This cross sectional study aims to investigate the associations between ectopic lipid accumulation in liver and skeletal muscle and biochemical measures, estimates of insulin resistance, anthropometry, and blood pressure in lean and overweight/obese children.
Fasting plasma glucose, serum lipids, serum insulin, and expressions of insulin resistance, anthropometry, blood pressure, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy of liver and muscle fat were obtained in 327 Danish children and adolescents aged 8-18 years.
In 287 overweight/obese children, the prevalences of hepatic and muscular steatosis were 31% and 68%, respectively, whereas the prevalences in 40 lean children were 3% and 10%, respectively. A multiple regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, body mass index z-score (BMI SDS), and pubertal development showed that the OR of exhibiting dyslipidemia was 4.2 (95%CI: [1.8; 10.2], p = 0.0009) when hepatic steatosis was present. Comparing the simultaneous presence of hepatic and muscular steatosis with no presence of steatosis, the OR of exhibiting dyslipidemia was 5.8 (95%CI: [2.0; 18.6], p = 0.002). No significant associations between muscle fat and dyslipidemia, impaired fasting glucose, or blood pressure were observed. Liver and muscle fat, adjusted for age, sex, BMI SDS, and pubertal development, associated to BMI SDS and glycosylated hemoglobin, while only liver fat associated to visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue and intramyocellular lipid associated inversely to high density lipoprotein cholesterol.
Hepatic steatosis is associated with dyslipidemia and liver and muscle fat depositions are linked to obesity-related metabolic dysfunctions, especially glycosylated hemoglobin, in children and adolescents, which suggest an increased cardiovascular disease risk.
Cites: Child Obes. 2012 Dec;8(6):533-4123181919
Cites: Int J Pediatr Obes. 2011 Aug;6(3-4):188-9621529264
Cites: Int J Obes (Lond). 2014 Jan;38(1):40-523828099
To evaluate the impact on lipid and carbohydrate variables of a combined one-third ethinyl estradiol (EE)/levonorgestrel (LNG) dose reduction in oral contraceptives.
In an open-label, randomized study, a dose-reduced oral contraceptive containing 20 microg EE and 100 microg LNG (20 EE/100 LNG) was compared with a reference preparation containing 30 microg EE and 150 microg LNG (30 EE/150 LNG). One-year data from 48 volunteers were obtained.
We found a decrease of HDL2 cholesterol and increases of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and total triglycerides in both treatment groups from baseline to the 13th treatment cycle. Although for four of six variables, the changes in the 20 EE group were lower compared with the 30 EE group, none of the differences between the two treatments were statistically significant. The median values for the fasting levels of insulin, C-peptide and free fatty acids slightly increased or remained unchanged while the fasting glucose levels slightly decreased after 13 treatment cycles. While the glucose area under the curve (AUC) (0-3 h) was similar in both groups during the OGTT, the insulin AUC(0-3 h) was less increased in the 20 EE/100 LNG group compared with the 30 EE/150 LNG group. None of the differences between the treatment groups for any of the carbohydrate metabolism variables were statistically significant at any time point. Both study treatments were safe and well tolerated by the volunteers.
Similar effects on the lipid and carbohydrate profiles were found for both preparations. The balanced one-third EE dose reduction in this new oral contraceptive caused slightly lower, but insignificant, changes in the lipid and carbohydrate variables compared with the reference treatment.
The incidence of cardiovascular events remains high in patients with myocardial infarction (MI) despite advances in current therapies. New and better methods for identifying patients at high risk of recurrent cardiovascular (CV) events are needed. This study aimed to analyze the predictive value of an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in patients with acute myocardial infarction without known diabetes mellitus (DM).
The prospective cohort study consisted of 123 men and women aged between 31-80 years who had suffered a previous MI 3-12 months before the examinations. The exclusion criteria were known diabetes mellitus. Patients were followed up over 6.03???1.36 years for CV death, recurrent MI, stroke and unstable angina pectoris. A standard OGTT was performed at baseline.
OBJECTIVE: To follow the clinical course of patients with the mitochondrial DNA mutation 3243A>G for 3 years. METHODS: Thirty-three adult patients with the 3243A>G mutation entered a 3-year follow-up study. They were clinically evaluated annually, audiometry was performed, and samples were drawn for the analysis of blood chemistry and mutation heteroplasmy in leukocytes. Holter recording was performed three times during the follow-up and echocardiography, neuropsychological assessment, and quantitative EEG and brain imaging conducted at entry and after 3 years. RESULTS: The incidence of new neurologic events was low during the 3-year follow-up. Sensorineural hearing impairment (SNHI) progressed, left ventricular wall thickness increased, mean alpha frequency in the occipital and parietal regions decreased, and the severity of disease index (modified Rankin score) progressed significantly. The rate of SNHI progression correlated with mutation heteroplasmy in muscle. The increase in left ventricular wall thickness was seen almost exclusively in diabetic patients. Seven patients died during the follow-up, and they were generally more severely affected than those who survived. CONCLUSIONS: Significant changes in the severity of disease, sensorineural hearing impairment, left ventricular hypertrophy, and quantitative EEG were seen in adult patients with 3243A>G during the 3-year follow-up.
Comment In: Neurology. 2007 Jan 9;68(2):163-417210904
A 6-year nationwide cohort study of glycaemic control in young people with type 1 diabetes. Risk markers for the development of retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy. Danish Study Group of Diabetes in Childhood.
The study aimed to identify risk markers (present at the start of the study in 1989) for the occurrence and progression of microvascular complications 6 years later (in 1995) in a Danish nationwide cohort of children and adolescents with Type 1 diabetes (average age at entry 13.7 years). Probabilities for the development of elevated albumin excretion rate (AER), retinopathy, and increased vibration perception threshold (VPT) could then be estimated from a stepwise logistic regression model. A total of 339 patients (47% of the original cohort) were studied. Sex, age, diabetes duration, insulin regimen and dose, height, weight, HbA(1c), blood pressure, and AER were recorded. In addition, information on retinopathy, neuropathy (VPT), and anti-hypertensive treatment was obtained at the end of the study. HbA(1c) (normal range 4.3-5.8, mean 5.3%) and AER (upper normal limit or =20 microg min(-1)) was found in 12.8% of the patients in 1995, and risk markers for this were increased AER and high HbA(1c), in 1989 (both p6.5 V) was found in 62.5% of patients in 1995, for which the risk markers were male sex (p
International experts in the fields of diabetes, diabetes technology, endocrinology, mobile health, sport science, and regulatory issues gathered for the 7(th) Annual Symposium on Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose (SMBG). The aim of this meeting was to facilitate new collaborations and research projects to improve the lives of people with diabetes. The 2014 meeting comprised a comprehensive scientific program, parallel interactive workshops, and two keynote lectures.
The impact of an ARB, with or without hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ), on glycaemic factors and the risk for developing diabetes in hypertensive patients with the metabolic syndrome have not been fully assessed. This was a 52-week multicentre, prospective, phase-IV, open-label, cohort study of losartan or losartan/HCTZ in hypertensive patients with metabolic syndrome. All subjects were treated initially with losartan 50?mg?day(-1). Those not achieving target blood pressure (BP
The relationships between objectively measured abdominal and gynoid adipose mass with the prospective risk of myocardial infarction (MI) has been scarcely investigated. We aimed to investigate the associations between fat distribution and the risk of MI.
Total and regional fat mass was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) in 2336 women and 922 men, of whom 104 subsequently experienced an MI during a mean follow-up time of 7.8 years.
In women, the strongest independent predictor of MI was the ratio of abdominal to gynoid adipose mass (hazard ratio (HR)=2.44, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.79-3.32 per s.d. increase in adipose mass), after adjustment for age and smoking. This ratio also showed a strong association with hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance and hypertriglyceridemia (P
To assess fatal coronary artery disease (CAD) by gender and glucose regulation status.
47,951 people were followed up according to fatal CAD identified in the National Cause of Death Registry. Gender-effects of fatal CAD in people with impaired glucose regulation (IGR), newly diagnosed diabetes (NDM) or known diabetes (KDM) compared with people with normal glucose regulation (NGR) were calculated using Cox regression.
Using NGR as reference, the hazard ratios (HR, 95% confidence intervals) associated with IGR was 1.2 (0.8-1.9) for women and 1.2 (0.9-1.6) for men. The corresponding HRs were 1.6 (1.2-2.2) and 1.4 (1.1.-1.9) for NDM, and 2.5 (2.1-2.8) and 1.8 (1.6-2.1) for KDM. The gender-difference in mortality varied by category (P(interaction) = 0.003). Using women as the reference, the HRs for men were 2.1 (2.0-2.3) for NGR, 1.8 (1.0-3.3) for IGR, 1.6 (1.0-2.5) for NDM, and 1.2 (1.0-1.5) for KDM.
Diabetes mellitus, but not IGR, was associated with fatal CAD in both genders. The known gender-difference in CAD mortality was attenuated in people with abnormal glucose regulation, evident already in people with IGR.