The influence of acculturation to a sedentary lifestyle upon the growth and development of lung volumes has been studied in Inuit children aged 9-19 years. Surveys were conducted in the circumpolar community of Igloolik (69 degrees 40'N, 81 degrees W) in 1969/70, 1979/80 and 1989/90. Over this period, the children showed little change of height or body mass at any given age, but a progressive loss of what initially had been a high level of health-related fitness. The sample for each survey comprised about 70% of children in the chosen age range: in the most recent study 87 males and 65 females. Respiratory data included forced vital capacity, one-second forced expiratory volume, maximal mid-expiratory flow rate (second and third surveys only), smoking habits and respiratory health. In each of the 3 surveys, many of the older children in the community were regular smokers. The average cigarette consumption currently rises progressively to 13 +/- 8 cigarettes/day in 87% of males and 11 +/- 7 cigarettes/day in 95% of females over 17 years of age. Nevertheless, lung volumes show the anticipated increase as a logarithmic function of stature. Furthermore, statistically fitted curves show only minor inter-survey differences in volumes for a given standing height. We thus conclude that the deterioration in other aspects of health-related fitness has not yet influenced the growth and development of respiratory function within this Inuit population.
Human pregnancy is associated with increased requirements for dietary energy and this increase may be partly offset by reductions in physical activity during gestation. Studies in well-nourished women have shown that the physical activity level (PAL), obtained as the total energy expenditure (TEE) divided by the BMR, decreases in late pregnancy. However, it is not known if this decrease is really caused by reductions in physical activity or if it is the result of decreases in energy expenditure/BMR (the so-called metabolic equivalent, MET) for many activities in late pregnancy. In the present study activity pattern, TEE and BMR were assessed in twenty-three healthy Swedish women before pregnancy as well as in gestational weeks 14 and 32. Activity pattern was assessed using a questionnaire and heart rate recording. TEE was assessed using the doubly labelled water method and BMR was measured by means of indirect calorimetry. When compared to the pre-pregnant value, there was little change in the PAL in gestational week 14 but it was significantly reduced in gestational week 32. Results obtained by means of the questionnaire and by heart rate recording showed that the activity pattern was largely unaffected by pregnancy. The findings support the following conclusion: in a population of well-nourished women where the activity pattern is maintained during pregnancy, the increase in BMR represents approximately the main part of the pregnancy-induced increase in TEE, at least until gestational week 32.
To investigate the adequacy of food rations to supply energy needs in cold-temperature environments, caloric expenditure and intake and body composition changes were measured in a group of infantrymen during a 10-day field exercise in the Canadian Arctic. Energy expenditure was measured by the doubly labeled water method (n = 10), and caloric intake was measured by complete food intake records (n = 20). Body composition was determined by isotope dilution (n = 10) and bioelectrical impedence analysis (n = 20) on days 0 and 10. Baseline isotopic enrichment shifts due to geographical relocation were also monitored (n = 5). Mean body weight decreased 0.63 +/- 0.83 (SD) kg over the study period (P
OBJECTIVE: Resistin is a specific fat-derived hormone that affects fuel homeostasis and insulin action in rodents. However, its role in human physiology and pathophysiologic conditions, such as malnutrition, remains uncertain. METHODS: To enhance understanding of the role of resistin in the pathophysiology of anorexia nervosa (AN), we measured plasma resistin levels in 13 women with a restrictive type of AN and in 16 healthy age-matched women (control). Further, we measured resistin levels in the subcutaneous adipose tissue of eight women from the AN group and eight women from the control group with an in vivo microdialysis technique (CMA/107 pump, CMA/60 catheters, CMA Microdialysis AB, Solna, Sweden). RESULTS: Body mass index, percentage of body fat, fasting plasma leptin and insulin, and homeostasis model assessment index for insulin resistance were severely decreased in patients with AN compared with the control group. Plasma resistin levels were significantly decreased in patients with AN (P
Circulating vitamin D (25OHD) concentrations are negatively associated with blood pressure (BP) but little is known about the mechanisms for this relationship. Adiposity is positively associated with BP and inversely with circulating 25OHD concentrations but no studies have assessed the relationship between plasma 25OHD and adiposity on BP. The goal of this study is to investigate if the association between plasma 25OHD and BP is mediated by adiposity.
The relationship between plasma 25OHD, systolic and diastolic BP, and adiposity [BMI, waist circumference, visceral adipose tissue (VAT)] was assessed in a multi-ethnic cross-sectional study of Aboriginal (n=151), Chinese (n=190), European (n=170), and South Asian (n=176) participants by linear regression models.
Plasma 25OHD concentrations were negatively associated with systolic (standardized B=-0.191, P
To examine the association between aerobic performance and body composition changes by body mass index (BMI).
6-12 months' follow-up during military service.
Conscripts entering military service in 2005 in Sodankyl? Jaeger Brigade (Finland).
945 men (19 years, SD 1 years).
Height, weight, waist circumference, BMI, and aerobic performance (Cooper test) were recorded. Body composition was measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). The measured parameters were fat mass (FM), fat free mass (FFM), and visceral fat area (VFA). All the measurements were performed at the beginning and end of service.
On average, the military training period improved the running distance by 6.8% (169 m, p
Cites: Am J Prev Med. 2000 Apr;18(3 Suppl):147-5510736551
Cites: Sports Med. 2010 Nov 1;40(11):907-2020942508
Age at adiposity rebound (AR) is associated with obesity and Type 2 Diabetes in adults. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of age at AR in adult fat mass, fat distribution and pubertal timing for a Swedish cohort.
This is a retrospective cohort study. Detailed growth charts were retrieved for the men participating in the population-based GOOD (Gothenburg Osteoporosis and Obesity Determinants) study (n=573). Body composition was analysed using dual X-ray absorptiometry and computed tomography at 18-20 years of age. Age and BMI at AR were calculated using pediatric growth charts and AR was defined as the lowest BMI between 3 and 9 years of age.
Subjects were divided into early (age at AR below 5.4 years of age), middle (age at AR 5.4 to 6.8 years of age) and late (age at AR after 6.8 years of age) age at AR tertiles. Subjects in the early age at AR tertile had higher young adult BMI (+8%), whole body fat mass (+34%) and amount of subcutaneous adipose tissue (+61%) than the subjects in the middle and late tertiles (p
Cites: Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2000 Dec;24(12):1628-3511126216
Numerous changes in body composition occur with aging. This study reports on secondary analyses of data from a subsample of institutionalized and free-living elderly Canadians taking part in both phases of the Canadian Study of Health and Aging (CSHA-1 and CHSA-2; n = 10,263) to document and examine correlates of the evolution of anthropometric characteristics over a 5-year period.
In CSHA-1, community-dwelling (n = 1464) and institutionalized (n = 963) participants' height and weight were measured in clinics. Surviving participants were remeasured in CSHA-2; valid data were available for 487 community-dwelling respondents (66.9% of those seen in clinics in CSHA-2) and 140 institutionalized participants (46.9% of those reassessed). Body mass index (BMI = weight [kg]/height [m(2)]) was calculated. Paired t tests were used to test changes over the interval, and repeated-measures multivariate analysis of variance was used to examine the extent of differences within and across categories.
The average weight loss between study phases in community-dwelling and institutionalized participants was approximately 2 kg (p
Abnormal liver tests, as well as morphological changes in the liver, are frequent among obese patients. Other frequent disturbances are visceral fat accumulation, insulin resistance, non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), hypertriglyceridemia, and hypertension; these are set of aberrations known as the metabolic syndrome. In order to investigate a possible relationship between the metabolic syndrome and impaired liver status we examined associations between liver tests, metabolic variables (insulin, glucose, and triglycerids), body composition and nutrition in 1,083 men (BMI 28.8-63.8 kg/m2) and 1,367 women (BMI 26.7-68.0 kg/m2) in the ongoing intervention study of Swedish Obese Subjects (SOS). Standard biochemical techniques were used to assess liver status and metabolic variables. Lean body mass (LBM) and masses of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue (AT) were estimated by means of computed tomography (CT) calibrated anthropometric equations. In both genders aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase were, or tended to be, positively correlated to fasting serum insulin, visceral AT (women), and alcohol intake. In women, the aminotransferases were also correlated with fasting blood glucose. In both genders alkaline phosphatase was, or tended to be, positively associated with visceral AT, insulin (women), and glucose. Bilirubin was negatively correlated to insulin and visceral AT in men and women. Additional multivariate analyses indicated that alcohol had less explanatory power than serum insulin for the examined liver tests, especially among women. These results suggest that pathological liver tests in the obese may represent an expression of the metabolic syndrome.
This paper reviews the ethnographic, historical, and recent epidemiological evidence of obesity among the Inuit/Eskimo in the circumpolar region. The Inuit are clearly at higher risk for obesity than other populations globally, if "universal" measures based on body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference and criteria such as those of WHO are used. Inuit women in particular have very high mean waist circumference levels in international comparisons. Given the limited trend data, BMI-defined obesity is more common today than even as recently as three decades ago. Inuit are not immune from the health hazards associated with obesity. However, the "dose-response" curves for the impact of obesity on metabolic indicators such as plasma lipids and blood pressure are lower than in other populations. Long-term, follow-up studies are needed to determine the metabolic consequences and disease risks of different categories of obesity. At least in one respect, the higher relative sitting height among Inuit, obesity measures based on BMI may not be appropriate for the Inuit. Ultimately, it is important to go beyond simple anthropometry to more accurate determination of body composition studies, and also localization of body fat using imaging techniques such as ultrasound and computed tomography. Internationally, there is increasing recognition of the need for ethnospecific obesity criteria. Notwithstanding the need for better quality epidemiological data, there is already an urgent need for action in the design and evaluation of community-based health interventions, if the emerging epidemic of obesity and other chronic diseases are to be averted.