This study evaluates the impact of regional differences in access to intensive neonatal care on neonatal survival in geographically defined populations of 4,692 low birthweight births in Norway 1979-81. For infants weighting 1,250 to 2,499 g our results are consistent with the existence of a dose-response association between neonatal survival and the level of immediate access to intensive neonatal care. Although not statistically significant, there was a clear gradient in the risk of mortality within 24 hours. A similar pattern of survival could not be consistently demonstrated for infants weighing less than 1,250 g.
Among people born at term, low birth weight is associated with early puberty. Early maturation may be on the pathway linking low birth weight with cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Subjects born preterm with very low birth weight (VLBW;
Previous studies have suggested a propensity towards morningness in teenagers and adults born preterm. We set out to study sleep in a subsample from The Helsinki Study of Very Low Birth Weight Adults cohort, with emphasis on sleep timing, duration, and quality. We compared young adults who were born prematurely at very low birth weight (VLBW;?
It remains unclear whether it is more detrimental to be born too early or too small in relation to symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Thus, we tested whether preterm birth and small body size at birth adjusted for gestational age are independently associated with symptoms of ADHD in children.
A longitudinal regional birth cohort study comprising 1535 live-born infants between 03/15/1985 and 03/14/1986 admitted to the neonatal wards and 658 randomly recruited non-admitted infants, in Finland. The present study sample comprised 828 children followed up to 56 months. The association between birth status and parent-rated ADHD symptoms of the child was analysed with multiple linear and logistic regression analyses.
Neither prematurity (birth
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Cites: J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2010 May;49(5):453-63.e120431465
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Cites: Dev Med Child Neurol. 2004 Mar;46(3):179-8314995087
The study reports on the associations of infant and childhood anthropometric measurements, early growth, and the combined effect of birth weight and childhood body mass index with older age physical functioning among 1,999 individuals born in 1934-1944 and belonging to the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study. Physical functioning was assessed by the Short Form 36 scale. Anthropometric data from infancy and childhood were retrieved from medical records. The risk of lower Short Form 36 physical functioning at the mean age of 61.6 years was increased for those with birth weight less than 2.5 kg compared with those weighing 3.0-3.5 kg at birth (odds ratio (OR) = 2.73, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.57, 4.72). The gain in weight from birth to age 2 years was associated with decreased risk of lower physical functioning for a 1-standard deviation increase (OR = 0.84, 95% CI: 0.75, 0.94). The risk of lower physical functioning was highest for individuals with birth weight in the lowest third and body mass index at 11 years of age in the highest third compared with those whose birth weight was in the middle third and body mass index at age 11 years was in the highest third (OR = 3.08, 95% CI: 1.83, 5.19). The increasing prevalence of obesity at all ages and the aging of populations warrant closer investigation of the role of weight trajectories in old age functional decline.
Small birth size may be associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), whereas large birth size may predict increased risk of obesity and some cancers. The net effect of birth size on long-term mortality has only been assessed in individual studies, with conflicting results.
The Meta-analyses of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) guidelines for conducting and reporting meta-analysis of observational studies were followed. We retrieved 22 studies that assessed the association between birthweight and adult mortality from all causes, CVD or cancer. The studies were systematically reviewed and those reporting hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) per kilogram (kg) increase in birthweight were included in generic inverse variance meta-analyses.
For all-cause mortality, 36,834 deaths were included and the results showed a 6% lower risk (adjusted HR?=?0.94, 95% CI: 0.92-0.97) per kg higher birthweight for men and women combined. For cardiovascular mortality, the corresponding inverse association was stronger (HR?=?0.88, 95% CI: 0.85-0.91). For cancer mortality, HR per kg higher birthweight was 1.13 (95% CI: 1.07-1.19) for men and 1.04 (95% CI: 0.98-1.10) for women (P(interaction)?=?0.03). Residual confounding could not be eliminated, but is unlikely to account for the main findings.
These results show an inverse but moderate association of birthweight with adult mortality from all-causes and a stronger inverse association with cardiovascular mortality. For men, higher birthweight was strongly associated with increased risk of cancer deaths. The findings suggest that birthweight can be a useful indicator of processes that influence long-term health.
In order to estimate the association between intrauterine growth and childhood survival, data on birth weight and gestational age from the Norwegian Birth Registry, for all children who survived the first year of life and who were born during the period 1967-1989 were linked to the National Cause of Death Registry for the period 1968-1991. Deaths were categorized into five cause of death groups: malformations, cancer, infections, accidents, and other causes. The adjusted relative risk of death from all causes at ages 1-5 years was 2.18 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.85-2.56) for children with birth weight or = 2,500 g. For ages 6-10 years, the corresponding adjusted relative risk (95% CI) was 1.83 (1.35-2.48), and for ages 11-15 years, it was 1.35 (0.91-1.99). Death from infections, accidents, and other causes showed a reversed J-shaped association with birth weight, while malformations showed a log-linear decrease in mortality with increasing birth weight. For cancer deaths, low birth weight showed an opposite association. The association between birth weight and childhood mortality is complex, and cause-specific analyses are necessary to understand the connection between intrauterine influences and later mortality.
OBJECTIVE: To describe birthweight by gestational age in Norway for the period 1967-1998, evaluate secular trends and provide new standards for small for gestational age for 16 to 44 weeks of gestation. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The analyses were based on more than 1.8 million singleton births, covering all births in Norway for a 32 year period. Percentiles for birthweight by gestational age were estimated using smoothed means and standard deviations. In the preterm weeks, means and standard deviations were carefully screened for birthweight-gestational age consistency, adapting a method of Wilcox and Russell. Differences in birthweight by gestational age for stillbirths and livebirths in extremely preterm weeks (16-28) are presented, and the effects of cesarean section are evaluated. We observed a clear increase in birthweight by gestational age for all term weeks, but a decrease for most of the preterm weeks over the same period. This decrease was related to the increase in deliveries by cesarean section. CONCLUSIONS: Percentiles for birthweight by gestational age are presented for clinical use, based on a current period 1987-98, covering 20-44 completed gestational weeks. In the final standards we excluded stillbirths, infants born with malformations and cesarean sections. Birthweights in the Scandinavian populations are high and standards from other populations may not be representative, especially for the term weeks. Also, the secular changes demonstrated in this study indicate that old birthweight by gestational age standards need revision, especially due to changes in obstetrical routines influencing preterm data.