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A < 1.7 cM interval is responsible for Dmo1 obesity phenotypes in OLETF rats.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature47295
Source
Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2004 Jan-Feb;31(1-2):110-2
Publication Type
Article
Author
Takeshi K Watanabe
Shiro Okuno
Yuki Yamasaki
Toshihide Ono
Keiko Oga
Ayako Mizoguchi-Miyakita
Hideo Miyao
Mikio Suzuki
Hiroshi Momota
Yoshihiro Goto
Hiroichi Shinomiya
Haretsugu Hishigaki
Isamu Hayashi
Toshihiro Asai
Shigeyuki Wakitani
Toshihisa Takagi
Yusuke Nakamura
Akira Tanigami
Author Affiliation
Otsuka GEN Research Institute, Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., 463-10 Kagasuno, Kawauchi-cho, Tokushima 771-0192, Japan. tkw_watanabe@research.otsuka.co.jp
Source
Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2004 Jan-Feb;31(1-2):110-2
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Animals, Congenic
Body Weight - genetics
Crosses, Genetic
Diabetes Mellitus - genetics
Female
Hyperglycemia - genetics
Hyperlipidemia - blood - genetics
Male
Obesity
Phenotype
Rats
Rats, Inbred BN
Rats, Inbred OLETF
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Abstract
1. Dmo1 (Diabetes Mellitus OLETF type I) is a major quantitative trait locus for dyslipidaemia, obesity and diabetes phenotypes of male Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats. 2. Our congenic lines, produced by transferring Dmo1 chromosomal segments from the non-diabetic Brown Norway (BN) rat into the OLETF strain, have confirmed the strong, wide-range therapeutic effects of Dmo1 on dyslipidaemia, obesity and diabetes in the fourth (BC4) and fifth (BC5) generations of congenic animals. Analysis of a relatively small number of BC5 rats (n = 71) suggested that the critical Dmo1 interval lies within a
PubMed ID
14756694 View in PubMed
Less detail

The 1 alpha-hydroxylase locus is not linked to calcium stone formation or calciuric phenotypes in French-Canadian families.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature206213
Source
J Am Soc Nephrol. 1998 Mar;9(3):425-32
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-1998
Author
P. Scott
D. Ouimet
Y. Proulx
M L Trouvé
G. Guay
B. Gagnon
L. Valiquette
A. Bonnardeaux
Author Affiliation
Service de Néphrologie, Hôpital Maisonneuve-Rosemont, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
Source
J Am Soc Nephrol. 1998 Mar;9(3):425-32
Date
Mar-1998
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 1-alpha-Hydroxylase - genetics - metabolism
Adult
Calcium - urine
Canada
European Continental Ancestry Group - genetics
Family Health
Female
France - ethnology
Genetic Linkage
Genetic Markers - genetics
Humans
Kidney Calculi - enzymology - genetics
Male
Middle Aged
Nuclear Family
Pedigree
Phenotype
Vitamin D - blood
Abstract
Calcium urolithiasis is often associated with increased intestinal absorption and urine excretion of calcium, and has been suggested to result from increased vitamin D production. The role of the enzyme 1 alpha-hydroxylase, the rate-limiting step in active vitamin D production, was evaluated in 36 families, including 28 sibships with at least a pair of affected sibs, using qualitative and quantitative trait linkage analyses. Sibs with a verified calcium urolithiasis passage (n = 117) had higher 24-h calciuria (P = 0.03), oxaluria (P = 0.02), fasting and postcalcium loading urine calcium/creatinine (Ca/cr) ratios (P = 0.008 and P = 0.002, respectively), and serum 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D levels (P = 0.02) compared with nonstone-forming sibs (n = 120). Markers from a 9-centiMorgan interval encompassing the VDD1 locus on chromosome 12q13-14 (putative 1 alpha-hydroxylase) were analyzed in 28 sibships (146 sib pairs) of single and recurrent stone formers and in 14 sibships (65 sib pairs) with recurrent-only (> or = 3 episodes) stone-forming sibs. Two-point and multipoint analyses did not reveal excess in alleles shared among affected sibs at the VDD1 locus. Linkage of stone formation to the VDD1 locus could be excluded, respectively, with a lambda d of 2.0 (single and recurrent stone formers) and 3.25 (recurrent stone formers). Quantitative trait analyses revealed no evidence for linkage to 24-h calciuria and oxaluria, serum 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D levels, and Ca/cr ratios. This study shows absence of linkage of the putative 1 alpha-hydroxylase locus to calcium stone formation or to quantitative traits associated with idiopathic hypercalciuria. In addition, there is coaggregation of calciuric and oxaluric phenotypes with stone formation.
PubMed ID
9513904 View in PubMed
Less detail

1H-MRS Measured Ectopic Fat in Liver and Muscle in Danish Lean and Obese Children and Adolescents.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature273208
Source
PLoS One. 2015;10(8):e0135018
Publication Type
Article
Date
2015
Author
Cilius Esmann Fonvig
Elizaveta Chabanova
Ehm Astrid Andersson
Johanne Dam Ohrt
Oluf Pedersen
Torben Hansen
Henrik S Thomsen
Jens-Christian Holm
Source
PLoS One. 2015;10(8):e0135018
Date
2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Anthropometry
Blood Glucose - analysis
Blood pressure
Body mass index
Body Weight
Cardiovascular Diseases - physiopathology
Child
Cross-Sectional Studies
Denmark
Dyslipidemias - blood
Fatty Liver - pathology
Female
Humans
Insulin - blood
Insulin Resistance
Intra-Abdominal Fat - pathology
Linear Models
Lipids - blood
Liver - metabolism - pathology
Male
Muscles - pathology
Overweight
Pediatric Obesity - blood - pathology
Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Puberty
Sex Factors
Subcutaneous Fat - pathology
Abstract
This cross sectional study aims to investigate the associations between ectopic lipid accumulation in liver and skeletal muscle and biochemical measures, estimates of insulin resistance, anthropometry, and blood pressure in lean and overweight/obese children.
Fasting plasma glucose, serum lipids, serum insulin, and expressions of insulin resistance, anthropometry, blood pressure, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy of liver and muscle fat were obtained in 327 Danish children and adolescents aged 8-18 years.
In 287 overweight/obese children, the prevalences of hepatic and muscular steatosis were 31% and 68%, respectively, whereas the prevalences in 40 lean children were 3% and 10%, respectively. A multiple regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, body mass index z-score (BMI SDS), and pubertal development showed that the OR of exhibiting dyslipidemia was 4.2 (95%CI: [1.8; 10.2], p = 0.0009) when hepatic steatosis was present. Comparing the simultaneous presence of hepatic and muscular steatosis with no presence of steatosis, the OR of exhibiting dyslipidemia was 5.8 (95%CI: [2.0; 18.6], p = 0.002). No significant associations between muscle fat and dyslipidemia, impaired fasting glucose, or blood pressure were observed. Liver and muscle fat, adjusted for age, sex, BMI SDS, and pubertal development, associated to BMI SDS and glycosylated hemoglobin, while only liver fat associated to visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue and intramyocellular lipid associated inversely to high density lipoprotein cholesterol.
Hepatic steatosis is associated with dyslipidemia and liver and muscle fat depositions are linked to obesity-related metabolic dysfunctions, especially glycosylated hemoglobin, in children and adolescents, which suggest an increased cardiovascular disease risk.
Notes
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PubMed ID
26252778 View in PubMed
Less detail

1H MRS studies in the Finnish boron neutron capture therapy project: detection of 10B-carrier, L-p-boronophenylalanine-fructose.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature172386
Source
Eur J Radiol. 2005 Nov;56(2):154-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2005
Author
M. Timonen
L. Kankaanranta
N. Lundbom
J. Collan
A. Kangasmäki
M. Kortesniemi
A-M Häkkinen
A. Lönngren
S. Karjalainen
M. Rasilainen
J. Leinonen
T. Huitti
J. Jääskeläinen
M. Kouri
S. Savolainen
S. Heikkinen
Author Affiliation
Department of Physical Sciences, University of Helsinki, POB 64, FIN-00014, Helsinki, Finland.
Source
Eur J Radiol. 2005 Nov;56(2):154-9
Date
Nov-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Boron - therapeutic use
Boron Compounds - analysis - blood
Boron Neutron Capture Therapy
Brain Neoplasms - pathology - radiotherapy
Carcinoma - pathology - radiotherapy
Female
Finland
Fructose - analogs & derivatives - analysis - blood
Glioblastoma - pathology - radiotherapy
Humans
Hydrogen
Isotopes - therapeutic use
Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy - methods
Male
Neoplasm Recurrence, Local - pathology - radiotherapy
Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms - pathology - radiotherapy
Phantoms, Imaging
Plasma
Radiopharmaceuticals - therapeutic use
Abstract
This article summarizes the current status of 1H MRS in detecting and quantifying a boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) boron carrier, L-p-boronophenylalanine-fructose (BPA-F) in vivo in the Finnish BNCT project. The applicability of 1H MRS to detect BPA-F is evaluated and discussed in a typical situation with a blood containing resection cavity within the gross tumour volume (GTV). 1H MRS is not an ideal method to study BPA concentration in GTV with blood in recent resection cavity. For an optimal identification of BPA signals in the in vivo 1H MR spectrum, both pre- and post-infusion 1H MRS should be performed. The post-infusion spectroscopy studies should be scheduled either prior to or, less optimally, immediately after the BNCT. The pre-BNCT MRS is necessary in order to utilise the MRS results in the actual dose planning.
PubMed ID
16233888 View in PubMed
Less detail

1H-NMR metabolomic biomarkers of poor outcome after hemorrhagic shock are absent in hibernators.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature267428
Source
PLoS One. 2014;9(9):e107493
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Lori K Bogren
Carl J Murphy
Erin L Johnston
Neeraj Sinha
Natalie J Serkova
Kelly L Drew
Source
PLoS One. 2014;9(9):e107493
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Biological Markers - blood
Hibernation
Lipids - blood
Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Male
Metabolome
Rats, Sprague-Dawley
Reperfusion Injury - blood - prevention & control
Sciuridae
Shock, Hemorrhagic - blood - therapy
Treatment Outcome
Abstract
Hemorrhagic shock (HS) following trauma is a leading cause of death among persons under the age of 40. During HS the body undergoes systemic warm ischemia followed by reperfusion during medical intervention. Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) results in a disruption of cellular metabolic processes that ultimately lead to tissue and organ dysfunction or failure. Resistance to I/R injury is a characteristic of hibernating mammals. The present study sought to identify circulating metabolites in the rat as biomarkers for metabolic alterations associated with poor outcome after HS. Arctic ground squirrels (AGS), a hibernating species that resists I/R injury independent of decreased body temperature (warm I/R), was used as a negative control.
Male Sprague-Dawley rats and AGS were subject to HS by withdrawing blood to a mean arterial pressure (MAP) of 35 mmHg and maintaining the low MAP for 20 min before reperfusing with Ringers. The animals' temperature was maintained at 37 ? 0.5 ?C for the duration of the experiment. Plasma samples were taken immediately before hemorrhage and three hours after reperfusion. Hydrophilic and lipid metabolites from plasma were then analyzed via 1H-NMR from unprocessed plasma and lipid extracts, respectively. Rats, susceptible to I/R injury, had a qualitative shift in their hydrophilic metabolic fingerprint including differential activation of glucose and anaerobic metabolism and had alterations in several metabolites during I/R indicative of metabolic adjustments and organ damage. In contrast, I/R injury resistant AGS, regardless of season or body temperature, maintained a stable metabolic homeostasis revealed by a qualitative 1H-NMR metabolic profile with few changes in quantified metabolites during HS-induced global I/R.
An increase in circulating metabolites indicative of anaerobic metabolism and activation of glycolytic pathways is associated with poor prognosis after HS in rats. These same biomarkers are absent in AGS after HS with warm I/R.
Notes
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PubMed ID
25211248 View in PubMed
Less detail

1H NMR studies on human plasma lipids from newborn infants, healthy adults, and adults with tumors.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature25704
Source
Magn Reson Med. 1989 Jan;9(1):35-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-1989
Author
S. Eskelinen
Y. Hiltunen
J. Jokisaari
S. Virtanen
K. Kiviniitty
Author Affiliation
Department of Biomedical Physics, University of Oulu, Finland.
Source
Magn Reson Med. 1989 Jan;9(1):35-8
Date
Jan-1989
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Female
Humans
Hydrogen
Infant, Newborn - blood
Lactates - blood
Lipoproteins - blood
Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy - diagnostic use
Male
Methane - blood
Neoplasms - blood
Protons
Abstract
The 1H NMR spectra of the lipid region of human plasma from healthy adults, neonates, and patients with malignant and nonmalignant tumors have been recorded on a JNM-GX400 FT spectrometer operating at 399.6 MHz for protons. The chemical shifts of methylene and methyl groups of plasma lipids were measured with respect to the higher field component of the methyl proton resonance of the lactate molecule. The results show that there are changes in the chemical shifts of the methylene proton resonances among the plasma from healthy adults, adults with tumors, and neonates. The shifts observed in the case of cancer patients and neonates are in the direction opposite to the shift measured from the plasma of healthy adults. Thus, the observed changes cannot be explained by the activity in the cell proliferation of tissues which is high in the cases of both healthy neonates and patients with malignant tumors, but they most probably reflect the different lipoprotein compositions of neonates, healthy adults, and adults with tumors.
PubMed ID
2540395 View in PubMed
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A 1-year, placebo-controlled, double-blind house-dust-mite immunotherapy study in asthmatic adults.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature15782
Source
Allergy. 1997 Aug;52(8):853-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-1997
Author
O T Olsen
K R Larsen
L. Jacobsan
U G Svendsen
Author Affiliation
Department of Pulmonery Medicine and Allergology, Gentofte Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Hellerup, Denmark.
Source
Allergy. 1997 Aug;52(8):853-9
Date
Aug-1997
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adrenergic beta-Agonists - therapeutic use
Adult
Antigens, Dermatophagoides
Asthma - diagnosis - drug therapy - therapy
Bronchial Provocation Tests
Double-Blind Method
Female
Forced expiratory volume
Glycoproteins - administration & dosage - adverse effects - immunology
Humans
Immunoglobulin E - analysis - blood - immunology
Immunotherapy
Male
Middle Aged
Peak Expiratory Flow Rate
Severity of Illness Index
Skin Tests
Steroids - therapeutic use
Vital Capacity
Abstract
Thirty-one adult patients with asthma caused by house-dust mites (HDM) were included in this placebo-controlled, double-blind study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of specific immunotherapy (SIT) with biologically standardized extracts of HDM. The specific diagnosis was confirmed by skin prick tests, specific IgE, and bronchial provocation tests with HDM allergens. The patients were randomized to receive active treatment with extracts of either Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dpt) or D. farinae (Dfa) (Alutard SQ, ALK, Denmark) or placebo injections. Twenty-three patients completed the study. After 1 year of treatment, we found a clinically important and significant reduction in both asthma medicine consumption (inhaled steroids 38% and beta 2-agonists 46%) and symptom score (57%) in the actively treated group, but not the placebo group. These findings were confirmed by a significant decrease in skin and bronchial sensitivity to HDM in the active group. Additionally, there was a significant difference in the patients' scores for effect in favor of the actively treated group. Total IgE and specific IgE to HDM showed no significant changes before and after treatment for either group. Spirometric lung-function measurements showed a significant increase in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) from 85% before to 89% of predicted values after treatment for the actively treated group. Peak-flow measurements at home showed no significant changes during the study. It is concluded that allergen SIT is an effective treatment in adult patients suffering from asthma due to HDM.
PubMed ID
9284985 View in PubMed
Less detail

A 1-year randomized study to evaluate the effects of a dose reduction in oral contraceptives on lipids and carbohydrate metabolism: 20 microg ethinyl estradiol combined with 100 microg levonorgestrel.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature176202
Source
Contraception. 2005 Feb;71(2):111-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2005
Author
Sven O Skouby
Jan Endrikat
Bernd Düsterberg
Werner Schmidt
Christoph Gerlinger
Jens Wessel
Henri Goldstein
Joergen Jespersen
Author Affiliation
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Frederiksberg Hospital, University of Copenhagen, DK 2000 Copenhagen F, Denmark. sven.skouby@fh.hosp.dk
Source
Contraception. 2005 Feb;71(2):111-7
Date
Feb-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Blood Glucose - metabolism
C-Peptide - blood
Carbohydrate Metabolism - drug effects
Cholesterol, HDL - blood
Cholesterol, LDL - blood
Contraceptive Agents, Female - administration & dosage - pharmacology
Contraceptives, Oral, Combined - administration & dosage - pharmacology
Denmark
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Ethinyl Estradiol - administration & dosage - pharmacology
Fatty Acids, Nonesterified - blood
Female
Humans
Insulin - blood
Levonorgestrel - administration & dosage - pharmacology
Lipid Metabolism - drug effects
Prospective Studies
Time Factors
Treatment Outcome
Triglycerides - blood
Abstract
To evaluate the impact on lipid and carbohydrate variables of a combined one-third ethinyl estradiol (EE)/levonorgestrel (LNG) dose reduction in oral contraceptives.
In an open-label, randomized study, a dose-reduced oral contraceptive containing 20 microg EE and 100 microg LNG (20 EE/100 LNG) was compared with a reference preparation containing 30 microg EE and 150 microg LNG (30 EE/150 LNG). One-year data from 48 volunteers were obtained.
We found a decrease of HDL2 cholesterol and increases of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and total triglycerides in both treatment groups from baseline to the 13th treatment cycle. Although for four of six variables, the changes in the 20 EE group were lower compared with the 30 EE group, none of the differences between the two treatments were statistically significant. The median values for the fasting levels of insulin, C-peptide and free fatty acids slightly increased or remained unchanged while the fasting glucose levels slightly decreased after 13 treatment cycles. While the glucose area under the curve (AUC) (0-3 h) was similar in both groups during the OGTT, the insulin AUC(0-3 h) was less increased in the 20 EE/100 LNG group compared with the 30 EE/150 LNG group. None of the differences between the treatment groups for any of the carbohydrate metabolism variables were statistically significant at any time point. Both study treatments were safe and well tolerated by the volunteers.
Similar effects on the lipid and carbohydrate profiles were found for both preparations. The balanced one-third EE dose reduction in this new oral contraceptive caused slightly lower, but insignificant, changes in the lipid and carbohydrate variables compared with the reference treatment.
PubMed ID
15707560 View in PubMed
Less detail

2,3-Butanediol in plasma from an alcoholic mistakenly identified as ethylene glycol by gas-chromatographic analysis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature12006
Source
Clin Chem. 1991 Aug;37(8):1453-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-1991
Author
A W Jones
L. Nilsson
S A Gladh
K. Karlsson
J. Beck-Friis
Author Affiliation
Department of Alcohol Toxicology, University Hospital, Linköping, Sweden.
Source
Clin Chem. 1991 Aug;37(8):1453-5
Date
Aug-1991
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Alcoholism - blood
Butylene Glycols - blood - pharmacokinetics
Chromatography, Gas
Diagnostic Errors
Ethylene Glycol
Ethylene Glycols - blood - poisoning
Flame Ionization
Humans
Male
Abstract
2,3-Butanediol was mistakenly identified as ethylene glycol in plasma specimens from two alcoholic patients. The cyclic phenylboronate ester derivatives of 2,3-butanediol and ethylene glycol had the same retention time when OV-17 was used as the stationary phase for gas chromatography. This led to incorrect diagnosis of ethylene glycol poisoning and unnecessary invasive therapy. Plasma from two chronic alcoholics contained 2,3-butanediol at 3.5 and 3.4 mmol/L. The elimination half-life of 2,3-butanediol was 3.9 days when ethanol was administered during therapy for suspected ethylene glycol poisoning. Low concentrations of 2,3-butanediol might be present in blood of chronic alcoholics as a result of a novel pathway of intermediary metabolism associated with some forms of alcoholism. However, a more likely explanation for fairly high concentrations of 2,3-butanediol is enzymatic production from 2-butanone. This ketone occurs in denatured alcohol preparations often consumed by alcoholics in Sweden.
PubMed ID
1868611 View in PubMed
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ß2 -adrenergic receptor Thr164IIe polymorphism, blood pressure and ischaemic heart disease in 66?750 individuals.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature131722
Source
J Intern Med. 2012 Mar;271(3):305-14
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2012
Author
M. Thomsen
M. Dahl
A. Tybjaerg-Hansen
B G Nordestgaard
Author Affiliation
Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Herlev Hospital, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Source
J Intern Med. 2012 Mar;271(3):305-14
Date
Mar-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Blood Pressure - genetics
Cross-Sectional Studies
Denmark
Female
Genetic Predisposition to Disease - genetics
Genotype
Humans
Hypertension - genetics
Male
Middle Aged
Muscle, Skeletal
Myocardial Ischemia - genetics
Myocytes, Smooth Muscle
Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
Prospective Studies
Questionnaires
Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-2 - genetics
Sex Factors
Abstract
The ß(2) -adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) is located on smooth muscle cells and is an important regulator of smooth muscle tone. The Thr164Ile polymorphism (rs1800888) in the ADRB2 gene is rare but has profound functional consequences on receptor function and could cause lifelong elevated smooth muscle tone. We tested the hypothesis that Thr164Ile is associated with increased blood pressure, increased frequency of hypertension and increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD).
A total of 66 750 individuals from two large Danish general population studies were genotyped, and 1943 Thr164Ile heterozygotes and 16 homozygotes were identified.
Thr164Ile genotype was associated with increased systolic and diastolic blood pressure in women (trend: P = 0.04 and 0.02): systolic and diastolic blood pressure increased by 5% and 2%, respectively, in female homozygotes compared with female noncarriers. All female Thr164Ile homozygotes had hypertension compared with 58% of female heterozygotes and 54% of female noncarriers (chi-square: P = 0.001). Female Thr164Ile homozygotes and heterozygotes had odds ratios for ischaemic heart disease (IHD) of 2.93 (0.56-15.5) and 1.28 (1.03-1.61), respectively, compared with female noncarriers (trend: P = 0.007). These differences were not observed in men. Furthermore, Gly16Arg (rs1042713) and Gln27Glu (rs1042714) in the ADRB2 gene were not associated with blood pressure, hypertension or CVD either in the population overall or in women and men separately.
ADRB2 Thr164Ile is associated with increased blood pressure, increased frequency of hypertension and increased risk of IHD amongst women in the general population. These findings, particularly for homozygotes, are novel.
PubMed ID
21883537 View in PubMed
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