As part of a quality assurance program a retrospective audit of transfusion practices for packed red blood cells, fresh frozen plasma and albumin was undertaken with predetermined criteria in a general teaching hospital. Of 520 transfusion episodes with 1218 units of packed red blood cells given to 297 patients 88% were considered appropriate; of 106 episodes with 405 units of fresh frozen plasma given to 83 patients 90% were deemed appropriate; and of 187 episodes with 320 units of albumin given to 99 patients 64% were considered appropriate. The results of this audit, when compared with those of other surveys of blood use in a similar population, suggest that pretransfusion approval of requested components would reduce the number of inappropriate transfusions.
Cites: JAMA. 1977 Jan 24;237(4):355-60 CONTD576167
INTRODUCTION: The Danish blood donor organisation is considered to be one of the best organised in the world. At the same time, Denmark has very high numbers of blood donations and blood transfusions, compared to the number of inhabitants. In recent years, pressure has been put on the donor organisation, owing to a decline in the number of donors and because new treatment modalities and other initiatives take blood transfusion for granted. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Information from the electronic databases of the County of Funen Transfusion Service on all blood donors in the county and its donor organisations from 1995 to September 2000 was extracted and analysed. RESULTS: In September 2000, the County of Funen had 21,087 active blood donors organised in eight bodies, i.e. 4% of the inhabitants. There are significant differences between these bodies, but common to all is a relative lack of donors between the age of 18 and 35 years. Each year about 10% of the donors withdraw, which is equal to 14,127 donors in the period analysed. This withdrawal is only partly balanced by 7820 new donors, with the result that the total number of donors in the county is declining by an average of 1100 donors a year. DISCUSSION: Several possibilities for action are proposed, for instance intensive recruitment campaigns, mobile blood drawing units, a change in the opening hours of blood banks, optimisation of the stocks, but, above all, the possibilities of reducing the amount of blood needed for transfusion. The Funen as well as the Danish health authorities must realise that blood for transfusion is no longer in unlimited supply, but in the future will be a rather restricted good.
BACKGROUND: Routine pretransfusion testing for red cell alloantibodies (RBCab) in cesarean patients is standard practice in many obstetric centers. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the usefulness of this test. METHOD: A retrospective study was conducted using computerized registers to extract data on blood transfusions and the occurrence of RBCab in cesarean patients. RESULTS: A total of 4434 admissions for cesarean section were identified. Only 10 patients (0.23%) had clinically significant RBCab, which had not been previously detected. Blood transfusions were required in relation to 147 cesarean sections (3.3%). A number of preoperative conditions, traditionally believed to be risk factors for preoperative and postpartum hemorrhage, occurred more frequently in transfused patients than in nontransfused. The probability of a cesarean patient having a previously undetected clinically significant RBCab and receiving a blood transfusion during admission for delivery was estimated to be 9.0 x 10(-5) (1 in 11 050 cesarean sections). Analyses of the time relationships between cesarean sections and initiation of blood transfusions indicated that most often there would be enough time for postoperative antibody screening and/or cross matching if the routine pretransfusion testing was omitted. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that routine pretransfusion testing in cesarean patients can be omitted.
To characterize the socioeconomic and health status, disease symptoms of anti-HCV-positive and negative transfusion recipients.
A cross-sectional interviewer-administered survey of subjects identified through the British Columbia Blood Recipient Program. Study subjects were 18 years and over and had to have had a transfusion between August 1, 1986 and June 30, 1990 and completed an interview of satisfactory quality. Anti-HCV-positive subjects were those seeking monetary compensation from the provincial and Canadian governments and the comparison group was randomly selected from a pool of anti-HCV-negative subjects. The study was designed to detect an assumed difference of 20% in signs and symptoms between the two groups. Statistical comparisons were conducted using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses.
A total of 241 and 222 anti-HCV-positive and negative subjects were respectively interviewed and met the study's eligibility criteria. Results from the multivariate analysis indicated that anti-HCV-positive recipients were more likely to have two or more clinical symptoms (OR = 3.53; 95% CI: 1.44, 8.70), to be in worse health status as compared to ten years previous (OR = 1.60; 95% CI: 1.30, 1.96), to have a higher illness intrusiveness rating (OR = 1.35; 95% CI: 1.25, 1.46), and to be younger (OR = 0.97; 95% CI: 0.95, 0.98).
Our results show that persons exposed to HCV were more likely to have had two or more clinical symptoms, be male, have worse health status as compared to ten years previous, have a higher illness intrusiveness rating, and be younger in age.
Solid organ allograft recipients may require large amounts of blood components. The modification of components to make them safer for iatrogenically immunosuppressed transplant patients increases workload demands on blood banks and transfusion services.
Institutions within the United States and Canada providing hemotherapy as support for transplant recipients were surveyed for their transfusion practices.
Responses from 25 institutions provide the data for this report. In 1991, the mean intraoperative red cell requirements ranged from
Nonoperative management of blunt splenic injury (BSI) was first proposed at our institution in 1948. Since that time, treatment of patients with BSI has evolved from routine splenectomy to an aggressive spleen-preserving philosophy. This report summarizes our institutional experience for the last 50 years.
All children (0-18 years) admitted to our pediatric trauma center with BSI during 4 eras (1956-1965, 1972-1977, 1981-1986, and 1992-2006) were retrospectively reviewed for demographics, injury patterns, management, and complications.
During the 4 eras captured for the last 5 decades, 486 children experienced BSI. The mean age was 10 years with 347 males (71%). Nonoperative management rate increased from 42% to 97% with improvement in splenic salvage rate (42%-99%). Mean length of stay decreased from 17 to 5 days. In patients with isolated splenic injuries (50%), nonoperative management rate increased (36%-100%) and fewer received transfusions (60%-1%). Overall mortality rate improved (19%-6.6%, 8%-0.7% in isolated injuries).
The management of BSI in children has changed dramatically for the last 50 years. This study clearly demonstrates the safety of nonoperative management and documents progressively lower rates of splenectomy and transfusion, shorter hospitalization, and an extremely low risk of mortality.
Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms (RAAA) have a 78-94% mortality rate. If cost-effectiveness of screening programs for abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) are to be assessed, direct costs for RAAA repairs and elective AAA (EAAA) repairs are required. This study reports mortality, morbidity, and direct costs for RAAA and EAAA repairs in Nova Scotia in 1997-1998 and also compares Nova Scotia and U.S. costs. We performed a retrospective study of 41 consecutive RAAA and 48 randomly selected EAAA patients. Average total costs for RAAA repair were significantly greater than those for EAAA repair (direct costs: $15,854 vs. $9673; direct plus overhead costs: $18,899 vs. $12,324 [pricing in 1998 Canadian dollars]). Intensive care unit length of stay and blood product usage were the most substantial direct cost differentials ($3593 and $2106). Direct cost for preoperative testing and surveillance was greater in the EAAA group ($839 vs. $33). Estimates of U.S. in-hospital RAAA and EAAA repair costs are more than 1.5 times Nova Scotia costs. Direct in-hospital RAAA repair costs are $6181 more than EAAA repair costs. These in-hospital cost data are key cost elements required to assess the cost-effectiveness of various screening strategies for earlier detection and monitoring of AAA within high-risk populations in Canada. Further studies are required to estimate cost per quality-adjusted-life-year gained for various AAA screening and monitoring strategies in Canada.
The Danish Society of Gastroenterology and Hepatology have compiled a national guideline for the management of peptic ulcer bleeding. Sources of data included published studies up to June 2014. Quality of evidence and strength of recommendations have been graded. The guideline was approved by the Danish Society of Gastroenterology and Hepatology September 4, 2011. The current version is revised June 2014.
RECOMMENDATIONS emphasize the importance of early and efficient resuscitation. Use of a restrictive blood transfusion policy is recommended in haemodynamically stable patients without serious ischaemic disease. Endoscopy should generally be performed within 24 hours, reducing operation rate, rebleeding rate and duration of in-patient stay. When serious ulcer bleeding is suspected and blood found in gastric aspirate, endoscopy within 12 hours will result in faster discharge and reduced need for transfusions. Endoscopic hemostasis remains indicated for high-risk lesions. Hemoclips, thermocoagulation, and epinephrine injection are effective in achieving endoscopic hemostasis. Use of endoscopic monotherapy with epinephrine injection is not recommended. Intravenous high-dose proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy for 72 hours after successful endoscopic hemostasis is recommended even though the evidence is questionable. Although selected patients can be discharged promptly after endoscopy, high-risk patients should be hospitalized for at least three days after endoscopic hemostasis. Patients with peptic ulcer bleeding who require secondary cardiovascular prophylaxis should start receiving acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) within 24 hours from primary endoscopy. Patients in need of continued treatment with ASA or a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug should be put on prophylactic treatment with PPI at standard dosage. The combination of 75 mg ASA and PPI should be preferred to monotherapy with clopidogrel in patients needing anti-platelet therapy on the basis of indications other than coronary stents. Low-risk patients without clinical suspicion of peptic ulcer bleeding who have a Glasgow Blatchford score = 1 can be offered out-patient care, unless hospital admission is required for other reasons.
In March of 1988, a survey form was sent to all 2695 U.S. and Canadian members of the American Society of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgeons. Nine-hundred and thirty-five members responded, for a response rate of 34.7 percent. The purpose of the survey was to ascertain the total number of major liposuction, dermatolipectomy, and abdominoplasty procedures performed from January of 1984 to January of 1988 and to compare nine specific complications that are associated with these three procedures. The 935 surgeons reported a total of 112,756 procedures performed: major liposuction (75,591), dermatolipectomy (10,603), and abdominoplasty (26,562). Nine major complications were surveyed: mortality, myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular accident or transient ischemic attack, pulmonary thromboembolism, fat embolism, major skin loss, anesthesia complication, transfusion complications, and deep venous thrombosis. The findings in this survey showed, when comparing these three procedures and the nine types of complications, that the complication rate for major suction lipectomy was 0.1 percent, for dermatolipectomy 0.9 percent, and for abdominoplasty 2.0 percent. Fat emboli did not prove to be a significant factor associated with any of the three procedures. However, of the 15 reported deaths (major liposuction 2, dermatolipectomy 2, and abdominoplasty 11), pulmonary thromboembolism was the causative factor in 9 deaths (60 percent). Based on these analyzed data, we feel that major suction lipectomy has a low complication rate and is a reasonably safe procedure.
Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA) ligation in premature infants is an urgent procedure performed by some but not all pediatric surgeons. Proficiency in PDA ligation is not a requirement of Canadian pediatric surgery training. Our purpose was to determine the outcomes of neonatal PDA ligation done by pediatric surgeons.
We performed a retrospective review of premature infants who underwent PDA ligation by pediatric surgeons in 3 Canadian centers from 2005 to 2009. Outcomes were compared to published controls.
The review identified 98 patients with a mean corrected GA and weight at repair of 29 weeks and 1122 g, respectively. There were no intraoperative deaths. The 30-day and inhospital mortality rates were 1% and 5%. Mortality and morbidity were comparable to the published outcomes.
This study documents that a significant number of preterm infant PDA ligations are safely done by pediatric surgeons. To meet the Canadian needs for this service by pediatric surgeons, proficiency in PDA ligation should be considered important in pediatric surgery training programs.