In the summers of 2001 and 2002, we quantitatively sampled human-biting flies in twelve sites located 1.6 to 63 km from a large copper-nickel smelter at Monchegorsk on the Kola Peninsula, Russia. We collected 429 specimens of three species of Ceratopogonidae, 92 specimens of seven species of Culicidae, 76 specimens of seven species of Tabanidae, and 4,788 specimens of 19 species of Simuliidae. Culicoides chiropterus was for the first time reported from the Kola Peninsula. Catches of Culicidae and Simuliidae decreased near the smelter, presumably due to the combined action of toxicity of pollutants, pollution-induced forest damage, and decline in vertebrate density. An abundance of Ceratopogonidae and Tabanidae, the size of the most common black fly species, Simulium pusillum, and the diversity of all families did not change along the pollution gradient.
BACKGROUND. Lyme disease is the most common vector-borne infection in some temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere. However, for most areas of endemic disease reliable epidemiologic data are sparse. METHODS. Over a one-year period, we conducted a prospective, population-based survey of cases of Lyme disease in southern Sweden. The diagnosis was made on the basis of the presence of erythema migrans at least 5 cm in diameter or characteristic clinical manifestations such as arthritis, neuroborreliosis, and carditis. RESULTS. We identified 1471 patients with Lyme disease, for an overall annual incidence of 69 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. The incidence varied markedly according to geographic region, and there were several areas where disease was widely prevalent. The incidence varied according to age, with the highest rates among people 5 to 9 and 60 to 74 years of age, but not according to sex. The most frequent clinical manifestation was erythema migrans (seen in 77 percent of all cases), followed by neuroborreliosis (16 percent) and arthritis (7 percent). Carditis was rare. A preceding tick bite was reported by 79 percent of the patients. Bites in the head and neck region were more common among children than among adults and were associated with an increased risk of neuroborreliosis. CONCLUSIONS. Lyme disease is very common in southern Sweden, with a relatively high frequency of neurologic complications and arthritis. With the exception of the low incidence of carditis, the pattern of disease we found in Sweden was similar to that reported in the United States.
Comment In: N Engl J Med. 1996 Mar 21;334(12):8038592568
Various measures, including ticketing, licensing, and breed-specific legislation, are used by municipalities to control dog bites, but their effectiveness is largely unknown. Thirty-six urban Canadian municipalities provided information about their animal control practices, resourcing, and (for 22 municipalities) rate of reported dog bites. Municipalities differed widely in rates of licensing (4% to 75%) and ticketing (0.1 to 83 per 10,000 people), even where staffing and budgets were similar. Reported frequency of dog bites ranged from 0 to 9.0 (median 1.9) per 10,000 people. Rates were generally higher in municipalities with higher ticketing, licensing, staffing, and budget levels. However, in municipalities with very active ticketing the reported bite rate was much lower than predicted by a linear regression on ticketing rate (quadratic regression, R(2) = 0.52), likely reflecting a reduction in actual bites with very active enforcement. Municipalities with and without breed-specific legislation did not differ in reported bite rate. Ticketing appeared most effective in reducing dog bites, although it may also lead to increased reporting.
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A special epidemiological experiment to prevent borreliosis in persons bitten by infected ticks was performed in 1992-1994 in the Russia's Perm region where Borrelia garinii and B.afzelii circulate, and Ixodes persulcatus tick is the sole vector transmitting these pathogens to human beings. Adult ticks were removed from the bodies of persons who had referred to health facilities for first aid. Vital preparations were made from the material obtained from the gut of each tick and examined microscopically (up to 250 microscopic fields per preparation). The patients bitten by infected ticks were divided into experimental and control groups and kept under special medical and serological control for 4-5 months. The patients of the experimental group received doxycycline (100 mg twice daily) for 3-5 days after ticks had bitten. Borreliosis was diagnosed by a combination of clinical and serological data. The control group consisted of 97 patients who took no antibiotics after ticks biting and 12 of them contracted borreliosis. In 823 cases Borrelia were not revealed while microscopically analyzing the ticks removed from the patients' bodies; in this group six patients contracted borreliosis. The morbidity rate (per 100 patients) in the experimental group was 1.1, i.e. 11 times lower than that in control group. Among the patients bitten by infected ticks and untreated with antibiotics, this index was 17.6 times higher than in the group bitten by ticks in which Borrelia were not found. There is no absolute probability of detecting the pathogen during a direct microscopic analysis of the preparation made from the tick removed from the body of a bitten patient. However, this rapid identification of Borrelia, followed by short-term antibiotic treatment for microbiological evidence is an effective tool for preventing patients from contracting borrelioses.
A majority of subjects allergic to bee venom are beekeepers, their relatives, or neighbors. Predetermining systemic reactivity to honeybee stings and risk assessment through laboratory tests have been unsatisfactory.
To estimate the prevalence and type of sting reactions, and especially to evaluate potential risk factors of systemic reactions in beekeepers.
A questionnaire concerning sting reactions and potential risk factors was mailed to all members of the regional beekeepers' association; 191 beekeepers were included in the study.
Systemic bee sting reactions were present in 50 (26%) and large local reactions in 73 (38%) of the beekeepers. Similar reactions following wasp stings were present in 2% and 13%, respectively. Twenty-four (48%) of the systemic reactors and 39 (28%) of the remaining subjects had a history of atopic symptoms (allergic rhinitis, allergic bronchial asthma, or atopic dermatitis). While working at hives, nasal and eye symptoms were present in 54% of the systemic reactors and in 23% of the remaining subjects. Systemic reactors were younger and had been beekeepers for a shorter period than nonreactive subjects. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the risk of systemic sting reaction increased fourfold when nasal or eye symptoms were present while working at hives and twofold when the years in beekeeping were less than 15.
The occurrence of systemic and large local reactions after bee stings is high among beekeepers. A history of atopy is associated with systemic reactions. Both the presence of nasal or eye symptoms while working at hives and a history of beekeeping less than 15 years significantly increase the risk of systemic reactions.
489 cases of references concerning the bitten wounds of maxillofacial area for the period of 1998-2008 were analysed. The analysis has shown that 77 (15,7%) cases with localization of the bitten wounds on fase had long, serious functional - aesthetic infringements, and the majority of cultural and life conditions questions, analyzed behavioural aspects of the population of the Tver region, remained unresolved actual problem.