The aim of the study was to investigate whether chronic cigarette smoke habit is associated with changes of laser Doppler (LD) skin blood flowmotion (SBF). We performed spectral analysis of skin forearm LD signal detected by a LD flowmetry (Periflux PF4, Perimed, Sweden) before and during forearm post-ischemic hyperaemia, in 14 healthy chronic smoker subjects and 14 age and sex matched nonsmoker subjects. Forearm skin ischemia was obtained by a pneumatic cuff, positioned at the right arm and inflated for 3 minutes to 30 mmHg above systolic blood pressure. Power spectral density (PSD) of the SBF total spectrum (0.009-1.6 Hz), as well as 0.009-0.02 Hz , 0.02-0.06 Hz, 0.06-0.2 Hz, 0.2-0.6 Hz and 0.6-1.6 Hz frequency intervals (FI), referred to endothelial, sympathetic, myogenic, respiratory and heart activity, respectively, were measured in LD conventional perfusion units (PU)/Hz. Smokers showed a basal SBF total spectrum PSD mean values not significantly different from nonsmokers (2.14+/-1.58 PU/Hz and 1.93+/-1.35 PU/Hz, respectively). Following ischemia, PSD mean value of SBF total spectrum, as well of five FI considered, significantly increased in nonsmokers (p
Acute administration of a single dose of valsartan improves left ventricular functions: a pilot study to assess the role of tissue velocity echocardiography in patients with systemic arterial hypertension in the TVE-valsartan study I.
BACKGROUND: The advent of colour-coded tissue velocity echocardiography (TVE) has now made it possible to quantify left ventricular (LV) functions in patients with systemic arterial hypertension (HTN). Hypothesis In this project, we have studied the cardiac effects of a single dose of orally administered valsartan in patients with known HTN. METHODS: Fifty-five patients with HTN with a mean age of 56 +/- 10 years were given an early morning dose of 80 mg valsartan withholding regular antihypertensive medications on the day of investigation. TVE images, acquired on VIVID systems were digitized for postprocessing of longitudinal and radial peak systolic velocities, strain rate, and systolic and diastolic time intervals before (pre) and 5 h after (post) administration of the drug. RESULTS: Blood pressure (mmHg) pre and post, respectively, were 147 +/- 15 versus 137 +/- 14 systolic and 90 +/- 7 versus 86 +/- 7 diastolic (all P
Age-related increases in oxidative stress contribute to impaired skeletal muscle vascular control. However, recent evidence indicates that antioxidant treatment with tempol (4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl) attenuates flow-mediated vasodilation in isolated arterioles from the highly oxidative soleus muscle of aged rats. Whether antioxidant treatment with tempol evokes similar responses in vivo at rest and during exercise in senescent individuals and whether this effect varies based on muscle fiber type composition are unknown. We tested the hypothesis that redox modulation via acute systemic tempol administration decreases vascular conductance (VC) primarily in oxidative hindlimb locomotor muscles at rest and during submaximal whole body exercise (treadmill running at 20 m/min, 5% grade) in aged rats. Eighteen old (25-26 mo) male Fischer 344 x Brown Norway rats were assigned to either rest (n = 8) or exercise (n = 10) groups. Regional VC was determined via radiolabeled microspheres before and after intra-arterial administration of tempol (302 µmol/kg). Tempol decreased mean arterial pressure significantly by 9% at rest and 16% during exercise. At rest, similar VC in 26 out of 28 individual hindlimb muscles or muscle parts following tempol administration compared with control resulted in unchanged total hindlimb muscle VC (control: 0.18 ± 0.02; tempol: 0.17 ± 0.05 ml·min(-1)·100 g(-1)·mmHg(-1); P > 0.05). During exercise, all individual hindlimb muscles or muscle parts irrespective of fiber type composition exhibited either an increase or no change in VC with tempol (i.e., ?11 and ?17 muscles or muscle parts), such that total hindlimb VC increased by 25% (control: 0.93 ± 0.04; tempol: 1.15 ± 0.09 ml·min(-1)·100 g(-1)·mmHg(-1); P = 0.05). These results demonstrate that acute systemic administration of the antioxidant tempol significantly impacts the control of regional vascular tone in vivo presumably via redox modulation and improves skeletal muscle vasodilation independently of fiber type composition during submaximal whole body exercise in aged rats.
The acute effects of ethanol (1.0 g/kg and 1.5 g/kg, n = 4 and n = 5, yielding blood concentrations of 1.3 +/- 0.2 mg/ml and 2.4 +/- 0.3 mg/ml) on myocardial perfusion were studied in anesthetized, thoracotomized, artificially ventilated dogs by using a radioactive microsphere technique. The control group (n = 5) received saline. The smaller dose of ethanol decreased perfusion in the left ventricular myocardium from 0.737 +/- 0.122 to 0.555 +/- 0.122 ml/g/min (NS), whereas the greater dose nonsignificantly increased it, from 0.744 +/- 0.115 to 0.819 +/- 0.119 ml/g/min (p
Adiponectin may be involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. We investigated the relation of adiponectin on early functional and structural markers of subclinical atherosclerosis in a large population-based cohort of young men and women.
We measured serum adiponectin using radioimmunoassay in 2,147 young adults (ages 24-39 years) participating in the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. The subjects had ultrasound data on carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), carotid artery elasticity (n = 2,139) and brachial flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) (n = 1,996). In univariate analysis, adiponectin was inversely associated with IMT (r = -0.16, P
Maximal aerobic capacity and the ability to sustain submaximal exercise (Ex) declines with advancing age. Whether altered muscle blood flow (BF) plays a mechanistic role in these effects remains to be resolved. The present investigation determined the effects of aging on the hemodynamic and regional BF response to submaximal Ex in rats. Heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and BF to different organs (kidneys, splanchnic organs, and 28 hindlimb muscles) were determined at rest and during submaximal treadmill Ex (20 m/min, 5% grade) with radiolabeled microspheres in young (Y; 6-8 mo old, 339 +/- 8 g, n = 9) and old (O; 27-29 mo old, 504 +/- 18 g, n = 7) Fischer 344 x Brown Norway rats. Results demonstrated that HR, MAP, and BF to the pancreas, small and large intestine, and total hindlimb musculature were similar between Y and O rats at rest. BF to the kidneys, spleen, and stomach were 33, 60, and 43% lower, respectively, in O compared with Y rats. BF to the total hindlimb musculature increased (P
Because of the prolonged healing time of diabetic foot ulcers, methods for identifying ways to expedite the ulcer healing process are needed. The angiosome concept delineates the body into three-dimensional blocks of tissue fed by specific source arteries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the benefit of infrapopliteal endovascular revascularization guided by an angiosome model of perfusion in the healing process of diabetic foot ulcers.
A total of 250 consecutive legs with diabetic foot ulcers in 226 patients who had undergone infrapopliteal endovascular revascularization in a single center were evaluated. Patient records and periprocedural leg angiograms were reviewed. The legs were divided into two groups depending on whether direct arterial flow to the site of the foot ulcer based on the angiosome concept was achieved (direct group) or not achieved (indirect group). Ulcer healing time was compared between the two groups. A propensity score was used for adjustment of differences in pretreatment covariables in multivariate analysis and for 1:1 matching.
Direct flow to the angiosome feeding the ulcer area was achieved in 121 legs (48%) compared with indirect revascularization in 129 legs. Foot ulcers treated with angiosome-targeted infrapopliteal percutaneous transluminal angioplasty healed better. The ulcer healing rate was mean (standard deviation) 72% (5%) at 12 months for the direct group compared with 45% (6%) for the indirect group (P
Association of polymorphic markers G7831A of ACE gene, Lys198Asn of endothelin-1 (EDN1) gene, and 4a/4b of NOS3 gene with characteristics of structure and function of the left ventricle was studied in 70 (31 men and 39 women) natives of Yakutia with hypertension. Mean age of patients was 48.3+/-0.74 years, duration of hypertension -- 12.4+/-0.99 years; 60 (85.7%), 7 (10%) and 3 (4.3%) patients had III, II and I degree of hypertension, respectively. Polymerase chain reaction was used for identification of alleles of polymorphic markers G7831A of ACE gene, Lys198Asn of EDN1 gene, and 4a/4b of NOS3 gene. Polymorphic marker G7831A of ACE gene was not associated with severity of hypertrophy of left ventricular myocardium as well as with state of systolic and diastolic left ventricular function. Patients with allele Asn of EDN1 gene in the genotype had significantly lower value of peak A integral of trans-mitral blood flow. Patients with allele 4a of NOS3 gene had thicker left ventricular walls, greater left ventricular myocardial mass and mass index.