The population of Leningrad suffered from severe starvation, cold and psychological stress during the siege in 1941-1944. We investigated long-term effects of the siege on cardiovascular risk factors and mortality in surviving men and women. 3905 men born 1916-1935 and 1729 women born 1910-1940, resident in St Petersburg (formerly Leningrad) between 1975 and 1982, of whom a third experienced the siege as children, adolescents or young adults, were examined for cardiovascular risk factors in 1975-1977 and 1980-1982 respectively and followed till end 2005. Effects of siege exposure on blood pressure, lipids, body size, and mortality were studied in multivariate analysis stratified by gender and period of birth, adjusted for age, smoking, alcohol and social characteristics. Women who were 6-8 years-old and men who were 9-15 years-old at the peak of starvation had higher systolic blood pressure compared to unexposed subjects born during the same period of birth (fully adjusted difference 8.8, 95% CI: 0.1-17.5 mm Hg in women and 2.9, 95% CI: 0.7-5.0 mm Hg in men). Mean height of women who were exposed to siege as children appeared to be greater than that of unexposed women. Higher mortality from ischaemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease was noted in men exposed at age 6-8 and 9-15, respectively. The experience of severe stress and starvation in childhood and puberty may have long-term effects on systolic blood pressure and circulatory disease in surviving men and women with potential gender differences in the effect of siege experienced at pre-pubertal age.
On alloxane-diabetic dogs under chloralose anaesthesia without opening the chest catheterization, extracorporal perfusion and resistography of coronary arteries, catheterization and continuous drainage of coronary sinus, catheterization of major vessels and heart chambers were performed. Acute myocardial ischemia was induced by the 60 s cessation of left circumflex coronary artery extracorporal perfusion. The magnitude and peculiarity of the systemic circulation reactions during acute myocardial ischemia in dogs with moderate and mild hyperglycemia (less than 12 mmol/l), didn't differ from those in control group. But the degrees of coronary arteries dilation in the ischemic area and coronary sinus blood oxygen saturation reduction were less and the velocity of the coronary arteries resistance recovery to the base level in reperfusion period was more in these animals than in healthy dogs. In severe alloxane diabetes (hyperglycemia more than 12 mmol/l), the reflectory components of circulation reactions during myocardial ischemia, namely heart contractility function decrease, bradycardia, peripheral vessels resistance and arterial blood pressure reduction, were weakened or even absent, but the recovery velocity of cardiohaemodynamic parameters and the level of metabolic processes in myocardium was significantly slowed in the reperfusion period.
Computer occlusive electrical mioplethysmography and common electrical impedance meter method were used for the study of the tissue hydration in patients with bronchial asthma (BA) exposed to intermittent normobaric hypoxia (INH). Hyperhydration of intracellular and extracellular compartments in patients with BA was shown. INH significantly decreased tissue hyperhydration.
The return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) after cardiac arrest (RACA) score may have implications as a quality indicator for the emergency medical services (EMS) system. We aimed to validate this score externally in a physician staffed urban EMS system.
We conducted a retrospective cohort study. Data on resuscitation attempts from the Helsinki EMS cardiac arrest registry from 1.1.2008 to 31.12.2010 were collected and analyzed. For each attempted resuscitation the RACA score variables were collected and the score calculated. The endpoint was ROSC defined as palpable pulse over 30 s. Calibration was assessed by comparing predicted and observed ROSC rates in the whole sample, separately for shockable and non-shockable rhythm, and separately for resuscitations lead by a specialist, registrar or medical supervisor (i.e., senior paramedic). Data are presented as medians and interquartile ranges. Statistical testing included chi-square test, the Mann-Whitney U test, Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness of fit test and calculation of 95% confidence intervals (CI) for proportions.
A total of 680 patients were included of whom 340 attained ROSC. The RACA score was higher in patients with ROSC (0.62 [0.46-0.69] than in those without (0.46 [0.36-0.57]) (p?
Cites: Eur Heart J. 2006 Dec;27(23):2840-517082207
Cites: Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med. 2015 Jun 06;23:4326048574
Cites: Eur Heart J. 2011 Jul;32(13):1649-5621515626
Greater chest compression fraction (CCF, or proportion of CPR time spent providing compressions) is associated with better survival for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OOHCA) patients in ventricular fibrillation (VF). We evaluated the effect of CCF on return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) in OOHCA patients with non-VF ECG rhythms in the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium Epistry.
This prospective cohort study included OOHCA patients if: not witnessed by EMS, no automated external defibrillator (AED) shock prior to EMS arrival, received >1 min of CPR with CPR process measures available, and initial non-VF rhythm. We reviewed the first 5 min of electronic CPR records following defibrillator application, measuring the proportion of compressions/min during the resuscitation.
Demographics of 2103 adult patients from 10 U.S. and Canadian centers were: mean age 67.8; male 61.2%; public location 10.6%; bystander witnessed 32.9%; bystander CPR 35.4%; median interval from 911 to defibrillator turned on 8 min:27 s; initial rhythm asystole 64.0%, PEA 28.0%, other non-shockable 8.0%; median compression rate 110/min; median CCF 71%; ROSC 24.2%; survival to hospital discharge 2.0%. The estimated linear effect on adjusted odds ratio with 95% confidence interval (OR; 95%CI) of ROSC for each 10% increase in CCF was (1.05; 0.99, 1.12). Adjusted (OR; 95%CI) of ROSC for each CCF category were: 0-40% (reference group); 41-60% (1.14; 0.72, 1.81); 61-80% (1.42; 0.92, 2.20); and 81-100% (1.48; 0.94, 2.32).
This is the first study to demonstrate that increased CCF among non-VF OOHCA patients is associated with a trend toward increased likelihood of ROSC.
Normobaric intermittent hypoxic training (IHT) is an effective method for improvement of the FRS state, increase of the aerobic productivity, as well as general and special capacity for work in sportsmen of high qualification. High efficacy of IHT in improving all aspects of sportsmen FRS is a result of alternating the hypoxic influences and normoxic intervals between them during which the level of plastic processes remains increased, oxygen tension in arterial blood and tissues increases to nonnoxic values. After IHT course, the state of organ respiration improves, the respiration volume, a part of alveolar ventilation in the minute volume of respiration, oxygen saturation of arterial blood, hemoglobin content in blood--increase as well as economy and efficacy of oxygen regimes of organism, general and special (especially important) physical capacity for work.
This study aimed to examine the effects of 14 months of military training comprising cold winter conditions on neurosensory and vascular function in the hands and feet.
Military conscripts (N=54) were assessed with quantitative sensory testing comprising touch, temperature, and vibration perception thresholds and finger systolic blood pressure (FSBP) after local cooling and a questionnaire on neurosensory and vascular symptoms at both baseline and follow-up. Ambient air temperature was recorded with body worn temperature loggers.
The subjects showed reduced sensitivity to perception of touch, warmth, cold and vibrations in both the hands and feet except from vibrotactile perception in digit two of the right hand (right dig 2). Cold sensations, white fingers, and pain/discomfort when exposed to cold as well as pain increased in both prevalence and severity. There were no statistically significant changes in FSBP after local cooling.
Fourteen months of winter military training comprising cold winter conditions reduced sensation from touch, warmth, cold, and vibrotactile stimulus in both hands and feet and increased the severity and prevalence of symptoms and pain. The vascular function in the hands, measured by FSBP after local cooling, was not affected.
Analysis of spectral parameters of vascular blood flow variability revealed some sex-related peculiarities. The amplitude of aortic pulsation and total variability power of this parameter and its four components (ultralow frequency, very low frequency, low frequency, and high frequency range) were higher in women. The amplitude of microvascular pulsation and total variability power of this parameter and components were higher in men. In male patients, the relative variability power for the amplitude of microvascular pulsation was higher in the high frequency and low frequency ranges, but lower in the very low frequency and ultralow frequency ranges.
Age-specific dynamics of main parameters of circulation and gas exchange was examined in 7-16-year-old schoolchildren residing in the European North. The northern children show rarer and deeper breath and elevated blood pressures, diastolic pressures in particular, than those of the same age who live in the nonchernozem region. The northern boys were found to have higher sensitivity and responsiveness of the cardiorespiratory system to the northern conditions than the northern girls. The revealed cardiorespiratory parameters allowed the authors to predict negative changes in the schoolchildren's health and they may be used to develop regional physical education and health care programmes for 7-16-year-old pupils.