A representative population sample of middle-aged women was studied in 1974-75. In a subsample, body composition and adipose tissue cellularity variables were determined and individuals with a particular clinical disorder were compared with the total subsample. Women with diabetes mellitus had more body fat and higher fat cell weights and larger fat cell members, whereas these variables did not differ in women with IHD or hypertension compared with the total subsample. Total body fat correlated with arterial BPs, fasting blood glucose, serum lipids and serum uric acid. The correlations were stronger than those reported previously by us between weight index and these variables. In univariate analyses, fat cell weight correlated with systolic BP, serum triglycerides and serum uric acid, and fat cell number with diastolic BP, fasting blood glucose and serum uric acid. In multivariate analyses, when due allowance was made for total body fat, the correlations between these variables and fat cell weight or fat cell number did not reach statistical significance.
A longitudinal population study of 1462 women aged 38-60 was carried out from 1968-9 to 1980-1 in Gothenburg, Sweden. The initial and follow up examinations included questions concerning history of diabetes and antihypertensive treatment. A considerably increased risk of developing diabetes was observed for subjects with hypertension taking diuretics (895 patient years), subjects taking beta blockers (682 patient years), and subjects taking a combination of diuretics and beta blockers (281 patient years) compared with subjects not taking antihypertensive drugs (13 855 control years). When diuretics and beta blockers were compared no difference was found in relative risk. Despite this increased risk, and because little is known about the relation between other forms of antihypertensive treatment and diabetes, diuretics and beta blockers should remain the treatments of choice in arterial hypertension.
The records of 117 subjects, workers who had participated in a health examination at a Swedish industry, were studied retrospectively in order to find out which measures had been taken as a consequence of the results from the different examinations. The extensive laboratory examination programme that had been carried out seemed to be of limited value. It is concluded that the extensive examination programmes carried out in many industries should be re-evaluated more critically.
In a population sample of 1462 women aged 38--60 years, those with overweight were studied separately and compared with the women in the total population sample. Overweight was defined as the upper 5% of a weight index in the various ages studied and the weight index as (formula: see text). Significant differences, with higher values in the overweight women, were found for serum triglycerides, serum uric acid and arterial BP. Smoking was significantly less common in the overweight women. Serum cholesterol was similar in overweight women and in women in the total sample. Higher values for some risk factors for ischaemic heart disease in the overweight group of women thus seemed to be compensated to some extent by a lower number of smokers in this group.
The results presented in this paper concerning regional obesity as a health hazard in women refer to a 12-year longitudinal population study of 1,462 women, aged 38-60, which was carried out in Gothenburg, Sweden, in 1968-69. In univariate analysis the ratio of waist-to-hip circumference showed a significant positive association with the 12-year incidence of myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, stroke, diabetes mellitus and death. The association with incidence of myocardial infarction and diabetes mellitus remained in multivariate analysis. The relation between the ratio of waist-to-hip circumference and the end points studied was stronger than for any other anthropometric variable studied.