Background Heparin dosage for anticoagulation during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is commonly calculated based on the patient's body weight. The protamine-heparin ratio used for heparin reversal varies widely among institutions (0.7-1.3?mg protamine/100 IU heparin). Excess protamine may impair coagulation. With an empirically developed algorithm, the HeProCalc program, heparin, and protamine doses are calculated during the procedure. The primary aim was to investigate whether HeProCalc-based dosage of heparin could reduce protamine use compared with traditional dosages. The secondary aim was to investigate whether HeProCalc-based dosage of protamine affected postoperative bleeding. Patients and Methods We consecutively randomized 40 patients into two groups. In the control group, traditional heparin and protamine doses, based on body weight alone, were given. In the treatment group, the HeProCalc program was used, which calculated the initial heparin bolus dose from weight, height, and baseline activated clotting time and the protamine dose at termination of CPB. Results We analyzed the results from 37 patients, after exclusion of three patients. Equal doses of heparin were given in both groups, whereas significantly lower mean doses of protamine were given in the treatment group versus control group (211?±?56 vs. 330?±?61?mg, p?
Aprotinin, a hemostatic agent, regulates fibrinolysis, modulates the intrinsic coagulation pathway, stabilizes platelet function, and exhibits anti-inflammatory properties through inhibition of serine proteases, such as trypsin, plasmin, and kallikrein. Aprotinin has been used successfully for many years in cardiac operations, and there have been preliminary investigations of its use in hip replacement operations. The objectives of this multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial were to evaluate the efficacy and safety of aprotinin as a blood-sparing agent in patients undergoing an elective primary unilateral total hip replacement and to examine its effect on the prevalence of deep-vein thrombosis in this population.
Seventy-three patients received a placebo; seventy-six patients, a low dose of aprotinin (a load of 500,000 kallikrein inhibitor units [KIU]); seventy-five, a medium dose of aprotinin (a load of 1,000,000 KIU, with infusion of 250,000 KIU per hour); and seventy-seven patients, a high dose of aprotinin (a load of 2,000,000 KIU, with infusion of 500,000 KIU per hour). The end points for the determination of efficacy were transfusion requirements and blood loss. Patients received standard prophylaxis against deep-vein thrombosis and underwent compression ultrasonography with color Doppler imaging of the proximal and distal venous systems of both legs to evaluate for the presence of deep-vein thrombosis.
Aprotinin reduced the percentages of patients who required any form of blood transfusion (47 percent of the patients managed with a placebo needed a transfusion compared with 28 percent of those managed with low-dose aprotinin [p = 0.02],27 percent of those managed with high-dose aprotinin [p = 0.008], and 40 percent of those managed with medium-dose aprotinin [p = 0.5]). Only 6 percent (twelve) of the 212 patients treated with aprotinin required allogeneic blood compared with 15 percent (ten) of the sixty-eight patients treated with the placebo (p = 0.03). Aprotinin decreased the estimated intraoperative blood loss (p = 0.02 for the low-dose group, p = 0.04 for the medium-dose group, and p = 0.1 for the high-dose group), the measured postoperative drainage volume (p = 0.4 for the low-dose group, p = 0.006 for the medium-dose group, and p = 0.000 for the high-dose group), and the mean reduction in the hemoglobin level on the second postoperative day (thirty-four grams per liter for the placebo group, twenty-eight grams per liter for the low-dose group [p = 0.000], twenty-six grams per liter for the medium-dose group [p = 0.000], and twenty-three grams per liter for the high-dose group [p = 0.0001). The rate of deep-vein thrombosis was similar for all groups.
We concluded that aprotinin is safe and effective for use as a hemostatic agent in primary unilateral total hip replacements. In patients who are at high risk of receiving allogeneic blood, use of aprotinin may be of particular clinical and economic benefit.
BACKGROUND: Studies on the safety of aprotinin in coronary artery surgery have given conflicting results. Therefore, we studied the possible link between perioperative aprotinin treatment and renal dysfunction in patients undergoing first-time coronary surgery with a high risk of bleeding. METHODS: We performed a matched cohort study, comparing 200 patients receiving high-dose aprotinin with 200 patients receiving tranexamic acid during primary isolated coronary surgery. Patients were matched according to age, sex, and presence of acute coronary syndrome. Primary outcome was fractional change in creatinine clearance. Secondary outcomes were other evaluations of postoperative renal function, mortality, stroke, reoperation for bleeding, and transfusion requirements. RESULTS: The groups were similar in baseline characteristics except that triple-vessel disease and history of myocardial infarction were more prevalent in the aprotinin group. No significant differences were found in fractional change in creatinine clearance (-11% versus -12%, medians, p = 0.75) or any other assessments of postoperative renal function between the tranexamic acid and the aprotinin group. Adverse event rates were similar: early mortality (3.5% versus 4.5%, p = 0.80), stroke (1.5% versus 2%, p = 1.0), reoperation for bleeding (3.5% versus 2.5%, p = 0.77), and 5-year survival (87% versus 84%, p = 0.17). Patients in the aprotinin group received fewer transfusions (48% versus 60.5%, p = 0.02), fewer units of packed red blood cells (2.0 versus 1.4, p = 0.02) and plasma (1.3 versus 0.5, p
Despite major advances in biomaterial research and blood conservation, bleeding is still a common complication after cardiopulmonary bypass and cardiac surgery remains a major consumer of blood products. Although the underlying mechanisms for these effects are not fully established, two proposed major etiologies are the hemodilution associated with the use of the heart-lung machine and the impact of reinfusion of shed cardiotomy blood. Therapeutic strategies that primarily encompass the use of devices or technologies to overcome these effects may result in improved clinical outcomes.
To determine the extent to which 1) lipid/leukocyte filtration and centrifugal processing of cardiotomy blood, and 2) modified ultrafiltration (MUF) are currently applied in adult cardiac surgery in Canada.
A questionnaire was mailed to the chief perfusionist at all adult cardiac surgical centers in Canada, addressing details regarding the frequency of use of cardiotomy blood processing and MUF.
All questionnaires (36, 100%) were completed and returned. With regards to cardiotomy blood management, in 21 centers (58%), no specific processing steps were utilized exclusive of the integrated cardiotomy reservoir filter. Of the remaining centers, two (6%) reported using lipid/leukocyte filtration and 15 (42%) reported washing their cardiotomy blood. Three centers (8%) reported using MUF at the end of CPB.
Despite growing concern about the potential detrimental effects of cardiotomy blood, few centers in Canada routinely manage this blood with additional filtration and/or centrifugal processing prior to reinfusion. Similarly, MUF, demonstrated to be effective in the pediatric population, has not seen popular application in adult cardiac surgical practice.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Bakri balloon in treating postpartum hemorrhage refractory to medical treatment. This retrospective study included 24 women with postpartum hemorrhage treated with a Bakri balloon as a conservative therapeutic option. The Bakri balloon was successful in controlling hemorrhage in 87.5% of the women. It was effective in all women with vaginal delivery (five of five) and in all women with uterine atony who did not respond to medical uterotonic treatment (eight of eight). Its ease of use and high effectiveness make the Bakri balloon a useful approach for the conservative management of acute postpartum hemorrhage. This device reduces bleeding, shortens the hospital stay and avoids the need for more aggressive procedures.
Studied a rational balance of prevention and control of blood loss and antithrombotic therapy in hip arthroplasty.
In view of literature data about significant blood loss during and after the intervention, as well as the formation of the group of patients who refuse blood transfusions for social (including religious) reasons, taken innovative methods for reducing blood loss and needs for blood transfusions.
Complex of techniques, including conducting spinal anesthesia, controlled hypotension with nitroglycerin and pentamine, intraoperative use of systemic hemostatic and preventive use of erythropoietic stimulating agents, was formed in our proprietary technology to reduce blood loss. Its use has allowed to reach a statistically significant reduction of blood loss and transfusion rate in hip arthroplasty patients.
To evaluate our experience with prophylactic balloon occlusion of the internal iliac arteries as a part of a multidisciplinary algorithm for the management of placenta percreta.
Consecutive case series. Setting. Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, Denmark. Sample. Seventeen women with placenta percreta.
Demographic characteristics, intraoperative data and outcomes are summarized and discussed.
Feasibility of local resection, intraoperative blood loss and transfusion requirements.
The multidisciplinary management allowed for local resections in nine of the 11 women who requested preservation of fertility. The mean intraoperative blood loss was 4050 mL (range 450-16 000 mL, median 2500 mL). Adhesions to the bladder or the parietal peritoneum were associated with an intraoperative blood loss >6000 mL.
Prophylactic balloon occlusion of the internal iliac arteries as part of a multidisciplinary algorithm allowed for a safe management of all cases in our consecutive series of 17 women with placenta percreta. However, intraoperative blood loss and transfusion requirements were significant. We have therefore decided to modify our multidisciplinary algorithm to include balloon occlusion of the common iliac arteries rather than the internal iliac arteries.
Thrombin formation commences perioperatively in orthopaedic surgery and therefore some surgeons prefer preoperative initiation of pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis. However, because of the potential for increased surgical bleeding, the postoperative initiation of thromboprophylaxis has been advocated to reduce blood loss, need for transfusion, and bleeding complications. Trials on timing of thromboprophylaxis have been designed primarily to detect thrombotic events, and it has been difficult to interpret the magnitude of blood loss and bleeding events owing to lack of information for bleeding volume and underpowered bleeding end points.
We therefore asked whether there are differences in blood loss, transfusion requirements, and other postoperative clinical complications with preoperative versus postoperative start of thromboprophylaxis with dalteparin.
In a double-blind, randomized controlled trial, 80 patients undergoing primary cemented THA were allocated to dalteparin injections starting 12 hours before or 6 hours after surgery. Blood loss was measured by weighing sponges and drapes, volume in suction drains during surgery, and wound drains until removal 24 hours postoperatively. Hemoglobin and hematocrit were recorded at predefined times during and after surgery.
We found no differences in blood loss (1081 mL ± 424 mL versus 1023 mL ± 238 mL), bleeding-related events (10% versus 17%), or number of patients who had transfusions (12 versus five) with preoperative and postoperative thromboprophylaxis, respectively. Other complications were few in both groups.
Our data suggest blood loss is similar with preoperative and postoperative initiation of dalteparin thromboprophylaxis, but indicate a trend toward fewer transfusion requirements which might favor postoperative start of thromboprophylaxis.