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Abdominal adipose tissue distribution, obesity, and risk of cardiovascular disease and death: 13 year follow up of participants in the study of men born in 1913.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature55732
Source
Br Med J (Clin Res Ed). 1984 May 12;288(6428):1401-4
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-12-1984
Author
B. Larsson
K. Svärdsudd
L. Welin
L. Wilhelmsen
P. Björntorp
G. Tibblin
Source
Br Med J (Clin Res Ed). 1984 May 12;288(6428):1401-4
Date
May-12-1984
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Abdomen
Adipose Tissue
Aged
Anthropometry
Blood pressure
Body Composition
Cerebrovascular Disorders - epidemiology
Coronary Disease - epidemiology
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Mortality
Obesity - epidemiology
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk
Sweden
Abstract
In a prospective study of risk factors for ischaemic heart disease 792 54 year old men selected by year of birth (1913) and residence in Gothenburg agreed to attend for questioning and a battery of anthropometric and other measurements in 1967. Thirteen years later these baseline findings were reviewed in relation to the numbers of men who had subsequently suffered a stroke, ischaemic heart disease, or death from all causes. Neither quintiles nor deciles of initial indices of obesity (body mass index, sum of three skinfold thickness measurements, waist or hip circumference) showed a significant correlation with any of the three end points studied. Statistically significant associations were, however, found between the waist to hip circumference ratio and the occurrence of stroke (p = 0.002) and ischaemic heart disease (p = 0.04). When the confounding effect of body mass index or the sum of three skinfold thicknesses was accounted for the waist to hip circumference ratio was significantly associated with all three end points. This ratio, however, was not an independent long term predictor of these end points when smoking, systolic blood pressure, and serum cholesterol concentration were taken into account. These results indicate that in middle aged men the distribution of fat deposits may be a better predictor of cardiovascular disease and death than the degree of adiposity.
PubMed ID
6426576 View in PubMed
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Abdominal and gynoid adipose distribution and incident myocardial infarction in women and men.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature143340
Source
Int J Obes (Lond). 2010 Dec;34(12):1752-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2010
Author
P. Wiklund
F. Toss
J-H Jansson
M. Eliasson
G. Hallmans
A. Nordström
P W Franks
P. Nordström
Author Affiliation
Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine Unit, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
Source
Int J Obes (Lond). 2010 Dec;34(12):1752-8
Date
Dec-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Absorptiometry, Photon
Adipose Tissue - anatomy & histology - radionuclide imaging
Blood Glucose - physiology
Body Composition
Body mass index
Female
Humans
Hypertension - etiology
Hypertriglyceridemia - complications
Male
Middle Aged
Myocardial Infarction - etiology
Obesity - complications
Prospective Studies
Risk assessment
Risk factors
Sex Factors
Smoking - adverse effects
Sweden
Abstract
The relationships between objectively measured abdominal and gynoid adipose mass with the prospective risk of myocardial infarction (MI) has been scarcely investigated. We aimed to investigate the associations between fat distribution and the risk of MI.
Total and regional fat mass was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) in 2336 women and 922 men, of whom 104 subsequently experienced an MI during a mean follow-up time of 7.8 years.
In women, the strongest independent predictor of MI was the ratio of abdominal to gynoid adipose mass (hazard ratio (HR)=2.44, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.79-3.32 per s.d. increase in adipose mass), after adjustment for age and smoking. This ratio also showed a strong association with hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance and hypertriglyceridemia (P
PubMed ID
20498655 View in PubMed
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Abdominal fat from spine dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and risk for subsequent diabetes.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature144207
Source
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010 Jul;95(7):3272-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2010
Author
William D Leslie
Sora M Ludwig
Suzanne Morin
Author Affiliation
University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada R2H 2A6. bleslie@sbgh.mb.ca
Source
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010 Jul;95(7):3272-6
Date
Jul-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Absorptiometry, Photon
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Area Under Curve
Body Composition
Bone Density
Canada
Cohort Studies
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - complications - diagnosis
Female
Health Surveys
Humans
Insulin Resistance
Middle Aged
Obesity, Abdominal - complications - diagnosis
Predictive value of tests
Risk factors
Abstract
Abdominal obesity is a major risk factor for diabetes. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) of the lumbar spine provides an index of abdominal fat.
Our objective was to examine the hypothesis that DXA-derived abdominal fat measurement in women undergoing osteoporosis investigation predicts risk for subsequent diagnosis of diabetes.
This historical cohort study was derived from the Manitoba Bone Density Program Database for the Province of Manitoba, Canada.
30,252 nondiabetic women aged 40 yr and older were referred for baseline osteoporosis assessment with DXA between January 1990 and March 2007.
Each woman's longitudinal provincial health service record was assessed for the presence of diabetes diagnosis codes after DXA testing.
During 5.2 + or - 2.6 yr of observation, 1252 (4.1%) women met the case definition for diabetes. A greater proportion of abdominal fat from spine DXA was strongly related to subsequent diabetes diagnosis in models adjusted for age, body mass index, and other comorbidities. Those in the highest quintile had 3.56 (95% confidence interval = 2.67-4.75) times the risk for subsequent diabetes diagnosis compared with those in the lowest (reference) quintile. Fat from hip DXA was not predictive of subsequent diabetes after adjustment for the same variables (1.00, 95% confidence interval = 0.79-1.26).
Predictive information about diabetes risk can be obtained from spine DXA scans performed for osteoporosis risk assessment. This is consistent with evidence linking abdominal fat with insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome.
PubMed ID
20392865 View in PubMed
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Abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue cellularity in men and women.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature294588
Source
Int J Obes (Lond). 2017 10; 41(10):1564-1569
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
10-2017
Author
D P Andersson
E Arner
D E Hogling
M Rydén
P Arner
Author Affiliation
Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet and Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
Source
Int J Obes (Lond). 2017 10; 41(10):1564-1569
Date
10-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Absorptiometry, Photon
Adipocytes - cytology
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Body Composition
Body Fat Distribution
Body mass index
Female
Humans
Insulin Resistance
Male
Middle Aged
Sex Characteristics
Subcutaneous Fat, Abdominal - cytology
Sweden
Young Adult
Abstract
Differences in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAT) fat cell size and number (cellularity) are linked to insulin resistance. Men are generally more insulin resistant than women but it is unknown whether there is a gender dimorphism in SAT cellularity. The objective was to determine SAT cellularity and its relationship to insulin sensitivity in men and women.
In a cohort study performed at an outpatient academic clinic in Sweden, 798 women and 306 men were included. Estimated SAT mass (ESAT) was derived from measures of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and a formula. SAT biopsies were obtained to measure mean fat cell size; SAT adipocyte number was obtained by dividing ESAT with mean fat cell weight. Fat cell size was also compared with level of insulin sensitivity in vivo.
Over the entire range of body mass index (BMI) both fat cell size and number correlated positively with ESAT in either sex. On average, fat cell size was larger in men than in women, which was driven by significantly larger fat cells in non-obese men compared with non-obese women; no gender effect on fat cell size was seen in obese subjects. For all subjects fat cell number was larger in women than men, which was driven by a gender effect among non-obese individuals (P
Notes
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PubMed ID
28630459 View in PubMed
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Ability of insulin to modulate hepatic glucose production in aging rats is impaired by fat accumulation.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature61796
Source
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2000 Jun;278(6):E985-91
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2000
Author
G. Gupta
J A Cases
L. She
X H Ma
X M Yang
M. Hu
J. Wu
L. Rossetti
N. Barzilai
Author Affiliation
Department of Medicine, and the Diabetes Research and Training Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, New York 10461, USA.
Source
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2000 Jun;278(6):E985-91
Date
Jun-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adipose Tissue
Aging
Animals
Body Composition
Energy intake
Gluconeogenesis
Glucose - biosynthesis
Glycogen - metabolism
Insulin - pharmacology
Leptin - metabolism
Liver - drug effects - metabolism
Male
Rats
Rats, Inbred BN
Rats, Inbred F344
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
Abstract
Increased total fat mass (FM) and visceral fat (VF) may account in part for age-associated decrease in hepatic insulin action. This study determined whether preventing the changes in body fat distribution abolished this defect throughout aging. We studied the F(1) hybrid of Brown Norway-Fischer 344 rats (n = 29), which we assigned to caloric restriction (CR) or fed ad libitum (AL). CR (55% of the calories consumed by AL) was initiated and used at 2 mo to prevent age-dependent increases in FM and VF. AL rats were studied at 2, 8, and 20 mo; CR rats were studied at 8 and 20 mo. VF and FM remained unchanged throughout aging in CR rats. AL-fed rats at 8 and 20 mo had over fourfold higher FM and VF compared with both CR groups. Insulin clamp studies (3 mU. kg(-1). min(-1) with somatostatin) were performed to assess hepatic insulin sensitivity. Prevention of fat accretion resulted in a marked improvement in insulin action in the suppression of hepatic glucose production (HGP) (6.3 +/- 0.3 and 7.2 +/- 1.2 mg. kg(-1). min(-1) in 8- and 20-mo CR rats vs. 8.3 +/- 0.5 and 10.8 +/- 0.9 mg. kg(-1). min(-1) in 8- and 20-mo AL rats, respectively). The rate of gluconeogenesis (by enrichment of hepatic uridine diphosphate glucose and phosphoenolpyruvate pools by [(14)C]lactate) was unchanged in all groups. The improvement in hepatic insulin action in the CR group was mostly due to effective suppression of glycogenolysis (4.4 +/- 0.3 and 4.9 +/- 0.3 mg. kg(-1). min(-1) in 8- and 20-mo CR rats vs. 5.8 +/- 0.6 and 8.2 +/- 1.0 mg. kg(-1). min(-1) in 8- and 20-mo AL rats, respectively). The results demonstrated the preservation of hepatic insulin action in aging CR rats. Therefore, body fat and its distribution are major determinants of age-associated hepatic insulin resistance.
PubMed ID
10826999 View in PubMed
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Ability to predict resting energy expenditure with six equations compared to indirect calorimetry in octogenarian men.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature285968
Source
Exp Gerontol. 2017 Jun;92:52-55
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2017
Author
Mikael Karlsson
Erika Olsson
Wulf Becker
Brita Karlström
Tommy Cederholm
Per Sjögren
Source
Exp Gerontol. 2017 Jun;92:52-55
Date
Jun-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Absorptiometry, Photon
Aged, 80 and over
Aging - physiology
Basal Metabolism
Body Composition
Body mass index
Body Weight
Calorimetry, Indirect
Humans
Male
Predictive value of tests
Sweden
Abstract
The accuracy of predictive equations for calculating resting energy expenditure (REE) in elderly people has been questioned. Aging is associated with progressive declines in REE, which partly is explained by loss of fat free mass (FFM). Against this background we aimed to identify the most accurate predictive equation for REE in octogenarian men, taking body composition into account and using indirect calorimetry as reference value. REE was measured in 22 men (mean age 82.6±0.3years) and compared with six predictive equations: two based on FFM and four based on body weight, height and/or age. FFM was derived from Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry analyses. Spearman's rank correlations showed a moderate to high positive monotonic correlation (r=0.62 to 0.79) between measured and calculated REE (all p
PubMed ID
28323025 View in PubMed
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Acculturation and loss of fitness in the Inuit: the preventive role of active leisure

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature5318
Source
Pages 213-217 in G. Pétursdóttir et al., eds. Circumpolar Health 93. Proceedings of the 9th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Reykjavík, Iceland, June 20-25, 1993. Arctic Medical Research. 1994;53(Suppl.2)
Publication Type
Article
Date
1994
basketball or activities such as running a dog team or participating in the local square-dance troupe). Body Composition. Height was measured to the near- est 0.5 cm, and body mass to the nearest 0.1 kg, using standard clinical scales calibrated against known weights. Skinfold thicknesses were measured
  1 document  
Author
Rode, A
Shephard, R.J
Author Affiliation
School of Physical & Health Education, University of Toronto
Source
Pages 213-217 in G. Pétursdóttir et al., eds. Circumpolar Health 93. Proceedings of the 9th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Reykjavík, Iceland, June 20-25, 1993. Arctic Medical Research. 1994;53(Suppl.2)
Date
1994
Language
English
Geographic Location
Canada
Publication Type
Article
Digital File Format
Text - PDF
Keywords
Acculturation
Adolescent
Adult
Body Composition
Exercise
Female
Humans
Inuits
Male
Northwest Territories
Physical Fitness
Abstract
The association between active leisure pursuits and various indices of fitness has been examined in 165 males aged 13-39 years and 95 females aged 13-29 years, all Inuit residents of the community of Igloolik, NWT (69 degrees 40'N). The active individuals have largely conserved the high level of fitness that characterized the settlement in 1969/70, showing substantial advantages over their sedentary peers in terms of relative aerobic power (27.7%, males, 21.3%, females) and subcutaneous fat (18.3%, males, 5.9%, females), with a lesser trend to advantages of strength (handgrip force, 4.4%, males, 0.8% females; knee extension force, 8.3%, males, 2.0%, females). Much of their continued aerobic fitness can probably be attributed to physical activity although in the boys aged 13-16 years, a further factor is the selection of active leisure pursuits by tall, heavy and early maturing individuals. Both the lower body fat and the larger aerobic power are likely to have positive implications for future health. The current challenge is thus to increase the proportion of physically active villagers beyond the current 18.8% of males and 11.6% of females.
PubMed ID
8397578 View in PubMed
Documents
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Acculturation and loss of fitness in the Inuit: the preventive role of active leisure

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature102154
Source
Arctic Medical Research. 1993;Jul 52(3):107-112
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-1993
Author
Rode, A
Shephard, R.J
Author Affiliation
School of Physical & Health Education, University of Toronto
Source
Arctic Medical Research. 1993;Jul 52(3):107-112
Date
Jul-1993
Language
English
Geographic Location
Canada
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acculturation
Adolescent
Adult
Body Composition
Exercise
Female
Humans
Inuits
Male
Northwest Territories
Physical Fitness
Abstract
The association between active leisure pursuits and various indices of fitness has been examined in 165 males aged 13-39 years and 95 females aged 13-29 years, all Inuit residents of the community of Igloolik, NWT (69 degrees 40'N). The active individuals have largely conserved the high level of fitness that characterized the settlement in 1969/70, showing substantial advantages over their sedentary peers in terms of relative aerobic power (27.7%, males, 21.3%, females) and subcutaneous fat (18.3%, males, 5.9%, females), with a lesser trend to advantages of strength (handgrip force, 4.4%, males, 0.8% females; knee extension force, 8.3%, males, 2.0%, females). Much of their continued aerobic fitness can probably be attributed to physical activity although in the boys aged 13-16 years, a further factor is the selection of active leisure pursuits by tall, heavy and early maturing individuals. Both the lower body fat and the larger aerobic power are likely to have positive implications for future health. The current challenge is thus to increase the proportion of physically active villagers beyond the current 18.8% of males and 11.6% of females.
Less detail

Acculturation and the growth of lung function: three cross-sectional surveys of an Inuit community.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature3566
Source
Respiration. 1994;61(4):187-94
Publication Type
Article
Date
1994
Author
A. Rode
R J Shephard
Author Affiliation
School of Physical and Health Education, University of Toronto, Ont., Canada.
Source
Respiration. 1994;61(4):187-94
Date
1994
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acculturation
Adolescent
Adult
Body Composition - physiology
Body Height
Canada
Child
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Forced Expiratory Volume - physiology
Humans
Inuits
Lung - growth & development - physiology
Male
Maximal Midexpiratory Flow Rate - physiology
Pulmonary Ventilation - physiology
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Respiration - physiology
Smoking - physiopathology
Somatotypes
Vital Capacity - physiology
Abstract
The influence of acculturation to a sedentary lifestyle upon the growth and development of lung volumes has been studied in Inuit children aged 9-19 years. Surveys were conducted in the circumpolar community of Igloolik (69 degrees 40'N, 81 degrees W) in 1969/70, 1979/80 and 1989/90. Over this period, the children showed little change of height or body mass at any given age, but a progressive loss of what initially had been a high level of health-related fitness. The sample for each survey comprised about 70% of children in the chosen age range: in the most recent study 87 males and 65 females. Respiratory data included forced vital capacity, one-second forced expiratory volume, maximal mid-expiratory flow rate (second and third surveys only), smoking habits and respiratory health. In each of the 3 surveys, many of the older children in the community were regular smokers. The average cigarette consumption currently rises progressively to 13 +/- 8 cigarettes/day in 87% of males and 11 +/- 7 cigarettes/day in 95% of females over 17 years of age. Nevertheless, lung volumes show the anticipated increase as a logarithmic function of stature. Furthermore, statistically fitted curves show only minor inter-survey differences in volumes for a given standing height. We thus conclude that the deterioration in other aspects of health-related fitness has not yet influenced the growth and development of respiratory function within this Inuit population.
PubMed ID
7973102 View in PubMed
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Accuracy of quantitative magnetic resonance and eight-electrode bioelectrical impedance analysis in normal weight and obese women.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature258595
Source
Clin Nutr. 2014 Jun;33(3):471-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2014
Author
Marja Bosaeus
Therese Karlsson
Agneta Holmäng
Lars Ellegård
Source
Clin Nutr. 2014 Jun;33(3):471-7
Date
Jun-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Body Composition
Body mass index
Body Weight
Cross-Sectional Studies
Electric Impedance
Electrodes
Female
Humans
Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy - methods
Middle Aged
Obesity - diagnosis
Plethysmography - methods
Reproducibility of Results
Sweden
Young Adult
Abstract
Quantitative magnetic resonance (QMR) has previously been shown to both overestimate and underestimate average fat mass (FM) in humans. Eight-electrode bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) has previously been found biased as well as successfully validated. We report cross-sectional accuracy of QMR and eight-electrode BIA evaluated with air displacement plethysmography (ADP) as reference method.
Fat mass and fat free mass (FFM) by QMR and eight-electrode BIA were evaluated against ADP as reference in 38 normal weight and 30 obese women. Total body water estimates by QMR and eight-electrode BIA were compared.
Fat mass was overestimated by QMR (1 ± 2 kg, p
PubMed ID
23871192 View in PubMed
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682 records – page 1 of 69.