Seasonal variation in blood pressure in patients undergoing hemodialysis in Europe has recently been described. If confirmed, this has important therapeutic, research, and epidemiological implications. All normotensive patients not administered antihypertensive drugs in our unit were studied. Predialysis blood pressures were measured before each dialysis treatment over two 2-month periods, January through February and July through August, in Winnipeg, Canada, a city with one of the most extreme seasonal temperature variations in North America. No difference in blood pressures was found between summer and winter (141 +/- 5/75 +/- 2 versus 140 +/- 4/74 +/- 2 mm Hg; P = not significant). Average daily temperatures were -16 degrees C in winter and 23 degrees C in summer. Interdialytic weight gain was the same in both groups. In conclusion, season has no effect on blood pressure in hemodialysis patients in a North American center. Reported seasonal changes in blood pressure in Europe may be related to nonclimatic factors.
Automated noninvasive blood pressure (NIBP) monitors, or automated sphygmomanometers, have been increasingly used both inside and outside clinical environments. An extensive survey of such monitors was carried out over the past five years. This survey covers a broad spectrum of monitors including ambulatory monitors, bedside and transport monitors, stress-test monitors, and monitors that are intended for self-measurement. It includes more than 400 models from suppliers in the United States and many other countries. A review of NIBP measurement methods that have been used in automated NIBP monitors is presented in this paper, along with statistical distributions of their use in the surveyed monitors and a list of the suppliers and monitors.
The majority of the reference data on ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) monitoring is based on fixed, predefined times for waking hours and sleep. Our aim was to determine the level of ABP according to diary entries when awake, at work, at home and during sleep in a sample of normotensive, middle-aged men. The dipping-status was also determined. All measurements were taken with a non-invasive auscultatory device on a normal working day. A total of 62 clinically healthy, normotensive men without a history of elevated BP were included. The mean resting BP of the group was 122/73 mm Hg. The 24-h systolic BP (SBP) was 114.4 +/- 8.6 mm Hg (95% CI 112.3, 116.6), while the diastolic BP (DBP) was 80.4 +/- 7.2 mm Hg (95% CI 78.5, 82.2). SBP when awake was 120.5 +/- 9.4 mm Hg (95% CI 118.1, 122.9) and diastolic pressure 84.4 +/- 7.7 mm Hg (95% CI 82.5, 86.4). The corresponding values for systolic and diastolic pressures during sleep were 101.2 +/- 8.5 mm Hg (95% CI 99.1, 103.4) and 71.7 +/- 7.7 mm Hg (95% CI 69.7, 73.6). The difference between day and night was 19.2 +/- 7.0 mm Hg for systolic and 12.7 +/- 6.0 mm Hg for diastolic pressure. The number of men whose systolic and diastolic pressure dropped less than 10% while asleep (non-dippers) was eight (13%) and 15 (24%), respectively. If the mean +/- 2 standard deviation interval is considered, the range of normality averaged 102-139/69-100 mm Hg when awake, 84-118/56-87 mm Hg when asleep and 97-132/66-95 over 24 h. The awake-sleep pressure difference did not correlate with the 24-h average.
The mean serum cholesterol of 842 men aged 19 to 53 years was 214.4 mg. per 100 ml., S.D. 40.9. There was some dependence of cholesterol value on age. Men from 4 of the 43 villages studied had values significantly higher and men from 10 of the villages had values significantly lower than the mean. Average blood pressures in mm. Hg were systolic 126.9, diastolic 74.3 and pulse 52.6. There was a low correlation of mean blood pressure with age, and some geographic variation. There was little or no correlation between mean blood pressure and serum cholesterol. Cholesterol values resembled those obtained in the United States and blood pressure was slightly higher.
From: Fortuine, Robert et al. 1993. The Health of the Inuit of North America: A Bibliography from the Earliest Times through 1990. University of Alaska Anchorage. Citation number 998.
Cited in: Fortuine, Robert. 1968. The Health of the Eskimos: a bibliography 1857-1967. Dartmouth College Libraries. Citation number 1013.
Because blood pressure (BP) tracks from childhood to adulthood, assessing levels in youth is relevant. There are no recent BP data for Canadian children and adolescents, and past studies have used a variety of design and measurement devices.
With a clinically validated oscillometric device, resting BP was measured in 2,079 respondents aged 6 to 19 years from the Canadian Health Measures Survey. The average of the last five of six BP measures taken one minute apart at a single visit was used in this report. Borderline or elevated BP was defined as greater than or equal to the 90th percentile of US reference values for participants aged 6 to 17 years. Borderline or elevated BP for 18- to 19-year-olds was defined as equal to or greater than 120 systolic BP or equal to or greater than 80 diastolic BP. Participants of any age who reported taking antihypertensive medication in the past month were also defined as having elevated BP.
At ages 6 to 11 years, mean (standard error) systolic/diastolic blood pressure was 93(0)/61(1) in boys and 93(0)/60(0) mmHg in girls, and at ages 12 to 19 years, 101(1)/63(1) and 98(1)/63(1) mmHg, respectively. An estimated 2.1% (95% confidence interval 1.3% to 3.0%) of Canadian children and youth had borderline levels; 0.8% (0.4% to 1.4%) had elevated BP.
Despite the prevalence of obesity among young people, BP levels were lower than reported in provincial samples, which may, in part, reflect differences in methodologies and measurement instruments.
The children had been randomly selected and serve as an urban reference population. Blood pressure was measured in 52 different schools, with the same Random-Zero-Sphygmomanometer, and all pressures were measured by the same person, under standardized conditions, to eliminate as many sources of error and uncertainties as possible. For both sexes an age-dependent significant increase in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure was observed. For both the systolic and the diastolic pressures, significant differences in blood pressure measured before and after blood testing were observed.