To assess the effect and safety of moderate-to-vigorous resistance exercise during pregnancy.
Randomized controlled study.
Two antenatal clinics in Gothenburg, Sweden.
Ninety-two healthy pregnant women.
The intervention was administered during gestational weeks 14-25. The intervention group received supervised resistance exercise twice a week, performed at an activity level equivalent to within moderate-to-vigorous (n = 51). The control group received generalized exercise recommendation, a home-based training program and a telephone follow up (n = 41).
Health-related quality of life, physical strength, pain, weight, blood pressure, functional status, activity level, and perinatal data.
Functional status deteriorated during the intervention in both groups and pain increased. Significant differences between the groups were obtained only for birthweight. Newborns delivered by women who underwent resistance exercise during pregnancy were significantly heavier than those born to control women; 3561 (±452) g vs. 3251 (±437) g (p = 0.02), a difference that disappeared when adjustment was made for gestational age (p = 0.059). Both groups showed normal health-related quality of life, blood pressure, and perinatal data.
These findings indicate that supervised, moderate-to-vigorous resistance exercise does not jeopardize the health status of healthy pregnant women or the fetus during pregnancy, but instead appears to be an appropriate form of exercise in healthy pregnancy.
We have earlier showed endothelium-dependent vasodilation (EDV) in forearm resistance arteries to be mainly related to diastolic blood pressure (DBP), whereas flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) was mainly related to systolic blood pressure (SBP) when measured with a mercury sphygmomanometer in the brachial artery. Here, we investigated whether these relationships were more powerful if blood pressure was measured invasively or by transformation to central aortic blood pressure.
In the prospective study of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors, 1016 patients aged 70 years were evaluated by the invasive forearm technique with acetylcholine (EDV), and brachial artery ultrasound to assess FMD. Blood pressure was measured with a mercury sphygmomanometer, invasively in the brachial artery and transformed to aortic blood pressure by pulse wave analysis.
EDV was related to DBP with a similar strength regardless of whether DBP was measured traditionally, invasively or as calculated aortic pressure. Similarly, FMD was related to SBP with similar strength regardless of whether SBP was measured traditionally, invasively or as calculated aortic pressure. Only FMD was significantly related to pulse pressure.
Measurements of blood pressure invasively or by calculation of aortic blood pressure did not increase the power of the associations between blood pressure and EDV in the elderly, when compared with traditional blood pressure measurements.
Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Central blood pressure (BP) is thought to be more relevant than peripheral BP for the pathogenesis of CVD. Advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) are markers of oxidative stress. This study investigated the relationship between AOPP and central BP in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. ?
In a cross-sectional study of 75 PD patients (67% men), we analyzed two oxidative stress markers, AOPP (modified assay, mAOPP, correcting for the impact of triglycerides) and pentosidine, three inflammation markers, interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). All patients underwent measurement of central systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) by applanation tonometry. ?
Patients with mAOPP levels above the median had a higher central SBP and DBP than those below the median values. In univariate analysis, the levels of mAOPP associated with central SBP and central DBP. Multiple regression analysis, adjusting for age, gender, diabetes, CVD, protein-energy wasting (PEW), hs-CRP and extracellular water by multi-frequency bioimpedance or N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), confirmed independent associations between mAOPP and central SBP and central DBP respectively. ?
The mAOPP level is independently associated with the central SBP and DBP in PD patients. This finding suggests that oxidative stress may be involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension or that hypertension itself or factors associated with hypertension such as fluid overload may have an additional effect on oxidative stress in PD patients.
High blood pressure in children predicts hypertension in adulthood. Blood pressure should therefore be measured during childhood and adolescence, and if necessary treated at an early stage. The first Swedish standard for blood pressures in 6 to 16-year-old boys and girls is now available and recommended for screening or follow-up programs.
The present investigation is about cardiovascular responses and relevant autonomic function in Swedish and Japanese pubertal children on active standing using non-invasive continuous beat-to-beat finger arterial pressure (FAP) monitoring and power spectral analysis. Examined were 54 Swedish and 57 Japanese children (13-15 years). FAP and heart rate (HR) was continuously recorded in the supine position and during standing. Supine FAP was significantly higher in Swedish compared with Japanese children (121/62 versus 103/53 mmHg, P