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Acculturation and the growth of lung function: three cross-sectional surveys of an Inuit community.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature3566
Source
Respiration. 1994;61(4):187-94
Publication Type
Article
Date
1994
Author
A. Rode
R J Shephard
Author Affiliation
School of Physical and Health Education, University of Toronto, Ont., Canada.
Source
Respiration. 1994;61(4):187-94
Date
1994
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acculturation
Adolescent
Adult
Body Composition - physiology
Body Height
Canada
Child
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Forced Expiratory Volume - physiology
Humans
Inuits
Lung - growth & development - physiology
Male
Maximal Midexpiratory Flow Rate - physiology
Pulmonary Ventilation - physiology
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Respiration - physiology
Smoking - physiopathology
Somatotypes
Vital Capacity - physiology
Abstract
The influence of acculturation to a sedentary lifestyle upon the growth and development of lung volumes has been studied in Inuit children aged 9-19 years. Surveys were conducted in the circumpolar community of Igloolik (69 degrees 40'N, 81 degrees W) in 1969/70, 1979/80 and 1989/90. Over this period, the children showed little change of height or body mass at any given age, but a progressive loss of what initially had been a high level of health-related fitness. The sample for each survey comprised about 70% of children in the chosen age range: in the most recent study 87 males and 65 females. Respiratory data included forced vital capacity, one-second forced expiratory volume, maximal mid-expiratory flow rate (second and third surveys only), smoking habits and respiratory health. In each of the 3 surveys, many of the older children in the community were regular smokers. The average cigarette consumption currently rises progressively to 13 +/- 8 cigarettes/day in 87% of males and 11 +/- 7 cigarettes/day in 95% of females over 17 years of age. Nevertheless, lung volumes show the anticipated increase as a logarithmic function of stature. Furthermore, statistically fitted curves show only minor inter-survey differences in volumes for a given standing height. We thus conclude that the deterioration in other aspects of health-related fitness has not yet influenced the growth and development of respiratory function within this Inuit population.
PubMed ID
7973102 View in PubMed
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Activity pattern and energy expenditure due to physical activity before and during pregnancy in healthy Swedish women.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature63107
Source
Br J Nutr. 2006 Feb;95(2):296-302
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2006
Author
Marie Lof
Elisabet Forsum
Author Affiliation
Division of Nutrition, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, University of Linkoping, SE-58185 Linkoping, Sweden.
Source
Br J Nutr. 2006 Feb;95(2):296-302
Date
Feb-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Body Composition - physiology
Body mass index
Body Weight - physiology
Energy Metabolism - physiology
Exertion - physiology
Female
Heart Rate - physiology
Humans
Pregnancy - physiology
Pregnancy Trimester, First
Pregnancy Trimester, Third
Questionnaires
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Running - physiology
Sleep - physiology
Sweden
Walking - physiology
Abstract
Human pregnancy is associated with increased requirements for dietary energy and this increase may be partly offset by reductions in physical activity during gestation. Studies in well-nourished women have shown that the physical activity level (PAL), obtained as the total energy expenditure (TEE) divided by the BMR, decreases in late pregnancy. However, it is not known if this decrease is really caused by reductions in physical activity or if it is the result of decreases in energy expenditure/BMR (the so-called metabolic equivalent, MET) for many activities in late pregnancy. In the present study activity pattern, TEE and BMR were assessed in twenty-three healthy Swedish women before pregnancy as well as in gestational weeks 14 and 32. Activity pattern was assessed using a questionnaire and heart rate recording. TEE was assessed using the doubly labelled water method and BMR was measured by means of indirect calorimetry. When compared to the pre-pregnant value, there was little change in the PAL in gestational week 14 but it was significantly reduced in gestational week 32. Results obtained by means of the questionnaire and by heart rate recording showed that the activity pattern was largely unaffected by pregnancy. The findings support the following conclusion: in a population of well-nourished women where the activity pattern is maintained during pregnancy, the increase in BMR represents approximately the main part of the pregnancy-induced increase in TEE, at least until gestational week 32.
PubMed ID
16469145 View in PubMed
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Adequacy of food rations in soldiers during an arctic exercise measured by doubly labeled water.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature4898
Source
J Appl Physiol. 1993 Oct;75(4):1790-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-1993
Author
P J Jones
I. Jacobs
A. Morris
M B Ducharme
Author Affiliation
Division of Human Nutrition, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.
Source
J Appl Physiol. 1993 Oct;75(4):1790-7
Date
Oct-1993
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Arctic Regions
Body Composition - physiology
Body Water - physiology
Electric Impedance
Energy Intake - physiology
Energy Metabolism - physiology
Exercise - physiology
Food
Humans
Nutritional Requirements
Nutritional Status - physiology
Oxygen Radioisotopes - diagnostic use
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Abstract
To investigate the adequacy of food rations to supply energy needs in cold-temperature environments, caloric expenditure and intake and body composition changes were measured in a group of infantrymen during a 10-day field exercise in the Canadian Arctic. Energy expenditure was measured by the doubly labeled water method (n = 10), and caloric intake was measured by complete food intake records (n = 20). Body composition was determined by isotope dilution (n = 10) and bioelectrical impedence analysis (n = 20) on days 0 and 10. Baseline isotopic enrichment shifts due to geographical relocation were also monitored (n = 5). Mean body weight decreased 0.63 +/- 0.83 (SD) kg over the study period (P
PubMed ID
8282633 View in PubMed
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Adipose tissue resistin levels in patients with anorexia nervosa.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature81199
Source
Nutrition. 2006 Oct;22(10):977-83
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2006
Author
Dostalova Ivana
Kunesova Marie
Duskova Jaroslava
Papezova Hana
Nedvidkova Jara
Author Affiliation
Institute of Endocrinology, Laboratory of Clinical and Experimental Neuroendocrinology, Prague, Czech Republic. idostalova@endo.cz
Source
Nutrition. 2006 Oct;22(10):977-83
Date
Oct-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adipose Tissue - secretion
Adult
Anorexia Nervosa - blood - metabolism
Body Composition - physiology
Body mass index
Case-Control Studies
Female
Humans
Insulin - blood
Leptin - blood
Malnutrition - metabolism - physiopathology
Microdialysis - methods
Resistin - metabolism
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: Resistin is a specific fat-derived hormone that affects fuel homeostasis and insulin action in rodents. However, its role in human physiology and pathophysiologic conditions, such as malnutrition, remains uncertain. METHODS: To enhance understanding of the role of resistin in the pathophysiology of anorexia nervosa (AN), we measured plasma resistin levels in 13 women with a restrictive type of AN and in 16 healthy age-matched women (control). Further, we measured resistin levels in the subcutaneous adipose tissue of eight women from the AN group and eight women from the control group with an in vivo microdialysis technique (CMA/107 pump, CMA/60 catheters, CMA Microdialysis AB, Solna, Sweden). RESULTS: Body mass index, percentage of body fat, fasting plasma leptin and insulin, and homeostasis model assessment index for insulin resistance were severely decreased in patients with AN compared with the control group. Plasma resistin levels were significantly decreased in patients with AN (P
PubMed ID
16889937 View in PubMed
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Adiposity and the relationship between vitamin D and blood pressure.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature107639
Source
Metabolism. 2013 Dec;62(12):1795-802
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2013
Author
Dian C Sulistyoningrum
Danijela Gasevic
Timothy J Green
Scott A Lear
Angela M Devlin
Author Affiliation
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of British Columbia, Child and Family Research Institute, Vancouver, Canada.
Source
Metabolism. 2013 Dec;62(12):1795-802
Date
Dec-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adipose Tissue - physiology
Adiposity - physiology
Adult
Age Factors
Aged
Analysis of Variance
Blood Pressure - physiology
Body Composition - physiology
Cohort Studies
Ethnic Groups
Female
Humans
Hydroxycholecalciferols - blood
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Middle Aged
Sex Factors
Vitamin D - blood
Abstract
Circulating vitamin D (25OHD) concentrations are negatively associated with blood pressure (BP) but little is known about the mechanisms for this relationship. Adiposity is positively associated with BP and inversely with circulating 25OHD concentrations but no studies have assessed the relationship between plasma 25OHD and adiposity on BP. The goal of this study is to investigate if the association between plasma 25OHD and BP is mediated by adiposity.
The relationship between plasma 25OHD, systolic and diastolic BP, and adiposity [BMI, waist circumference, visceral adipose tissue (VAT)] was assessed in a multi-ethnic cross-sectional study of Aboriginal (n=151), Chinese (n=190), European (n=170), and South Asian (n=176) participants by linear regression models.
Plasma 25OHD concentrations were negatively associated with systolic (standardized B=-0.191, P
PubMed ID
23987237 View in PubMed
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Aerobic performance and body composition changes during military service.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature123962
Source
Scand J Prim Health Care. 2012 Jun;30(2):95-100
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2012
Author
Ilona Mikkola
Sirkka Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi
Jari Jokelainen
Ari Peitso
Pirjo Härkönen
Markku Timonen
Tiina Ikäheimo
Author Affiliation
Institute of Health Sciences, University of Oulu, Finland. imatero@student.oulu.fi
Source
Scand J Prim Health Care. 2012 Jun;30(2):95-100
Date
Jun-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Body Composition - physiology
Body mass index
Electric Impedance
Exercise
Finland
Humans
Male
Military Personnel
Oxygen Consumption - physiology
Physical Fitness - physiology
Waist Circumference
Young Adult
Abstract
To examine the association between aerobic performance and body composition changes by body mass index (BMI).
6-12 months' follow-up during military service.
Conscripts entering military service in 2005 in Sodankyl? Jaeger Brigade (Finland).
945 men (19 years, SD 1 years).
Height, weight, waist circumference, BMI, and aerobic performance (Cooper test) were recorded. Body composition was measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). The measured parameters were fat mass (FM), fat free mass (FFM), and visceral fat area (VFA). All the measurements were performed at the beginning and end of service.
On average, the military training period improved the running distance by 6.8% (169 m, p
Notes
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PubMed ID
22643154 View in PubMed
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Age at adiposity rebound is associated with fat mass in young adult males-the GOOD study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature118817
Source
PLoS One. 2012;7(11):e49404
Publication Type
Article
Date
2012
Author
Claes Ohlsson
Mattias Lorentzon
Ensio Norjavaara
Jenny M Kindblom
Author Affiliation
Center for Bone and Arthritis Research, Institute of Medicine, The Sahlgrenska Academy at Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
Source
PLoS One. 2012;7(11):e49404
Date
2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Absorptiometry, Photon
Adipose Tissue - physiopathology
Age Factors
Anthropometry
Body Composition - physiology
Body mass index
Child
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Growth Charts
Humans
Leptin - blood
Male
Obesity - physiopathology
Odds Ratio
Puberty - physiology
Retrospective Studies
Sweden - epidemiology
Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Young Adult
Abstract
Age at adiposity rebound (AR) is associated with obesity and Type 2 Diabetes in adults. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of age at AR in adult fat mass, fat distribution and pubertal timing for a Swedish cohort.
This is a retrospective cohort study. Detailed growth charts were retrieved for the men participating in the population-based GOOD (Gothenburg Osteoporosis and Obesity Determinants) study (n=573). Body composition was analysed using dual X-ray absorptiometry and computed tomography at 18-20 years of age. Age and BMI at AR were calculated using pediatric growth charts and AR was defined as the lowest BMI between 3 and 9 years of age.
Subjects were divided into early (age at AR below 5.4 years of age), middle (age at AR 5.4 to 6.8 years of age) and late (age at AR after 6.8 years of age) age at AR tertiles. Subjects in the early age at AR tertile had higher young adult BMI (+8%), whole body fat mass (+34%) and amount of subcutaneous adipose tissue (+61%) than the subjects in the middle and late tertiles (p
Notes
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PubMed ID
23166661 View in PubMed
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Anthropometric changes over 5 years in elderly Canadians by age, gender, and cognitive status.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature193819
Source
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2001 Aug;56(8):M483-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2001
Author
B. Shatenstein
M J Kergoat
S. Nadon
Author Affiliation
Centre de recherche, Institut universitaire de gériatrie de Montréal, 4565 Queen Mary, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3W 1W5. bryna.shatenstein@umontreal.ca
Source
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2001 Aug;56(8):M483-8
Date
Aug-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Distribution
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Aging - physiology
Anthropometry
Body Composition - physiology
Body Height
Body mass index
Body Weight
Canada
Cognition Disorders - physiopathology
Female
Humans
Incidence
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Population Surveillance
Probability
Risk factors
Sex Distribution
Time Factors
Abstract
Numerous changes in body composition occur with aging. This study reports on secondary analyses of data from a subsample of institutionalized and free-living elderly Canadians taking part in both phases of the Canadian Study of Health and Aging (CSHA-1 and CHSA-2; n = 10,263) to document and examine correlates of the evolution of anthropometric characteristics over a 5-year period.
In CSHA-1, community-dwelling (n = 1464) and institutionalized (n = 963) participants' height and weight were measured in clinics. Surviving participants were remeasured in CSHA-2; valid data were available for 487 community-dwelling respondents (66.9% of those seen in clinics in CSHA-2) and 140 institutionalized participants (46.9% of those reassessed). Body mass index (BMI = weight [kg]/height [m(2)]) was calculated. Paired t tests were used to test changes over the interval, and repeated-measures multivariate analysis of variance was used to examine the extent of differences within and across categories.
The average weight loss between study phases in community-dwelling and institutionalized participants was approximately 2 kg (p
PubMed ID
11487600 View in PubMed
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Are elevated aminotransferases and decreased bilirubin additional characteristics of the metabolic syndrome?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature11085
Source
Obes Res. 1997 Mar;5(2):105-14
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-1997
Author
J S Torgerson
A K Lindroos
C D Sjöström
R. Olsson
L. Lissner
L. Sjöström
Author Affiliation
Department of Medicine, University of Göteborg, Sweden.
Source
Obes Res. 1997 Mar;5(2):105-14
Date
Mar-1997
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adipose Tissue - physiology
Adult
Alanine Transaminase - blood - metabolism
Alkaline Phosphatase - blood - metabolism
Anthropometry
Aspartate Aminotransferases - blood - metabolism
Bilirubin - blood - metabolism
Blood Glucose - analysis
Body Composition - physiology
Female
Glucose - metabolism
Humans
Insulin - blood - metabolism
Insulin Resistance - physiology
Linear Models
Liver - metabolism - physiology
Male
Middle Aged
Obesity - epidemiology - metabolism - physiopathology
Questionnaires
Sweden - epidemiology
Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Transaminases - blood - metabolism
Triglycerides - blood - metabolism
Abstract
Abnormal liver tests, as well as morphological changes in the liver, are frequent among obese patients. Other frequent disturbances are visceral fat accumulation, insulin resistance, non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), hypertriglyceridemia, and hypertension; these are set of aberrations known as the metabolic syndrome. In order to investigate a possible relationship between the metabolic syndrome and impaired liver status we examined associations between liver tests, metabolic variables (insulin, glucose, and triglycerids), body composition and nutrition in 1,083 men (BMI 28.8-63.8 kg/m2) and 1,367 women (BMI 26.7-68.0 kg/m2) in the ongoing intervention study of Swedish Obese Subjects (SOS). Standard biochemical techniques were used to assess liver status and metabolic variables. Lean body mass (LBM) and masses of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue (AT) were estimated by means of computed tomography (CT) calibrated anthropometric equations. In both genders aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase were, or tended to be, positively correlated to fasting serum insulin, visceral AT (women), and alcohol intake. In women, the aminotransferases were also correlated with fasting blood glucose. In both genders alkaline phosphatase was, or tended to be, positively associated with visceral AT, insulin (women), and glucose. Bilirubin was negatively correlated to insulin and visceral AT in men and women. Additional multivariate analyses indicated that alcohol had less explanatory power than serum insulin for the examined liver tests, especially among women. These results suggest that pathological liver tests in the obese may represent an expression of the metabolic syndrome.
PubMed ID
9112245 View in PubMed
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Are the circumpolar Inuit becoming obese?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature78875
Source
Am J Hum Biol. 2007 Mar-Apr;19(2):181-9
Publication Type
Article
Author
Young T K
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5T 3M7. kue.young@utoronto.ca
Source
Am J Hum Biol. 2007 Mar-Apr;19(2):181-9
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Anthropometry
Arctic Regions
Body Composition - physiology
Body mass index
Chronic Disease
Cold Climate - adverse effects
Geography
Humans
Inuits
Obesity - epidemiology - ethnology
Ontario - epidemiology
Prevalence
Risk factors
Abstract
This paper reviews the ethnographic, historical, and recent epidemiological evidence of obesity among the Inuit/Eskimo in the circumpolar region. The Inuit are clearly at higher risk for obesity than other populations globally, if "universal" measures based on body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference and criteria such as those of WHO are used. Inuit women in particular have very high mean waist circumference levels in international comparisons. Given the limited trend data, BMI-defined obesity is more common today than even as recently as three decades ago. Inuit are not immune from the health hazards associated with obesity. However, the "dose-response" curves for the impact of obesity on metabolic indicators such as plasma lipids and blood pressure are lower than in other populations. Long-term, follow-up studies are needed to determine the metabolic consequences and disease risks of different categories of obesity. At least in one respect, the higher relative sitting height among Inuit, obesity measures based on BMI may not be appropriate for the Inuit. Ultimately, it is important to go beyond simple anthropometry to more accurate determination of body composition studies, and also localization of body fat using imaging techniques such as ultrasound and computed tomography. Internationally, there is increasing recognition of the need for ethnospecific obesity criteria. Notwithstanding the need for better quality epidemiological data, there is already an urgent need for action in the design and evaluation of community-based health interventions, if the emerging epidemic of obesity and other chronic diseases are to be averted.
PubMed ID
17286260 View in PubMed
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138 records – page 1 of 14.