Among people born at term, low birth weight is associated with early puberty. Early maturation may be on the pathway linking low birth weight with cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Subjects born preterm with very low birth weight (VLBW;
Previous studies have suggested a propensity towards morningness in teenagers and adults born preterm. We set out to study sleep in a subsample from The Helsinki Study of Very Low Birth Weight Adults cohort, with emphasis on sleep timing, duration, and quality. We compared young adults who were born prematurely at very low birth weight (VLBW;?
It remains unclear whether it is more detrimental to be born too early or too small in relation to symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Thus, we tested whether preterm birth and small body size at birth adjusted for gestational age are independently associated with symptoms of ADHD in children.
A longitudinal regional birth cohort study comprising 1535 live-born infants between 03/15/1985 and 03/14/1986 admitted to the neonatal wards and 658 randomly recruited non-admitted infants, in Finland. The present study sample comprised 828 children followed up to 56 months. The association between birth status and parent-rated ADHD symptoms of the child was analysed with multiple linear and logistic regression analyses.
Neither prematurity (birth
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The study reports on the associations of infant and childhood anthropometric measurements, early growth, and the combined effect of birth weight and childhood body mass index with older age physical functioning among 1,999 individuals born in 1934-1944 and belonging to the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study. Physical functioning was assessed by the Short Form 36 scale. Anthropometric data from infancy and childhood were retrieved from medical records. The risk of lower Short Form 36 physical functioning at the mean age of 61.6 years was increased for those with birth weight less than 2.5 kg compared with those weighing 3.0-3.5 kg at birth (odds ratio (OR) = 2.73, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.57, 4.72). The gain in weight from birth to age 2 years was associated with decreased risk of lower physical functioning for a 1-standard deviation increase (OR = 0.84, 95% CI: 0.75, 0.94). The risk of lower physical functioning was highest for individuals with birth weight in the lowest third and body mass index at 11 years of age in the highest third compared with those whose birth weight was in the middle third and body mass index at age 11 years was in the highest third (OR = 3.08, 95% CI: 1.83, 5.19). The increasing prevalence of obesity at all ages and the aging of populations warrant closer investigation of the role of weight trajectories in old age functional decline.
Small birth size may be associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), whereas large birth size may predict increased risk of obesity and some cancers. The net effect of birth size on long-term mortality has only been assessed in individual studies, with conflicting results.
The Meta-analyses of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) guidelines for conducting and reporting meta-analysis of observational studies were followed. We retrieved 22 studies that assessed the association between birthweight and adult mortality from all causes, CVD or cancer. The studies were systematically reviewed and those reporting hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) per kilogram (kg) increase in birthweight were included in generic inverse variance meta-analyses.
For all-cause mortality, 36,834 deaths were included and the results showed a 6% lower risk (adjusted HR?=?0.94, 95% CI: 0.92-0.97) per kg higher birthweight for men and women combined. For cardiovascular mortality, the corresponding inverse association was stronger (HR?=?0.88, 95% CI: 0.85-0.91). For cancer mortality, HR per kg higher birthweight was 1.13 (95% CI: 1.07-1.19) for men and 1.04 (95% CI: 0.98-1.10) for women (P(interaction)?=?0.03). Residual confounding could not be eliminated, but is unlikely to account for the main findings.
These results show an inverse but moderate association of birthweight with adult mortality from all-causes and a stronger inverse association with cardiovascular mortality. For men, higher birthweight was strongly associated with increased risk of cancer deaths. The findings suggest that birthweight can be a useful indicator of processes that influence long-term health.
The relation between the change in body mass index (BMI) through childhood and body composition in adult life is important because body composition is known to affect adult health.
The objective was to examine how the change in BMI throughout childhood is related to adult lean and fat mass.
We examined how the change in BMI in childhood was related to adult body composition in 885 men and 1032 women born during 1934-1944, whose weights and heights during childhood were recorded serially. Adult lean and fat mass were measured by bioelectrical impedance with an 8-polar tactile electrode system.
In these 56-70-y-old men and women, adult lean body mass index (lean mass/height(2); in kg/m(2)) was positively associated with BMI at birth (0.24 and 0.20 higher for each 1-SD increase in BMI at birth, respectively) and with more rapid gain in BMI from birth to 1 y (0.17 and 0.22), 1-2 y (0.21 and 0.20), 2-7 y (0.44 and 0.46), and 7-11 y (0.32 and 0.26) of age. Fat mass index (fat mass/height(2)) was positively associated with more rapid increases in BMI between 2 and 11 y of age.
Rapid gain in BMI before the age of 2 y increased adult lean body mass without excess fat accumulation, whereas rapid gain in BMI in later childhood, despite the concurrent rise in lean mass, resulted in relatively larger increases in fat mass.
Comment In: Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Jun;87(6):1587-918541543
Small birth size predicts various psychiatric outcomes, including depression. While biologically based temperamental traits may constitute a vulnerability factor for depression, the extent to which birth size predicts these traits in adulthood is not known. We studied, in 1369 women and men identified from a cohort born in 1934-44 in Helsinki, Finland, whether birth size predicts the temperamental traits measured with Cloninger's Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire at an average age of 63 years. Moreover, we examined whether socio-economic status (SES) in childhood modified the associations. Data on birth size were obtained from birth records, and SES in childhood was obtained from school records. Weight and length at birth showed curvilinear, reverse J-shaped effects on harm avoidance (HA), such that the highest HA scores were most characteristic of those born small. Furthermore, high HA was confined to those belonging to a low SES group in childhood regardless of birth size, and to those belonging to the high SES group in childhood if their birth size was small. The associations were independent of several confounders. Since small birth size as well as high HA in adulthood may associate with subsequent depression, our findings might shed light on understanding the early neurodevelopmental processes that predispose to depression through vulnerability characteristics.
Adults who were born preterm with a very low birth weight have higher blood pressure and impaired glucose regulation later in life compared with those born at term. We investigated cardiometabolic risk factors in young adults who were born at any degree of prematurity in the Preterm Birth and Early Life Programming of Adult Health and Disease (ESTER) Study, a population-based cohort study of individuals born in 1985-1989 in Northern Finland. In 2009-2011, 3 groups underwent clinical examination: 134 participants born at less than 34 gestational weeks (early preterm), 242 born at 34-36 weeks (late preterm), and 344 born at 37 weeks or later (controls). Compared with controls, adults who were born preterm had higher body fat percentages (after adjustment for sex, age, and cohort (1985-1986 or 1987-1989), for those born early preterm, difference = 6.2%, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.4, 13.2; for those born late preterm, difference = 8.0%, 95% CI: 2.4, 13.8), waist circumferences, blood pressure (for those born early preterm, difference = 3.0 mm Hg, 95% CI: 0.9, 5.1; for those born late preterm, difference = 1.7, 95% CI: -0.1, 3.4), plasma uric acid levels (for those born early preterm, difference = 20.1%, 95% CI: 7.9, 32.3; for those born late preterm, difference = 20.2%, 95% CI: 10.7, 30.5), alanine aminotransferase levels, and aspartate transaminase levels. They were also more likely to have metabolic syndrome (for those born early preterm, odds ratio = 3.7, 95% CI: 1.6, 8.2; for those born late preterm, odds ratio = 2.5, 95% CI: 1.2, 5.3). Elevated levels of conventional and emerging risk factors suggest a higher risk of cardiometabolic disease later in life. These risk factors are also present in the large group of adults born late preterm.
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Adolescents and adults born as small preterm infants show more pronounced risk factors of cardiovascular disease. Whether similar risks apply across all degrees of preterm birth is poorly known.
We studied the association between preterm birth and cardiovascular risk factors in 6642 16-year-old adolescents of the population-based Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986. Of these, 79 (1.2%) were born at