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A 26-week, prospective, open-label, uncontrolled, multicenter study to evaluate the effect of an escalating-dose regimen of trandolapril on change in blood pressure in treatment-naive and concurrently treated adult hypertensive subjects (TRAIL).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature163832
Source
Clin Ther. 2007 Feb;29(2):305-15
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2007
Author
Richard H Tytus
Ellen D Burgess
Linda Assouline
Anita Vanjaka
Author Affiliation
Hamilton Health Sciences, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.
Source
Clin Ther. 2007 Feb;29(2):305-15
Date
Feb-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors - administration & dosage - adverse effects - therapeutic use
Antihypertensive Agents - administration & dosage - adverse effects
Blood Pressure - drug effects
Calcium Channel Blockers - therapeutic use
Canada
Diuretics - therapeutic use
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Drug Administration Schedule
Drug Therapy, Combination
Female
Humans
Hypertension - drug therapy
Indoles - administration & dosage - adverse effects
Male
Middle Aged
Primary Health Care
Prospective Studies
Verapamil - therapeutic use
Abstract
This study evaluated the effectiveness of an escalating-dose regimen of trandolapril in subjects with stage 1 or stage 2 hypertension.
This was a 26-week, prospective, open-label,multicenter study in Canadian primary care centers. Subjects with hypertension who were treatment naive or whose disease was uncontrolled on current first-line antihypertensive monotherapy were treated with trandolapril for 26 weeks alone or in addition to their current treatment. Uncontrolled hypertension was defined as systolic/diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP) >or=140/90 mm Hg in subjects with no other risk factors or >or=130/80 mm Hg in subjects with diabetes or kidney disease. Trandolapril therapy was initiated at 1 mg/d and was titrated as required to 2 or 4 mg at 4 and 9 weeks after initiation of treatment, respectively, in those not achieving BP targets. At 14 weeks after treatment initiation, subjects not achieving BP targets could receive a combination of trandolapril 4 mg plus a calcium channel blocker (verapamil 240 mg) with or without a diuretic. Primary outcome was the percentage of patients reaching target BP after 14 weeks.
A total of 1683 subjects from 192 general practice clinics across Canada completed the 14-week trandolapril dose-optimization phase, and 1650 completed the full 26-week follow-up. Mean (SD) age was 56.6 (12.6) years, and 49.2% of the subjects were men. At baseline, 82.4% (1359/1650) of subjects were antihypertensive-treatment naive. At the trial end, 73.4% (95% CI, 70.9-75.9) of subjects achieved a target level of SBP/DBP
PubMed ID
17472822 View in PubMed
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A 52-week prospective, cohort study of the effects of losartan with or without hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) in hypertensive patients with metabolic syndrome.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature145472
Source
J Hum Hypertens. 2010 Nov;24(11):739-48
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2010
Author
N. Racine
P. Hamet
J S Sampalis
N. Longo
N. Bastien
Author Affiliation
Department of Medicine, Montreal Heart Institute, Montréal, Québec, Canada.
Source
J Hum Hypertens. 2010 Nov;24(11):739-48
Date
Nov-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers - adverse effects - therapeutic use
Antihypertensive Agents - adverse effects - therapeutic use
Biological Markers - blood
Blood Glucose - drug effects - metabolism
Blood Pressure - drug effects
Calcium Channel Blockers - therapeutic use
Canada
Chi-Square Distribution
Diabetes Mellitus - blood - chemically induced
Diuretics - adverse effects - therapeutic use
Drug Therapy, Combination
Female
Hemoglobin A, Glycosylated - metabolism
Humans
Hydrochlorothiazide - adverse effects - therapeutic use
Hypertension - blood - complications - drug therapy - physiopathology
Linear Models
Losartan - adverse effects - therapeutic use
Male
Metabolic Syndrome X - blood - complications - physiopathology
Middle Aged
Prospective Studies
Risk assessment
Risk factors
Time Factors
Treatment Outcome
Abstract
The impact of an ARB, with or without hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ), on glycaemic factors and the risk for developing diabetes in hypertensive patients with the metabolic syndrome have not been fully assessed. This was a 52-week multicentre, prospective, phase-IV, open-label, cohort study of losartan or losartan/HCTZ in hypertensive patients with metabolic syndrome. All subjects were treated initially with losartan 50?mg?day(-1). Those not achieving target blood pressure (BP
PubMed ID
20147971 View in PubMed
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1999 WHO/ISH Guidelines applied to a 1999 MONICA sample from northern Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature52964
Source
J Hypertens. 2002 Jan;20(1):29-35
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2002
Author
Mats Persson
Bo Carlberg
Tom Mjörndal
Kjell Asplund
Jens Bohlin
Lars Lindholm
Author Affiliation
Family Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, 901 87 University of Umeå, Sweden. mats.persson@fammed.umu.se
Source
J Hypertens. 2002 Jan;20(1):29-35
Date
Jan-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Factors
Aged
Antihypertensive Agents - therapeutic use
Blood Pressure - drug effects - physiology
Female
Humans
Hypertension - drug therapy - physiopathology
Male
Middle Aged
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Treatment Outcome
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Treating hypertension with drugs is so far the most cost-effective way to reduce this important risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). It is, however, important to determine absolute risk, and thereby estimate indication for drug treatment, in order to maintain a cost-effective drug treatment. WHO/ISH Hypertension Guidelines from 1999 propose a risk stratification for estimating absolute risk for CVD based on blood pressure and additional risk factors, target organ damage (TOD) and CVD. OBJECTIVES: We studied the consequences of applying the recent WHO/ISH risk stratification scheme to a MONICA sample of 6000 subjects from a geographically defined population in northern Sweden, regarding indications for treatment, target blood pressure and risk distribution. METHODS: We have risk-classified each of these patients using a computer program, according to the WHO/ISH scheme. Data on TOD were not available. RESULTS : In all, 917 (15%) had drug-treated hypertension. Three-quarters (n = 737) were inadequately treated, with blood pressure levels at or above 140 or 90 mmHg. 1773 (30% of 5997) untreated subjects had a blood pressure of 140/90 or above; 16% in the low-, 62% in the medium-, 8% in the high-, and 14% in the very-high-risk group. The corresponding risk-group pattern for the inadequately treated hypertensives (n = 737) was 5.5, 48.3, 11.1 and 35.2%, respectively. If we shifted the target blood pressure from below 140/90 to below 130/85 for drug-treated subjects under 60 (n = 278) the number of inadequately treated subjects increased by 34 (12.2% of 278); 14 in the low-risk group, 15 in the medium-risk group, and only five in the high- or very-high-risk groups. CONCLUSIONS: Only one-fifth of the drug-treated hypertensives were well controlled. Moreover, the incidence of newly detected blood pressure elevation was high. The majority of younger subjects with high blood pressure had low risk, but in those aged 45-54 this had already risen to a medium risk. Changing the target blood pressure to below 130/85, for subjects aged below 60, as recommended by WHO/ISH, affects predominantly low- and medium-risk groups.
PubMed ID
11791023 View in PubMed
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Abnormal diurnal rhythm of urine output following renal transplantation: the impact of blood pressure and diuretics.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature139130
Source
Transplant Proc. 2010 Nov;42(9):3529-36
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2010
Author
K. Alstrup
C. Graugaard-Jensen
S. Rittig
K A Jørgensen
Author Affiliation
Department of Nephrology, Aarhus University Hospital, Skejby, Denmark. karenalstrup@dadlnet.dk
Source
Transplant Proc. 2010 Nov;42(9):3529-36
Date
Nov-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Antihypertensive Agents - therapeutic use
Blood Pressure - drug effects
Case-Control Studies
Chi-Square Distribution
Circadian Rhythm
Denmark
Diuretics - therapeutic use
Drinking
Female
Humans
Kidney Transplantation - adverse effects
Male
Middle Aged
Osmolar Concentration
Polyuria - drug therapy - etiology - physiopathology
Prevalence
Time Factors
Treatment Outcome
Urination - drug effects
Urodynamics - drug effects
Young Adult
Abstract
Nocturnal polyuria is the excretion at night of an excessive volume of urine. A major problem following renal transplantation is an abnormal diurnal rhythmicity in urine output. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the prevalence of nocturnal polyuria among renal transplant recipients in the early period after transplantation as well as at least 1 year after transplantation. We aimed to explore possible pathophysiological mechanisms behind nocturnal polyuria in this group of patients, focusing on the impact of blood pressure and medication.
Seventeen recently transplanted patients 17 late transplant recipients, and 17 healthy controls were included in the study. Voiding habits were assessed by completion of a frequency-volume chart recording all fluid intakes and voiding. A concomitant 24-hour blood pressure profile was obtained in all.
Renal transplant recipients had a high prevalence of nocturnal polyuria (74%) and a disturbed blood pressure profile with a lack of appropriate nocturnal dipping (P
Notes
Comment In: J Urol. 2012 Mar;187(3):96422325519
PubMed ID
21094810 View in PubMed
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ACE inhibitors captopril and enalapril induce regression of left ventricular hypertrophy in hypertensive patients with chronic renal failure.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature54522
Source
Nephrol Dial Transplant. 1997 May;12(5):945-51
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-1997
Author
A I Dyadyk
A E Bagriy
I A Lebed
N F Yarovaya
E V Schukina
G G Taradin
Author Affiliation
Department of Postgraduate Therapy Training, Medical University, Donetsk, Ukraine.
Source
Nephrol Dial Transplant. 1997 May;12(5):945-51
Date
May-1997
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors - adverse effects - therapeutic use
Blood Pressure - drug effects
Captopril - adverse effects - therapeutic use
Diastole - drug effects
Drug Tolerance
Enalapril - adverse effects - therapeutic use
Female
Hemodynamic Processes - drug effects
Humans
Hypertension - complications - drug therapy - physiopathology
Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular - complications - drug therapy - pathology
Kidney Failure, Chronic - complications
Male
Middle Aged
Prospective Studies
Single-Blind Method
Systole - drug effects
Ventricular Function, Left - drug effects
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Left ventricular hypertrophy is frequently noted in patients with moderate to severe chronic renal failure not requiring dialysis. Recently, several studies have shown reversal of myocardial hypertrophy in end-stage renal disease with long-term pharmacological control of blood pressure, but it is unclear whether left ventricular mass regresses or normalizes with antihypertensive treatment of patients with earlier stages of chronic renal failure. METHODS: Seventy-two undialysed patients with chronic renal failure, chronic mild-to-moderate hypertension, and left ventricular hypertrophy were randomly assigned in a prospective study to either the captopril (n = 36) or enalapril group (n = 36). Blood pressure measurements, echocardiographic and Doppler parameters were evaluated before treatment and at 6 and 12 months of therapy. RESULTS: During follow-up, six patients developed side-effects including dry cough, taste disturbances, skin rash and gastric intolerance. In the captopril group there was a decrease in mean left ventricular mass index by 12% after 6 months of treatment, which decreased by 20% after 12 months treatment. For enalapril, the average reduction of myocardial mass after 6 months treatment was 14% and after 12 months treatment, the decrease was 19%. In both treatment groups there was significant improvement of left ventricular filling dynamics. No deterioration of left ventricular systolic function was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Our results confirm that antihypertensive monotherapy with the ACE inhibitors, captopril and enalapril, in patients with chronic renal failure results in regression of left ventricular mass index associated with a significant improvement in the diastolic function of the left ventricle without a demonstrable deterioration in left ventricular systolic performance.
PubMed ID
9175047 View in PubMed
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[Achievement of goal resting heart rate in patients with stable angina and hypertension at the background of therapy with -adrenoblockers in real clinical practice].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature106918
Source
Kardiologiia. 2013;53(7):13-23
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
Author
Zh D Kobalava
G K Kiiakbaev
Iu V Khomitskaia
A A Shavarov
Author Affiliation
Russian University of Peoples Friendship, ul. Mikluho-Maklaya, 6,117198 Moscow, Russia.
Source
Kardiologiia. 2013;53(7):13-23
Date
2013
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adrenergic beta-Antagonists - administration & dosage
Aged
Angina, Stable - complications - drug therapy - epidemiology - physiopathology - psychology
Blood Pressure - drug effects
Demography
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Drug Monitoring
Female
Heart Rate - drug effects
Humans
Hypertension - complications - drug therapy - epidemiology - physiopathology - psychology
Male
Middle Aged
Quality of Life
Questionnaires
Russia - epidemiology
Severity of Illness Index
Treatment Outcome
Abstract
ß-Adrenoblockers improve quality of life and in a number of cases life prognosis in patients with stable angina (SA). Dose of -adrenoblockers is considered optimal if at the background of treatment resting heart rate (rHR) is persistently decreased down to 55-60 bpm. But according to data of international registries rate of achievement of target rHR (trHR) in real clinical practice does not exceed 22%. Aim of this study was to determine what portion of patients with SA and arterial hypertension (AH) achieves trHR at the background of therapy with -adrenoblockers in routine practice in this country. Twenty centers in 6 towns in Russian Federation recruited 399 patients (mean age 64+/-10 years) with class I-III angina and concomitant primary AH. These patients for at least 2 months received any -adrenoblocker and did not change its dose during 4 weeks before inclusion into the program. Portion of patients with trHR was 15.5%. There were no significant differences between average daily doses of most frequently used -adrenoblockers (metoprolol, bisoprolol, carvediolol) in groups of patients who achieved and did not achieve trHR. Quality of life of patients who achieved was comparable with that of those who did not achieve trHR. Attainment of trHR was associated with significant decrease of short acting requirement nitrates. There was a significant direct correlation between attainment of trHR and target arterial pressure.
PubMed ID
24087955 View in PubMed
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Acute administration of a single dose of valsartan improves left ventricular functions: a pilot study to assess the role of tissue velocity echocardiography in patients with systemic arterial hypertension in the TVE-valsartan study I.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature80206
Source
Clin Physiol Funct Imaging. 2006 Nov;26(6):351-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2006
Author
Govind Satish C
Brodin Lars-Ake
Nowak Jacek
Ramesh S S
Saha Samir K
Author Affiliation
BMJ Heart Center, Department of Non-invasive Cardiology, Bangalore, India.
Source
Clin Physiol Funct Imaging. 2006 Nov;26(6):351-6
Date
Nov-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Antihypertensive Agents - administration & dosage
Blood Flow Velocity - drug effects
Blood Pressure - drug effects
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Echocardiography, Doppler, Color
Female
Heart Rate - drug effects
Humans
Hypertension - drug therapy - physiopathology - ultrasonography
Image Processing, Computer-Assisted
Male
Middle Aged
Myocardial Contraction - drug effects
Pilot Projects
Research Design
Stroke Volume - drug effects
Sweden
Tetrazoles - administration & dosage
Time Factors
Treatment Outcome
Valine - administration & dosage - analogs & derivatives
Ventricular Function, Left - drug effects
Abstract
BACKGROUND: The advent of colour-coded tissue velocity echocardiography (TVE) has now made it possible to quantify left ventricular (LV) functions in patients with systemic arterial hypertension (HTN). Hypothesis In this project, we have studied the cardiac effects of a single dose of orally administered valsartan in patients with known HTN. METHODS: Fifty-five patients with HTN with a mean age of 56 +/- 10 years were given an early morning dose of 80 mg valsartan withholding regular antihypertensive medications on the day of investigation. TVE images, acquired on VIVID systems were digitized for postprocessing of longitudinal and radial peak systolic velocities, strain rate, and systolic and diastolic time intervals before (pre) and 5 h after (post) administration of the drug. RESULTS: Blood pressure (mmHg) pre and post, respectively, were 147 +/- 15 versus 137 +/- 14 systolic and 90 +/- 7 versus 86 +/- 7 diastolic (all P
PubMed ID
17042901 View in PubMed
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Acute antioxidant supplementation and skeletal muscle vascular conductance in aged rats: role of exercise and fiber type.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature101895
Source
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2011 Apr;300(4):H1536-44
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2011
Author
Daniel M Hirai
Steven W Copp
Peter J Schwagerl
Mark D Haub
David C Poole
Timothy I Musch
Author Affiliation
Department of Anatomy and Physiology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, 66506-5802, USA.
Source
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2011 Apr;300(4):H1536-44
Date
Apr-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Antioxidants - pharmacology
Blood Pressure - drug effects - physiology
Cyclic N-Oxides - pharmacology
Dietary Supplements
Hindlimb - drug effects - physiology
Male
Muscle Fibers, Skeletal - drug effects - physiology
Muscle, Skeletal - blood supply - drug effects - physiology
Physical Conditioning, Animal - physiology
Rats
Rats, Inbred F344
Regional Blood Flow - drug effects - physiology
Rest - physiology
Spin Labels
Vascular Resistance - drug effects - physiology
Vasodilation - drug effects - physiology
Abstract
Age-related increases in oxidative stress contribute to impaired skeletal muscle vascular control. However, recent evidence indicates that antioxidant treatment with tempol (4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl) attenuates flow-mediated vasodilation in isolated arterioles from the highly oxidative soleus muscle of aged rats. Whether antioxidant treatment with tempol evokes similar responses in vivo at rest and during exercise in senescent individuals and whether this effect varies based on muscle fiber type composition are unknown. We tested the hypothesis that redox modulation via acute systemic tempol administration decreases vascular conductance (VC) primarily in oxidative hindlimb locomotor muscles at rest and during submaximal whole body exercise (treadmill running at 20 m/min, 5% grade) in aged rats. Eighteen old (25-26 mo) male Fischer 344 x Brown Norway rats were assigned to either rest (n = 8) or exercise (n = 10) groups. Regional VC was determined via radiolabeled microspheres before and after intra-arterial administration of tempol (302 µmol/kg). Tempol decreased mean arterial pressure significantly by 9% at rest and 16% during exercise. At rest, similar VC in 26 out of 28 individual hindlimb muscles or muscle parts following tempol administration compared with control resulted in unchanged total hindlimb muscle VC (control: 0.18 ± 0.02; tempol: 0.17 ± 0.05 ml·min(-1)·100 g(-1)·mmHg(-1); P > 0.05). During exercise, all individual hindlimb muscles or muscle parts irrespective of fiber type composition exhibited either an increase or no change in VC with tempol (i.e., ?11 and ?17 muscles or muscle parts), such that total hindlimb VC increased by 25% (control: 0.93 ± 0.04; tempol: 1.15 ± 0.09 ml·min(-1)·100 g(-1)·mmHg(-1); P = 0.05). These results demonstrate that acute systemic administration of the antioxidant tempol significantly impacts the control of regional vascular tone in vivo presumably via redox modulation and improves skeletal muscle vasodilation independently of fiber type composition during submaximal whole body exercise in aged rats.
PubMed ID
21239634 View in PubMed
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The acute dose-related effects of ethanol on right ventricular function in anesthetized dogs.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature11893
Source
Alcohol. 1992 Mar-Apr;9(2):149-53
Publication Type
Article
Author
R. Kettunen
J. Timisjärvi
P. Saukko
Author Affiliation
Department of Physiology, University of Oulu, Finland.
Source
Alcohol. 1992 Mar-Apr;9(2):149-53
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Blood Pressure - drug effects
Cardiac Output - drug effects
Dogs
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Ethanol - administration & dosage - blood - pharmacology
Heart Rate - drug effects
Pulmonary Artery - physiology
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Stroke Volume - drug effects
Vascular Resistance - drug effects
Ventricular Function, Right - drug effects
Abstract
The acute dose-related effects of small to moderate doses of ethanol on right ventricular functioning were studied on 18 anesthetized, artificially ventilated dogs in 39 sessions. Diluted ethanol (from 25-37.5%) was infused during 40 minutes, yielding total doses of 1.0 g/kg (n = 15), and 1.5 g/kg (n = 12) with corresponding venous blood ethanol peak concentrations of 1.38 +/- 0.25 and 2.41 +/- 0.31 mg/ml, respectively. Heart rate increased up to 16% in groups receiving ethanol. In the control group receiving the equivalent volume of saline (n = 12) heart rate decreased 14%. Pulmonary arterial systolic pressure increased from 24 +/- 3 to 27 +/- 3 mmHg and diastolic pressure from 11 +/- 2 to 14 +/- 4 mmHg (p less than 0.05) when the ethanol dose was 1.0 g/kg. The pulmonary arterial resistance increased from 620 +/- 135 to 805 +/- 185 dyn.s.cm-5 (p less than 0.01). The peak dP/dt decreased maximally by 20% with increasing ethanol doses. Stroke volume decreased maximally by 14% but due to the increase in heart rate, cardiac output even increased. The changes in end-diastolic volume and pressure were not significant. Hence, the ethanol increased heart rate and afterload of the right ventricle but depressed the myocardium.
PubMed ID
1599626 View in PubMed
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408 records – page 1 of 41.