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A 1-year randomized study to evaluate the effects of a dose reduction in oral contraceptives on lipids and carbohydrate metabolism: 20 microg ethinyl estradiol combined with 100 microg levonorgestrel.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature176202
Source
Contraception. 2005 Feb;71(2):111-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2005
Author
Sven O Skouby
Jan Endrikat
Bernd Düsterberg
Werner Schmidt
Christoph Gerlinger
Jens Wessel
Henri Goldstein
Joergen Jespersen
Author Affiliation
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Frederiksberg Hospital, University of Copenhagen, DK 2000 Copenhagen F, Denmark. sven.skouby@fh.hosp.dk
Source
Contraception. 2005 Feb;71(2):111-7
Date
Feb-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Blood Glucose - metabolism
C-Peptide - blood
Carbohydrate Metabolism - drug effects
Cholesterol, HDL - blood
Cholesterol, LDL - blood
Contraceptive Agents, Female - administration & dosage - pharmacology
Contraceptives, Oral, Combined - administration & dosage - pharmacology
Denmark
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Ethinyl Estradiol - administration & dosage - pharmacology
Fatty Acids, Nonesterified - blood
Female
Humans
Insulin - blood
Levonorgestrel - administration & dosage - pharmacology
Lipid Metabolism - drug effects
Prospective Studies
Time Factors
Treatment Outcome
Triglycerides - blood
Abstract
To evaluate the impact on lipid and carbohydrate variables of a combined one-third ethinyl estradiol (EE)/levonorgestrel (LNG) dose reduction in oral contraceptives.
In an open-label, randomized study, a dose-reduced oral contraceptive containing 20 microg EE and 100 microg LNG (20 EE/100 LNG) was compared with a reference preparation containing 30 microg EE and 150 microg LNG (30 EE/150 LNG). One-year data from 48 volunteers were obtained.
We found a decrease of HDL2 cholesterol and increases of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and total triglycerides in both treatment groups from baseline to the 13th treatment cycle. Although for four of six variables, the changes in the 20 EE group were lower compared with the 30 EE group, none of the differences between the two treatments were statistically significant. The median values for the fasting levels of insulin, C-peptide and free fatty acids slightly increased or remained unchanged while the fasting glucose levels slightly decreased after 13 treatment cycles. While the glucose area under the curve (AUC) (0-3 h) was similar in both groups during the OGTT, the insulin AUC(0-3 h) was less increased in the 20 EE/100 LNG group compared with the 30 EE/150 LNG group. None of the differences between the treatment groups for any of the carbohydrate metabolism variables were statistically significant at any time point. Both study treatments were safe and well tolerated by the volunteers.
Similar effects on the lipid and carbohydrate profiles were found for both preparations. The balanced one-third EE dose reduction in this new oral contraceptive caused slightly lower, but insignificant, changes in the lipid and carbohydrate variables compared with the reference treatment.
PubMed ID
15707560 View in PubMed
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2-h postchallenge plasma glucose predicts cardiovascular events in patients with myocardial infarction without known diabetes mellitus.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature121853
Source
Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2012;11:93
Publication Type
Article
Date
2012
Author
Loghman Henareh
Stefan Agewall
Author Affiliation
Department of Cardiology Karolinska University Hospital, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden. loghman.henareh@karolinska.se
Source
Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2012;11:93
Date
2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Angina, Unstable - blood - epidemiology - mortality
Biological Markers - blood
Blood Glucose - metabolism
Chi-Square Distribution
Female
Glucose Tolerance Test
Humans
Incidence
Male
Middle Aged
Multivariate Analysis
Myocardial Infarction - blood - epidemiology - mortality
Predictive value of tests
Prognosis
Proportional Hazards Models
Prospective Studies
Recurrence
Risk assessment
Risk factors
Smoking - adverse effects - epidemiology
Stroke - blood - epidemiology - mortality
Sweden - epidemiology
Time Factors
Abstract
The incidence of cardiovascular events remains high in patients with myocardial infarction (MI) despite advances in current therapies. New and better methods for identifying patients at high risk of recurrent cardiovascular (CV) events are needed. This study aimed to analyze the predictive value of an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in patients with acute myocardial infarction without known diabetes mellitus (DM).
The prospective cohort study consisted of 123 men and women aged between 31-80 years who had suffered a previous MI 3-12 months before the examinations. The exclusion criteria were known diabetes mellitus. Patients were followed up over 6.03???1.36 years for CV death, recurrent MI, stroke and unstable angina pectoris. A standard OGTT was performed at baseline.
2-h plasma glucose (HR, 1.27, 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.62; P?
Notes
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PubMed ID
22873202 View in PubMed
Less detail

A 6-year nationwide cohort study of glycaemic control in young people with type 1 diabetes. Risk markers for the development of retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy. Danish Study Group of Diabetes in Childhood.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature32420
Source
J Diabetes Complications. 2000 Nov-Dec;14(6):295-300
Publication Type
Article
Author
B S Olsen
A. Sjølie
P. Hougaard
J. Johannesen
K. Borch-Johnsen
K. Marinelli
B. Thorsteinsson
S. Pramming
H B Mortensen
Author Affiliation
Department of Paediatrics, Glostrup University Hospital, DK-2600, Glostrup, Denmark.
Source
J Diabetes Complications. 2000 Nov-Dec;14(6):295-300
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Albuminuria - epidemiology
Blood Glucose - metabolism
Child
Cohort Studies
Denmark - epidemiology
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 - blood - drug therapy - physiopathology
Diabetic Nephropathies - epidemiology - prevention & control
Diabetic Neuropathies - epidemiology - prevention & control
Diabetic Retinopathy - epidemiology - prevention & control
Female
Humans
Male
Neurologic Examination
Perception
Probability
Risk factors
Vibration
Abstract
The study aimed to identify risk markers (present at the start of the study in 1989) for the occurrence and progression of microvascular complications 6 years later (in 1995) in a Danish nationwide cohort of children and adolescents with Type 1 diabetes (average age at entry 13.7 years). Probabilities for the development of elevated albumin excretion rate (AER), retinopathy, and increased vibration perception threshold (VPT) could then be estimated from a stepwise logistic regression model. A total of 339 patients (47% of the original cohort) were studied. Sex, age, diabetes duration, insulin regimen and dose, height, weight, HbA(1c), blood pressure, and AER were recorded. In addition, information on retinopathy, neuropathy (VPT), and anti-hypertensive treatment was obtained at the end of the study. HbA(1c) (normal range 4.3-5.8, mean 5.3%) and AER (upper normal limit or =20 microg min(-1)) was found in 12.8% of the patients in 1995, and risk markers for this were increased AER and high HbA(1c), in 1989 (both p6.5 V) was found in 62.5% of patients in 1995, for which the risk markers were male sex (p
PubMed ID
11120452 View in PubMed
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7(th) Annual Symposium on Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose (SMBG), May 8-10, 2014, Helsinki, Finland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature264876
Source
Diabetes Technol Ther. 2014 Nov;16(11):794-815
Publication Type
Conference/Meeting Material
Article
Date
Nov-2014
Author
Christopher G Parkin
Anita Mlinac
Rolf Hinzmann
Source
Diabetes Technol Ther. 2014 Nov;16(11):794-815
Date
Nov-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Conference/Meeting Material
Article
Keywords
Blood Glucose - metabolism
Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring - trends
Diabetes Mellitus - blood
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 - blood
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - blood
Finland
Guidelines as Topic
Humans
Hypoglycemic Agents - administration & dosage
Insulin - administration & dosage
Monitoring, Ambulatory
Patient compliance
Abstract
International experts in the fields of diabetes, diabetes technology, endocrinology, mobile health, sport science, and regulatory issues gathered for the 7(th) Annual Symposium on Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose (SMBG). The aim of this meeting was to facilitate new collaborations and research projects to improve the lives of people with diabetes. The 2014 meeting comprised a comprehensive scientific program, parallel interactive workshops, and two keynote lectures.
Notes
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PubMed ID
25211215 View in PubMed
Less detail

Abnormal glucose regulation and gender-specific risk of fatal coronary artery disease in the HUNT 1 study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature127351
Source
Scand Cardiovasc J. 2012 Aug;46(4):219-25
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2012
Author
Erik Madssen
Lars Vatten
Tom Ivar Nilsen
Kristian Midthjell
Rune Wiseth
Ane Cecilie Dale
Author Affiliation
Department of Circulation and Medical Imaging, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
Source
Scand Cardiovasc J. 2012 Aug;46(4):219-25
Date
Aug-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Blood Glucose - metabolism
Confidence Intervals
Coronary Artery Disease - epidemiology - metabolism - mortality
Diabetes Mellitus - metabolism
Female
Health Status Indicators
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Norway
Proportional Hazards Models
Prospective Studies
Registries
Risk Assessment - methods
Sex Factors
Abstract
To assess fatal coronary artery disease (CAD) by gender and glucose regulation status.
47,951 people were followed up according to fatal CAD identified in the National Cause of Death Registry. Gender-effects of fatal CAD in people with impaired glucose regulation (IGR), newly diagnosed diabetes (NDM) or known diabetes (KDM) compared with people with normal glucose regulation (NGR) were calculated using Cox regression.
Using NGR as reference, the hazard ratios (HR, 95% confidence intervals) associated with IGR was 1.2 (0.8-1.9) for women and 1.2 (0.9-1.6) for men. The corresponding HRs were 1.6 (1.2-2.2) and 1.4 (1.1.-1.9) for NDM, and 2.5 (2.1-2.8) and 1.8 (1.6-2.1) for KDM. The gender-difference in mortality varied by category (P(interaction) = 0.003). Using women as the reference, the HRs for men were 2.1 (2.0-2.3) for NGR, 1.8 (1.0-3.3) for IGR, 1.6 (1.0-2.5) for NDM, and 1.2 (1.0-1.5) for KDM.
Diabetes mellitus, but not IGR, was associated with fatal CAD in both genders. The known gender-difference in CAD mortality was attenuated in people with abnormal glucose regulation, evident already in people with IGR.
PubMed ID
22303857 View in PubMed
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Abnormal screening glucose challenge test in pregnancy and future risk of diabetes in young women.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature149375
Source
Diabet Med. 2009 May;26(5):474-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2009
Author
R. Retnakaran
B R Shah
Author Affiliation
Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.
Source
Diabet Med. 2009 May;26(5):474-7
Date
May-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Blood Glucose - metabolism
Cohort Studies
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - epidemiology
Female
Glucose Intolerance - blood - epidemiology
Glucose Tolerance Test
Humans
Middle Aged
Ontario - epidemiology
Prediabetic State - epidemiology
Predictive value of tests
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Complications - blood - epidemiology
Risk factors
Abstract
Pregnant women commonly undergo screening for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) using a 50-g glucose challenge test (GCT), followed by a diagnostic oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in those women in whom the GCT is abnormal. Although it has long been recognized that GDM is associated with subsequent Type 2 diabetes, it has recently emerged that any degree of abnormal antepartum glucose homeostasis predicts an increased risk of postpartum glucose intolerance. Thus, in this context, we sought to determine whether women who have a pregnancy complicated by an abnormal GCT, but who do not have GDM, are at increased risk of subsequent diabetes, compared with their peers with an abnormal GCT.
A population-based, retrospective cohort study was conducted. Women referred for an antepartum OGTT indicative of an abnormal GCT (n = 15 381), but without GDM, were matched (for age, region, socioeconomic status, and year of delivery) with up to four other women without such referral (n = 61 237). The two cohorts were followed over a median 6.4 years for the development of diabetes.
The rate of incident diabetes was 5.04 cases per 1000 person-years in the cohort of women who underwent an antepartum OGTT, compared with 1.74 cases per 1000 person-years in women without an OGTT. The hazard ratio for subsequent diabetes in women with an antepartum OGTT was 2.56 (95% confidence interval 2.28, 2.87) (P
Notes
Comment In: Diabet Med. 2010 Jun;27(6):72820546300
PubMed ID
19646185 View in PubMed
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Absence of association between genetic variation of the beta 3-adrenergic receptor and metabolic phenotypes in Oji-Cree.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature205667
Source
Diabetes Care. 1998 May;21(5):851-4
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-1998
Author
R A Hegele
S B Harris
A J Hanley
H. Azouz
P W Connelly
B. Zinman
Author Affiliation
Blackburn Cardiovascular Genetics Laboratory, Robarts Research Institute, London, Ontario, Canada. robert.hegele@rri.on.ca
Source
Diabetes Care. 1998 May;21(5):851-4
Date
May-1998
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adipose Tissue - metabolism
Adult
Alleles
American Native Continental Ancestry Group - genetics
Analysis of Variance
Blood Glucose - metabolism
Body constitution
Body mass index
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - blood - epidemiology - genetics
Female
Gene Frequency
Genetic Variation
Genotype
Humans
Insulin - blood
Male
Middle Aged
Ontario - epidemiology
Phenotype
Receptors, Adrenergic, beta - genetics
Abstract
To assess the association between the common missense variant, Y64R, in the gene encoding the beta 3-adrenergic receptor, ADRB3, and intermediate phenotypes related to obesity and NIDDM in Canadian Oji-Cree.
We determined genotypes of the ADRB3 Y64R polymorphism in 508 clinically and biochemically well-characterized adult Oji-Cree, of whom 115 had NIDDM. We tested for associations with multivariate analysis of variance.
We found the ADRB3 R64 allele frequency to be 0.40 in this population, which is the highest yet observed in a human population. Furthermore, 15% of subjects were R64/R64 homozygotes, compared with a virtual absence of homozygotes in European study samples. However, we found no statistically significant associations of the ADRB3 Y64R genotype either with the presence of NIDDM, with indexes of obesity, or with intermediate quantitative biochemical traits related to NIDDM.
Despite the very high frequency of the ADRB3 R64 allele in this sample of aboriginal people, it was not associated with any metabolic phenotype. This suggests that the ADRB3 R64 allele is probably not a major determinant of obesity or NIDDM in these aboriginal Canadians.
PubMed ID
9589254 View in PubMed
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Acarbose treatment and the risk of cardiovascular disease and hypertension in patients with impaired glucose tolerance: the STOP-NIDDM trial.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature47380
Source
JAMA. 2003 Jul 23;290(4):486-94
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-23-2003
Author
Jean-Louis Chiasson
Robert G Josse
Ramon Gomis
Markolf Hanefeld
Avraham Karasik
Markku Laakso
Author Affiliation
Research Centre, Centre Hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal-Hôtel-Dieu and Department of Medicine, Université de Montréal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. jean.louis.chiasson@umontreal.ca
Source
JAMA. 2003 Jul 23;290(4):486-94
Date
Jul-23-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acarbose - therapeutic use
Blood Glucose - metabolism
Cardiovascular Diseases - epidemiology - prevention & control
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - blood - drug therapy
Diabetic Angiopathies - epidemiology - prevention & control
Double-Blind Method
Female
Humans
Hypertension - epidemiology - prevention & control
Hypoglycemic agents - therapeutic use
Male
Middle Aged
Postprandial Period
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk
Risk factors
alpha-Glucosidases - antagonists & inhibitors
Abstract
CONTEXT: The worldwide explosive increase in type 2 diabetes mellitus and its cardiovascular morbidity are becoming major health concerns. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of decreasing postprandial hyperglycemia with acarbose, an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, on the risk of cardiovascular disease and hypertension in patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: International, multicenter double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial, undertaken in hospitals in Canada, Germany, Austria, Norway, Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Israel, and Spain from July 1998 through August 2001. A total of 1429 patients with IGT were randomized with 61 patients (4%) excluded because they did not have IGT or had no postrandomization data, leaving 1368 patients for a modified intent-to-treat analysis. Both men (49%) and women (51%) participated with a mean (SD) age of 54.5 (7.9) years and body mass index of 30.9 (4.2). These patients were followed up for a mean (SD) of 3.3 (1.2) years. INTERVENTION: Patients with IGT were randomized to receive either placebo (n = 715) or 100 mg of acarbose 3 times a day (n = 714). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The development of major cardiovascular events (coronary heart disease, cardiovascular death, congestive heart failure, cerebrovascular event, and peripheral vascular disease) and hypertension (> or =140/90 mm Hg). RESULTS: Three hundred forty-one patients (24%) discontinued their participation prematurely, 211 in the acarbose-treated group and 130 in the placebo group; these patients were also followed up for outcome parameters. Decreasing postprandial hyperglycemia with acarbose was associated with a 49% relative risk reduction in the development of cardiovascular events (hazard ratio [HR], 0.51; 95% confidence interval [CI]; 0.28-0.95; P =.03) and a 2.5% absolute risk reduction. Among cardiovascular events, the major reduction was in the risk of myocardial infarction (HR, 0.09; 95% CI, 0.01-0.72; P =.02). Acarbose was also associated with a 34% relative risk reduction in the incidence of new cases of hypertension (HR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.49-0.89; P =.006) and a 5.3% absolute risk reduction. Even after adjusting for major risk factors, the reduction in the risk of cardiovascular events (HR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.24-0.90; P =.02) and hypertension (HR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.45-0.86; P =.004) associated with acarbose treatment was still statistically significant. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that treating IGT patients with acarbose is associated with a significant reduction in the risk of cardiovascular disease and hypertension.
Notes
Comment In: ACP J Club. 2004 Jan-Feb;140(1):214711273
Comment In: Curr Diab Rep. 2004 Feb;4(1):1114764272
Comment In: JAMA. 2003 Dec 17;290(23):3066-7; author reply 3067-914679261
Comment In: JAMA. 2003 Dec 17;290(23):3066; author reply 3067-914679262
Comment In: JAMA. 2003 Dec 17;290(23):3066; author reply 3067-914679260
Comment In: JAMA. 2003 Dec 17;290(23):3067; author reply 3067-914679263
PubMed ID
12876091 View in PubMed
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Accumulated exposure to unemployment is related to impaired glucose metabolism in middle-aged men: A follow-up of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature291192
Source
Prim Care Diabetes. 2017 Aug; 11(4):365-372
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Date
Aug-2017
Author
Nina Rautio
Tuulia Varanka-Ruuska
Eeva Vaaramo
Saranya Palaniswamy
Rozenn Nedelec
Jouko Miettunen
Jaro Karppinen
Juha Auvinen
Marjo-Riitta Järvelin
Sirkka Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi
Sylvain Sebert
Leena Ala-Mursula
Author Affiliation
Center for Life Course Health Research, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 5000, 90014 Oulu, Finland; Unit of Primary Health Care, Oulu University Hospital, OYS, P.O. Box 20, 90029 Oulu, Finland. Electronic address: nina.rautio@oulu.fi.
Source
Prim Care Diabetes. 2017 Aug; 11(4):365-372
Date
Aug-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Keywords
Age Factors
Biomarkers - blood
Blood Glucose - metabolism
Chi-Square Distribution
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - blood - diagnosis - epidemiology
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Follow-Up Studies
Glucose Tolerance Test
Humans
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Multivariate Analysis
Odds Ratio
Prediabetic State - blood - diagnosis - epidemiology
Registries
Risk factors
Sex Factors
Surveys and Questionnaires
Time Factors
Unemployment
Abstract
We explored whether registered unemployment is associated with impaired glucose metabolism in general population.
Based on Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 at 46 years, we analyzed the oral glucose tolerance tests of 1970 men and 2544 women in relation to their preceding three-year employment records in three categories of unemployment exposure: no (employed), low (=1-year) and high exposure (>1-year).
Among men, pre-diabetes was found in 19.2% of those with no unemployment, 23.0% with low and 27.0% with high exposure, the corresponding figures for screen-detected type 2 diabetes were 3.8%, 3.8% and 9.2% (p
Notes
CommentIn: Prim Care Diabetes. 2018 Feb;12 (1):92 PMID 28807657
PubMed ID
28456438 View in PubMed
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Acute hyperinsulinemia increases the contraction of retinal arterioles induced by elevated blood pressure.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature107100
Source
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2013 Dec 1;305(11):H1600-4
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-1-2013
Author
Peter Jeppesen
Søren Tang Knudsen
Per Løgstrup Poulsen
Anders Hessellund
Ole Schmitz
Toke Bek
Author Affiliation
Department of Ophthalmology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark; and.
Source
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2013 Dec 1;305(11):H1600-4
Date
Dec-1-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acute Disease
Adult
Analysis of Variance
Arterial Pressure
Arterioles - physiopathology
Blood Glucose - metabolism
Cross-Over Studies
Denmark
Exercise
Homeostasis
Humans
Hyperinsulinism - blood - physiopathology
Insulin - blood
Isometric Contraction
Male
Photic Stimulation
Retinal Vessels - physiopathology
Time Factors
Vasoconstriction
Young Adult
Abstract
Diabetic retinopathy is accompanied by disturbances in retinal blood flow, which is assumed to be related to the diabetic metabolic dysregulation. It has previously been shown that normoinsulinemic hyperglycemia has no effect on the diameter of retinal arterioles at rest and during an increase in the arterial blood pressure induced by isometric exercise. However, the influence of hyperinsulinemia on this response has not been studied in detail. In seven normal persons, the diameter response of retinal arterioles to an increased blood pressure induced by isometric exercise, to stimulation with flickering light, and to the combination of these stimuli was studied during euglycemic normoinsulinemia (protocol N) on one examination day, and euglycemic hyperinsulinemia (protocol H) on another examination day. Isometric exercise induced significant contraction of retinal arterioles at all examinations, but during a repeated examination the diameter response was significantly reduced in the test persons following the N protocol and increased in the persons following the H protocol. Flicker stimulation induced a significant dilatation of retinal arterioles at all examinations, and the response was significantly higher during a repeated examination, irrespective of the insulin level. Repeated exposure to isometric exercise reduces contraction, whereas repeated exposure to flickering light increases dilatation of retinal arterioles in vivo. Hyperinsulinemia increases contraction of retinal arterioles induced by isometric exercise.
PubMed ID
24056905 View in PubMed
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