circumference, and triceps and subscapular skinfolds; body mass index (BMI [calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared]) and body fat percentage were calculated. RESULTS: The A allele of the FTO polymorphism was significantly associated with higher BMI (+0.42 per risk allele), higher body fat percentage (+1.03% per risk allele), and higher waist circumference (+0.85 cm per risk allele). We detected significant or borderline gene x physical activity interactions for the studied body fat estimates (for interaction, P = .02, .06, and .10 for BMI, body fat percentage, and waist circumference, respectively). Indeed, the effect of the FTO rs9939609 polymorphism on these body fat parameters was much lower in adolescents who met the daily physical activity recommendations (ie, >/=60 min/d of moderate to vigorous physical activity) compared with those who did not: +0.17 vs +0.65 per risk allele in BMI, respectively; +0.40% vs +1.70% per risk allele in body fat percentage, respectively; and +0.60 vs +1.15 cm per risk allele in waist circumference, respectively. CONCLUSION: Adolescents meeting the daily physical activity recommendations may overcome the effect of the FTO rs9939609 polymorphism on obesity-related traits.
PubMed ID
20368485 View in PubMed
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47 records – page 1 of 5.