Background Heparin dosage for anticoagulation during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is commonly calculated based on the patient's body weight. The protamine-heparin ratio used for heparin reversal varies widely among institutions (0.7-1.3?mg protamine/100 IU heparin). Excess protamine may impair coagulation. With an empirically developed algorithm, the HeProCalc program, heparin, and protamine doses are calculated during the procedure. The primary aim was to investigate whether HeProCalc-based dosage of heparin could reduce protamine use compared with traditional dosages. The secondary aim was to investigate whether HeProCalc-based dosage of protamine affected postoperative bleeding. Patients and Methods We consecutively randomized 40 patients into two groups. In the control group, traditional heparin and protamine doses, based on body weight alone, were given. In the treatment group, the HeProCalc program was used, which calculated the initial heparin bolus dose from weight, height, and baseline activated clotting time and the protamine dose at termination of CPB. Results We analyzed the results from 37 patients, after exclusion of three patients. Equal doses of heparin were given in both groups, whereas significantly lower mean doses of protamine were given in the treatment group versus control group (211?±?56 vs. 330?±?61?mg, p?
Upper Gastrointestinal Surgery Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Unit of Epidemiology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
Anticoagulant treatment might enhance the natural defense against tumor cell dissemination caused by diagnostic needle biopsy by counteracting thrombocyte coating of such cells. To clarify whether women using anticoagulant treatment at the time of biopsy have a lower occurrence of lymph node metastasis, we conducted a nationwide Swedish cohort study of 26,528 female incident breast cancer patients in 2006-2011. Point risk ratio (RR) of risk of lymph node metastasis among users of anticoagulant treatment adjusted for age, T-stage, socioeconomic factors, and concomitant medication was RR?=?0.94, (95% CI: 0.87-1.03), and lower in younger women (RR?=?0.80, 95% CI 0.50-1.29). Although nonsignificant, these associations may underestimate a true negative association since women using anticoagulant treatment are likely to have more concomitant diseases, lead an unhealthier lifestyle, and have lower participation in mammography screening. These findings provide some support for the hypothesis that anticoagulant medications might counteract breast cancer spread caused by needle biopsy.
The article focuses on the status of a natural anticoagulant antithrombin III in patients with acute viral myocarditis (AVM) and on modes of treatment thereof. It has been proved that there is a statistically significant correlation between a drop in concentration of antithrombin III and degree of severity of AVM. Convincing, statistically significant data have been obtained that antithrombin III gets increased in AVM patients undergoing complex therapy: in those patients running a mild course of the illness, a mild one presenting with elevated indices for homeostasis, a medium gravity course (diclofenac, heparin, thiotriasoline, quick-frozen plasma), and grave course as well (prednizolon, heparin, thiotriasoline, quick-frozen plasma), which fact can be taken account of in choosing a therapeutic regimen.
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a prothrombotic condition, involving increased thrombin generation and fibrinogen concentrations. Vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) prevent arterial thromboembolism if optimal anticoagulation is achieved by individualised drug doses, assessed by determining the Prothrombin time-related International Normalized Ratio (Pt-INR). There is evidence that formation of tight-laced fibrin networks is pathogenic in prothrombotic diseases. This study was performed among AF patients, to test whether long-term treatment with VKAs affects the structure of fibrin networks, and whether the effect is altered by employing different coagulation triggers: exogenous thrombin (1 IU/ml), 10 pM tissue factor (TF) or a commercial Pt-INR reagent (containing 400-fold more TF). In the thrombin-based method, fibrin network porosity (scanning electron microscopy) and liquid permeability (flow measurements) correlated inversely to fibrinogen concentrations, while positive correlations to the degree of anticoagulation were shown with the Pt-INR reagent. In the method with 10 pM TF, the two above relationships were detected, though the influence of Pt-INR was more profound than that of fibrinogen concentrations. Moreover, greater shortening of clot lysis time (CLT) arose from more permeable clots. As a coagulation trigger, 10 pM TF vs exogenous thrombin or the Pt-INR reagent is more informative in reflecting the in vivo process from thrombin generation to fibrin formation. Since fibrin network permeability rose in parallel to elevations of INR and shortening of CLT in AF patients, antithrombotic effects on prevention of thrombotic complications may be achieved from impairment of thrombin generation, resulting in formation of permeable clots susceptible to fibrinolysis.
Exposure to elevated levels of ambient air pollutants can lead to adverse cardiovascular effects. Potential mechanisms include systemic inflammation and perturbation of the coagulation balance.
To investigate long- and short-term effects of air pollution exposure on serum levels of inflammatory (IL-6, TNF-alpha and CRP) and coagulation (fibrinogen and PAI-1) markers relevant for cardiovascular pathology.
The study group consisted of a population sample of 1028 men and 508 women aged 45-70 years from Stockholm. Long-term air pollution exposure was assessed using spatial modelling of traffic-related NO(2) and heating-related SO(2) emissions at each subject's residential addresses over retrospective periods of 1, 5 and 30 years. Short-term exposure was assessed as averages of rooftop measurements over 12-120 h before blood sampling.
Long-term exposures to both traffic-NO(2) and heating-SO(2) emissions showed consistent associations with IL-6 levels. 30-year average traffic-NO(2) exposure was associated with a 64.5% (95% CI 6.7% to 153.8%) increase in serum IL-6 per 28.8 microg/m(3) (corresponding to the difference between the 5th and 95th percentile exposure value), and 30-year exposure to heating-SO(2) with a 67.6% (95% CI 7.1% to 162.2%) increase per 39.4 microg/m(3) (5th-95th percentile value difference). The association appeared stronger in non-smokers, physically active people and hypertensive subjects. We observed positive non-significant associations of inflammatory markers with NO(2) and PM(10) during 24 h before blood sampling. Short-term exposure to O(3) was associated with increased, and SO(2) with decreased, fibrinogen levels.
Our results suggest that exposure to moderate levels of air pollution may influence serum levels of inflammatory markers.
Studied a rational balance of prevention and control of blood loss and antithrombotic therapy in hip arthroplasty.
In view of literature data about significant blood loss during and after the intervention, as well as the formation of the group of patients who refuse blood transfusions for social (including religious) reasons, taken innovative methods for reducing blood loss and needs for blood transfusions.
Complex of techniques, including conducting spinal anesthesia, controlled hypotension with nitroglycerin and pentamine, intraoperative use of systemic hemostatic and preventive use of erythropoietic stimulating agents, was formed in our proprietary technology to reduce blood loss. Its use has allowed to reach a statistically significant reduction of blood loss and transfusion rate in hip arthroplasty patients.
BACKGROUND: Vitamin K has several biological effects and dietary intake seems to be more important than previously believed because of low bioavailability of the vitamins from the colon. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data from the literature were identified on PubMed, and data from NORKOST II (a dietary study from 1997 based on a nation-wide sample of respondents) were used to calculate dietary intake of vitamin K. RESULTS: The dietary intake of vitamin K in Norway seems to be
Comment In: Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2004 Dec 16;124(24):3261; author reply 3261-215608790
The standardized test used for evaluating the effect of warfarin is the prothrombin time (PT) which is measured and expressed in international normalized ratio (INR). Regular control of treatment intensity is required since inappropriate dosage increases the risk for complications. Portable point-of-care analytical instruments for measurement of capillary whole blood PT have been available for the last decades. The purpose of this study was to compare and evaluate INR values obtained by the point-of-care device CoaguChek XS, to Owren PT in a hospital setting.
In 397 warfarin-treated patients, capillary whole blood was analyzed with the CoaguChek XS and the results were compared to analysis of venous plasma samples with the Owren PT assay. To study reproducibility and rule out preanalytical errors, a subgroup of 152 patients had two capillary blood samples analyzed with the CoaguChek XS.
In 397 patients, with a median age(+/-2SD) of 69.0(50-88) years, there was a positive correlation between results from the CoaguChek XS and the Owren-type PT assay (r=0.94;p
The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of different Ukrain doses in the combined treatment of 75 patients with breast cancer. The patients were divided into three groups: groups I and II (25 patients each) were treated with 50 mg and 100 mg of Ukrain, respectively, before surgery; group III (25 patients) served as control (without Ukrain treatment). Clinical observations, biochemical, hormonal and immunologic indices indicated that both doses of Ukrain had a similar beneficial effect on patient outcome and may be indicated in the presurgical treatment of patients with breast cancer.
The objective was to assess whether the concurrent use of tramadol and vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) leads to an increased risk of excessive anticoagulation.
The study was designed as a case-control study, nested within users of VKA and with tramadol use as our main exposure. We used conditional logistic regression to control for potential confounders.
Prescription data from primary care were obtained from Odense Pharmacoepidemiological Database (OPED). Information about hospital admissions was obtained from the patient administrative system of Funen County (FPAS).
Both cases and controls were selected from users of VKA. Cases were defined by being hospitalised with a main diagnosis indicating excessive anticoagulation. For each case, we selected 15 controls among VKA users, matched by age and sex.
Odds ratio for experiencing excessive anticoagulation attributable to the use of tramadol.
A total of 178 patients were included, 30 of which were exposed to tramadol, along with 2643 controls, 114 of which were exposed to tramadol. The adjusted odds-ratio for experiencing excessive anticoagulation during use of tramadol was 3.1 (1.9-5.2). This corresponds to, on average, one excess case per 250 treatment years (CI 125-584). The result is potentially confounded by concomitant paracetamol use and the presence of acute illness.
Caution is advised when using tramadol in patients using VKA, and if possible, an alternative pain-medication should be used.