It was shown that the increase of lead content in the blood, liver, placenta of female rats, rat embryo and embryo's liver (by 80.4; 30.9; 26.8; 18.2 and 22.7%, respectively) of rats poisoned by lead causes pH decrease in blood, reduction of HCO3- concentration, content of general CO2, level of pCO2 and pO2, that evidences for development of subcompensated metabolic acidosis. It was determined, that the poisoning of pregnant rats causes deep metabolic acidosis and hypoxia in their organisms that can result in the prenatal death of fetus.
101 patients were treated for acute acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) poisoning in the Nephrological Unit Trondheim between 1971-1975. On admission 33 of them had a serum salicylic acid (SA) concentration greater than 400 microgram/ml (mean 588 +/- 40 microgram/ml). This group was compared with a group of 11 children less than 5 years old with ASA poisoning and a mean serum SA on admission of 550 +/- 34 microgram/ml. Blood pH on admission was normal or elevated in all patients more than 12 years old (mean 7.43 +/- 0.01), whereas 7 of the 11 children suffered from metabolic acidosis. The results of forced alkaline diuresis produced by loop diuretics (bumetanide, furosemide) in ASA poisoned patients older than 12 years are reported. The mean T 1/2 of SA was 9.6 h in the treated group as compared to 18-22 h in untreated patients. There was no apparent difference between the diuretic effect of bumetanide and furosemide.
Elevated base deficit (BD) and lactate levels at admission in patients with injury have been shown to be associated with increased mortality. This relationship is undefined in the Canadian experience. The goal of this study was to define the association between arterial blood gas (ABG) values at admission and mortality for Canadians with severe blunt injury.
A retrospective review of 3,000 consecutive adult major trauma admissions (Injury Severity Score, = 12) to a Canadian academic tertiary care referral center was performed. ABG values at the time of arrival were analyzed with respect to associated mortality and length of stay.
A total of 2,269 patients (76%) had complete data available for analysis. After exclusion of patients who sustained a penetrating injury or were admitted for minor falls (ground levels or low height), 445 had an ABG drawn within 2 hours of arrival. Patients who died displayed a higher median lactate (3.6 vs. 2.2, p
The potentialities of graphic ventilation monitoring (graphic monitor "Servo Screen 390", Siemens Elema, Sweden) were analyzed for optimizing the respiratory management parameters in 48 obstetric and gynecology patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The ventilation loops and curves, ALV parameters, mechanical lung properties, gas blood composition and gas indices were dynamically evaluated during examination stages. The graphic ventilation monitoring, when used for respiratory management in patients with ARDS, provides for optimizing, in the real time mode, the PEEP and Vt levels, which is in line with the AVL "safety" concept.
1Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland. 2Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio, Finland. 3Department of Intensive Care, North Karelia Central Hospital, Joensuu, Finland. 4Centre for Prehospital Emergency Care, Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio, Finland. 5Department of Neurology, Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.
Optimal oxygen and carbon dioxide levels during postcardiac arrest care are currently undefined and observational studies have suggested harm from hyperoxia exposure. We aimed to assess whether mean and time-weighted oxygen and carbon dioxide levels during the first 24 hours of postcardiac arrest care correlate with 12-month neurologic outcome.
Prospective observational cohort study.
Twenty-one ICUs in Finland.
Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients treated in ICUs in Finland between March 2010 and February 2011.
Arterial blood PaO2 and PaCO2 during the first 24 hours from admission were divided into predefined categories from the lowest to the highest. Proportions of time spent in different categories and the mean PaO2 and PaCO2 values during the first 24 hours were included in separate multivariable regression models along with resuscitation factors. The cerebral performance category at 12 months was used as primary endpoint. A total of 409 patients with arterial blood gases analyzed at least once and with a complete set of resuscitation data were included. The average amount of PaO2 and PaCO2 measurements was eight per patient. The mean 24 hours PaCO2 level was an independent predictor of good outcome (odds ratio, 1.054; 95% CI, 1.006-1.104; p = 0.027) but the mean PaO2 value was not (odds ratio, 1.006; 95% CI, 0.998-1.014; p = 0.149). With multivariate regression analysis, time spent in the PaCO2 band higher than 45 mm Hg was associated with good outcome (odds ratio, 1.015; 95% CI, 1.002-1.029; p = 0.024, for each percentage point increase in time) but time spent in different oxygen categories were not.
In this multicenter study, hypercapnia was associated with good 12-month outcome in patients resuscitated from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. We were unable to verify any harm from hyperoxia exposure. Further trials should focus on whether moderate hypercapnia during postcardiac arrest care improves outcome.
Comment In: Crit Care Med. 2014 Jun;42(6):1561-224836799
There is much controversy about the optimal bloodgas management of hypothermic patients, whether the hypothermia is caused by accidents or induced before operations. The surgeons and anestesiologists have acquired more clinical experience the last years when operating patients in hypothermia. The comparative physiology has given increased information about the blood gas strategy of heterothermic endotherms and poikilothermic ectotherms during lowering of their core temperature. There are two types of strategies which have been used in clinical medicine the last years in the blood gas management of patients in hypothermia: pH-stat method and alpha-stat method. In the pH-stat method, the arterial carbon dioxide tension (pCO2(a)) is maintained at 5.3 kPa (40 mmHg) and the pH is maintained at 7.40 when measured at the actual temperature. It is then necessary to add CO2 to the inspired gas. In the alpha-method, the arterial carbon dioxide tension and the pH are maintained at 5.3 kPa and 7.40 when measured at +37 degrees C. When a patient is cooled down, the pH-value will increase and the pCO2-value and the pO2-value will decrease with lowering of the temperature if measured at the patients temperature. Both the pH-stat and alpha-stat strategies have theoretical disadvantages. For the optimal myocardial function the alpha-stat method is the method of choice. The pH-stat method may result in loss of autoregulation in the brain (coupling of the cerebral blood flow with the metabolic rate in the brain). By increasing the cerebral blood flow beyond the metabolic requirements, the pH-stat method may lead to cerebral microembolisation and intracranial hypertension. In Norway the alpha-stat strategy is the preferred method.