Endothelial vasodilator dysfunction and carotid intima-media thickening (IMT) are 2 indicators of subclinical cardiovascular disease. We examined their correlation and interaction with risk factors in a large, community-based cohort of young adults.
As part of the longitudinal Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study, we measured endothelium-dependent brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) and carotid artery IMT by ultrasound in 2109 healthy adults aged 24 to 39 years. FMD was inversely associated with IMT (P0.2).
Brachial FMD is inversely associated with carotid IMT. The number of risk factors in young adults is correlated with increased IMT in subjects with evidence of endothelial dysfunction, but not in subjects with preserved endothelial function. These observations suggest that endothelial dysfunction is an early event in atherosclerosis and that the status of systemic endothelial function may modify the association between risk factors and atherosclerosis.
Comment In: Circulation. 2004 Nov 2;110(18):2774-715520334
Physical activity (PA) is important in the prevention and treatment of impaired glucose metabolism. However, association of physical inactivity during the transition between childhood and adulthood with glucose metabolism is unknown. Therefore, we studied the association of persistent physical inactivity since childhood with glucose metabolism in adulthood.
Data were drawn from the ongoing, Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study with repeated follow-ups between 1980 and 2011 (baseline age, 3-18 yr; n = 3596). Impaired glucose metabolism was defined as having impaired fasting glucose (6.1-6.9 mmol·L) or type 2 diabetes in adulthood. Leisure-time PA habits were repeatedly collected with a standardized questionnaire and expressed as a PA Index. Using PA Index, four groups were formed (n = 2000): 1) persistently low PA, 2) decreasingly active, 3) increasingly active, and 4) persistently active subjects. Poisson regression model was used to examine the association between PA groups and impaired glucose metabolism.
The proportion of the sample with impaired glucose metabolism was 16.1% in individuals with persistently low PA, 14.5% in decreasingly active, 6.8% in increasingly active, and 11.1% in persistently active. Compared with individuals with persistently low PA, age and sex-adjusted risk for impaired glucose metabolism were lower in those who increased PA (relative risk [RR], 0.47; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.29-0.76) and in those who were persistently active (RR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.51-0.97), but similar in those who decreased PA (RR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.66-1.36).
Persistently physically inactive lifestyle from youth to adulthood is associated with increased risk of impaired glucose metabolism in adulthood. Importantly, a moderate increase in PA lowered the risk. The results highlight the importance of avoiding physically inactive lifestyle at all stages of life.
Our objective was to investigate whether serum concentrations of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) or l-arginine correlate to hyperlipidemia or endothelial function in normal pregnancy compared with the non-pregnant subjects.
As a part of population-based, prospective cohort Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns study conducted in Finland we examined 57 pregnant Finnish women throughout gestation and 62 control women matched for age and smoking. Serum glucose, triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density cholesterol (HDL-C) and ADMA, symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) and l-arginine were determined concomitantly with endothelium-dependent brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD), measured by ultrasound. All serum lipid concentrations were significantly higher in pregnant women than in non-pregnant women (P