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503 records – page 1 of 51.

Abandoned Mid-Canada Radar Line sites in the Western James region of Northern Ontario, Canada: a source of organochlorines for First Nations people?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature80754
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2006 Nov 1;370(2-3):452-66
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-1-2006
Author
Tsuji Leonard J S
Wainman Bruce C
Martin Ian D
Weber Jean-Philippe
Sutherland Celine
Nieboer Evert
Author Affiliation
Department of Environment and Resource Studies, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2L 3G1. ljtsuji@2fes.uwaterloo.ca
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2006 Nov 1;370(2-3):452-66
Date
Nov-1-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
American Native Continental Ancestry Group
Animals
Birds
Diet
Environmental pollutants - blood
Female
Fishes
Food Contamination
Hazardous Waste
Humans
Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated - blood
Male
Mammals
Ontario
Abstract
The potential exists for human exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and other contaminants originating from abandoned Mid-Canada Radar Line (MCRL) sites in sub-arctic Canada. We examined patterns of differences with respect to body burden of organochlorines (lipid-adjusted) between residents of the Ontario First Nations of Fort Albany (the site of MCRL Site 050) and Kashechewan (no radar base) and Hamilton (an industrial, southern Ontario community) to assess whether the presence of Site 050 influenced organochlorine body burden with respect to the people of Fort Albany. PCBs (Aroclor 1260 and summation operator14 PCBs congeners [CBs]) and DDE in the plasma of Fort Albany and Kashechewan subjects were elevated relative to Hamilton participants. PCB and DDE-plasma levels in First Nation women were of comparable magnitude to those reported for Inuit women living in the west/central Northwest Territories. Significantly lower DDE/DDT ratios observed for Fort Albany indicates exposure to higher levels of DDT compared to Kashechewan. The probable source of DDT exposure for Fort Albany people is the DDT-contaminated soil surrounding buildings of Site 050. The results of the correspondence analysis (CA) indicated that people from Hamilton had relatively higher pesticides and lower CB body burdens, while people from Fort Albany and Kashechewan exhibited relatively higher CBs and lower pesticide levels (CA-1). The separation of Fort Albany and Kashechewan from Hamilton was also clear using questionnaire data (i.e., plotting dietary principal component [PC]-1 scores against PC-2); PC-1 was correlated with the consumption of a traditional diet. Separation of Kashechewan and Albany residents occurred because the people of Kashechewan ate more traditional meats and consumed shorebirds. Only one significant relationship was found between PC analysis and contaminant loadings; PC-1 versus CA-3 for Kashechewan. The presence of Site 050 on Anderson Island appears to have influenced organochlorine body burden of the people of Fort Albany. ANCOVA results revealed that it was not activity on Anderson Island that was important, but activity on Site 050 was the influential variable. When these results are considered with the DDE/DDT ratio data and the CB 187 results (Fort Albany and Kashechewan residents differed significantly), the findings are suggestive that Site 050 did influence organochlorine body burden of people from Fort Albany.
PubMed ID
16959301 View in PubMed
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Accumulation and trophic transfer of organotins in a marine food web from the Danish coastal waters.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature172406
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2005 Nov 1;350(1-3):72-85
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-1-2005
Author
Jakob Strand
Jens A Jacobsen
Author Affiliation
National Environmental Research Institute, Department of Marine Ecology, P.O. Box 358, Frederiksborgvej 399, 4000 Roskilde, Denmark. jak@dmu.dk
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2005 Nov 1;350(1-3):72-85
Date
Nov-1-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Birds
Denmark
Environmental monitoring
Fishes
Food chain
Fucus
Humans
Invertebrates
Male
Organotin Compounds - analysis
Phoca
Phocoena
Water Pollutants, Chemical - analysis
Zosteraceae
Abstract
The presence of organotin compounds, e.g., tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPhT) including the di- and monosubstituted breakdown products, was studied in a representative marine food web in order to assess the accumulation potential at different trophic levels in Danish coastal waters. This included samples of two species of seaweed, four species of invertebrates, four species of fish, five species of birds and two species of mammals. All organisms were sampled away from harbour areas and the organotin concentrations found in this study can therefore be considered to reflect a general level in organisms living in Danish coastal waters. All the samples analysed contained organotin compounds. The highest hepatic concentrations of butyltins were found in flounder (60-259 ng g-1 wet weight [ww], as Sn), eider duck (12-202 ng g-1 ww) and harbour porpoise (134-2283 ng g-1 ww). The lowest concentrations were found in seaweed and a plant-feeding bird. TPhT or its degradation products were also found in most of the samples with the highest concentrations in flounder (9.8-74 ng g-1 ww), cod (23-28 ng g-1 ww) and great black-backed gull (19-24 ng g-1 ww). This indicates an input of TPhT in the region, probably from the use as antifouling agent. A high variance in accumulation potential was found between the species, even between species at the same trophic level, which probably reflects the species-specific differences in exposure routes and the capabilities to metabolise and eliminate the organotin compounds. This study gives evidence of the importance of biomagnification of butyltin in harbour porpoises and, to a lesser extent, in fish and birds.
PubMed ID
16227074 View in PubMed
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Acute toxicity and sublethal effects of white phosphorus in mute swans, Cygnus olor.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature3505
Source
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 1999 Apr;36(3):316-22
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-1999
Author
D W Sparling
D. Day
P. Klein
Author Affiliation
U.S. Geological Survey, Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, 11510 American Holly Dr., Laurel, Maryland 20708, USA.
Source
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 1999 Apr;36(3):316-22
Date
Apr-1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Analysis of Variance
Animals
Birds - blood
Body Weight - drug effects
Comparative Study
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Drug Residues - analysis
Ducks - blood
Environmental Pollution - adverse effects
Female
L-Lactate Dehydrogenase - blood
Lethal Dose 50
Liver - chemistry - drug effects - pathology
Male
Phosphorus - analysis - toxicity
Species Specificity
Abstract
Among the waterfowl affected by white phosphorus (P4) at a military base in Alaska are tundra (Cygnus columbianus) and trumpeter (C. buccinator) swans. To estimate the toxicity of P4 to swans and compare the toxic effects to those of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), we dosed 30 juvenile mute swans (C. olor) with 0 to 5.28 mg P4/kg body weight. The calculated LD50 was 3.65 mg/kg (95% CI: 1.40 to 4. 68 mg/kg). However, many of the swans still had P4 in their gizzards after dying, as determined by "smoking gizzards" and characteristic odor, and a lower LD50 might be calculated if all of the P4 had passed into the small intestines. We attribute the retention of P4 in swans to the possibility that P4 pellets were mistaken for the similarly sized grit in their gizzards. Most swans took 1 to 4.5 days to die in contrast to the few hours normally required in mallards and death appeared to be related more to liver dysfunction than to hemolysis. White phosphorus affected several plasma constituents, most notably elevated aspartate aminotransferase, blood urea nitrogen, lactate dehydrogenase, and alanine aminotransferase.
PubMed ID
10047600 View in PubMed
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Adaptation to cold in arctic and tropical mammals and birds in relation to body temperature, insulation, and basal metabolic rate.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature301686
Source
Biological Bulletin. 1950 Oct;99(2):259-71.
Publication Type
Article
Date
1950
Author
Scholander, P.F.
Hock, R.
Walters, V.
Irving, L.
Author Affiliation
Arctic Health Research Center
Source
Biological Bulletin. 1950 Oct;99(2):259-71.
Date
1950
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acclimatization
Animals
Arctic Regions
Basal Metabolism
Birds
Body temperature
Cold Temperature
Mammals
PubMed ID
14791423 View in PubMed
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Adaptive governance, ecosystem management, and natural capital.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature267187
Source
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 Jun 16;112(24):7369-74
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-16-2015
Author
Lisen Schultz
Carl Folke
Henrik Österblom
Per Olsson
Source
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 Jun 16;112(24):7369-74
Date
Jun-16-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Birds
Conservation of Natural Resources - legislation & jurisprudence - methods
Decision Making
Ecosystem
Europe
Fisheries
Maine
Marine Biology - legislation & jurisprudence - methods
Nephropidae
Sweden
Abstract
To gain insights into the effects of adaptive governance on natural capital, we compare three well-studied initiatives; a landscape in Southern Sweden, the Great Barrier Reef in Australia, and fisheries in the Southern Ocean. We assess changes in natural capital and ecosystem services related to these social-ecological governance approaches to ecosystem management and investigate their capacity to respond to change and new challenges. The adaptive governance initiatives are compared with other efforts aimed at conservation and sustainable use of natural capital: Natura 2000 in Europe, lobster fisheries in the Gulf of Maine, North America, and fisheries in Europe. In contrast to these efforts, we found that the adaptive governance cases developed capacity to perform ecosystem management, manage multiple ecosystem services, and monitor, communicate, and respond to ecosystem-wide changes at landscape and seascape levels with visible effects on natural capital. They enabled actors to collaborate across diverse interests, sectors, and institutional arrangements and detect opportunities and problems as they developed while nurturing adaptive capacity to deal with them. They all spanned local to international levels of decision making, thus representing multilevel governance systems for managing natural capital. As with any governance system, internal changes and external drivers of global impacts and demands will continue to challenge the long-term success of such initiatives.
Notes
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Cites: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Jul 15;105(28):9489-9418621698
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Cites: PLoS One. 2010;5(9):e1283220877460
Cites: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Oct 26;107(43):18278-8520176947
Cites: Science. 2015 Mar 20;347(6228):1317-925792318
Cites: Conserv Biol. 2011 Oct;25(5):904-1221797925
Cites: Ambio. 2011 Nov;40(7):719-3822338712
Cites: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 May 8;109(19):7565-7022529388
Cites: Curr Biol. 2012 Jun 5;22(11):1023-822633811
Cites: Conserv Biol. 2012 Aug;26(4):638-4822624623
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Cites: Trends Ecol Evol. 2011 Jun;26(6):261-221497409
PubMed ID
26082542 View in PubMed
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[Advantages and limitations of interspecies associations in northern migratory sandpipers (Charadrii, Aves)].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature261289
Source
Zh Obshch Biol. 2014 May-Jun;75(3):204-13
Publication Type
Article
Author
V V Gavrilov
Source
Zh Obshch Biol. 2014 May-Jun;75(3):204-13
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animal Migration - physiology
Animals
Birds - physiology
Ecosystem
Female
Male
Nesting Behavior - physiology
Siberia
Abstract
Investigations were carried out at two stations of Ornithological Unit, IBPN FEB RAS, located in Nizhnekolymsk District, Yakutia, starting from May 15-20 in 1984, 1985, 1987, 1988, and 1990; at the northern coast of Pukhovoy Bay, Southern Island of Novaya Zemlya starting from June 1 in 1994; at Cape Beliy Nos, the Yugorsky Peninsula, starting from June 1 in 1995-1997. Classic associations are detected in interspecies flocks of sandpipers between the following species: the Pacific golden plover and the curlew sandpiper, the pectoral sandpiper and the long-billed dowitcher, the pectoral sandpiper and the dunlin, the grey plover and the dunlin. However, total amount of birds that form associations is not large. In species of group "A" (the grey plover, the Pacific golden plover, the pectoral sandpiper), no difference has been observed in migratory birds behavior within inter- or conspecific flocks. Species of group "B" (the dunlin, the curlew sandpiper, the long-billed dowitcher), on the contrary, change their behavior sharply depending on whether they belong to an association or not. Species of group "A" do not get any advantages when forming an association. Unlike them, species of group "B" profit from associating: a part of time spent in foraging substantially increases; more time is spent on rest and less time is spent on reconnaissance and vigilance (readiness for actions); safety of birds is enhanced. On the other hand, in species of group "B" there are also disadvantages related with associating: i.e., interspecies competition for food; foraging in suboptimal habitats which, in turn, may lead to notable increase of time spent by birds in foraging. An assumption is put forward that in species of group "B" advantages and limitations of associating cancel each other to a certain extent, and this explains rather small number of birds forming associations.
PubMed ID
25771678 View in PubMed
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Age and accumulation of persistent organochlorines: a study of Arctic-breeding glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature4783
Source
Environ Toxicol Chem. 2003 Sep;22(9):2173-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2003
Author
Jan Ove Bustnes
Vidar Bakken
Janneche Utne Skaare
Kjell Einar Erikstad
Author Affiliation
Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, Division of Arctic Ecology, The Polar Environmental Center, N-9296 Tromsø, Norway. jan.o.bustnes@nina.no
Source
Environ Toxicol Chem. 2003 Sep;22(9):2173-9
Date
Sep-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Factors
Animals
Arctic Regions
Birds - physiology
Diet
Female
Food chain
Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated
Insecticides - pharmacokinetics - toxicity
Male
Reproduction
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Tissue Distribution
Water Pollutants, Chemical - pharmacokinetics - toxicity
Abstract
We studied the relationship between increasing age and blood concentrations of four persistent organochlorines (OCs), hexachlorbenzene (HCB), oxychlordane, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), and 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorbiphenyl (PCB-153), in arctic-breeding glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus). We measured OC concentrations in 31 individuals of known age and took repeated blood samples of 64 individuals in different years, either one year apart or three or four years apart. The age of individuals was not related to the blood concentrations for any of the four compounds, and in birds whose values were measured repeatedly, there was no effect of the length of time (number of years) between sampling events on the relative change in OC concentration. This indicates that steady-state levels were reached before the age of first breeding. However, breeding area significantly influenced the changes in OC concentration between sampling events. In areas in which birds fed on prey from higher trophic levels, the OC concentrations showed large increases between sampling events; in areas in which birds fed at lower trophic levels, OC concentrations increased relatively little or not at all. This indicates that individual birds had different equilibrium concentrations, which are reached at different ages depending on the intake of OCs through the food. It also indicates that some individuals had not reached steady-state concentrations at the onset of reproduction. Changes in body condition and amount of blood lipids were of lesser importance than trophic level and influenced the concentrations of HCB and oxychlordane more strongly than DDE and PCB-153. In conclusion, this study indicates that steady-state concentrations of persistent OCs are reached early in life in most glaucous gulls, considering the long life span of the species.
PubMed ID
12959547 View in PubMed
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[Allergic alveolitis among pigeon breeders in the county of Funen].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature103487
Source
Ugeskr Laeger. 1990 Jan 1;152(1):25-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-1-1990
Author
N C Hansen
H C Siersted
Author Affiliation
Lungeklinikken, Odense Sygehus.
Source
Ugeskr Laeger. 1990 Jan 1;152(1):25-8
Date
Jan-1-1990
Language
Danish
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Alveolitis, Extrinsic Allergic - epidemiology
Bird Fancier's Lung - diagnosis - epidemiology - immunology
Denmark - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Abstract
Two hundred pigeon breeders from the county of Funen were invited to participate in the study. No definite cases of allergic alveolitis were found among the 68 participants. 40% had experienced airway and/or general symptoms in connection with pigeon exposure. However, most of these symptoms could be explained as irritation of the airway and chronic bronchitis. Precipitating antibodies to pigeon serum and to an aqueous pigeon bloom extract were determined. The antibody titers did not differ in pigeon breeders with or without symptoms. Smokers had lower antibody titers to pigeon antigens and a lower level of total serum IgG, but reported symptoms in connection with pigeon exposure as often as non smokers.
PubMed ID
2296809 View in PubMed
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An assessment of the toxicological significance of anthropogenic contaminants in Canadian arctic wildlife.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature75394
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2005 Dec 1;351-352:57-93
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-1-2005
Author
Aaron T Fisk
Cynthia A de Wit
Mark Wayland
Zou Zou Kuzyk
Neil Burgess
Robert Letcher
Birgit Braune
Ross Norstrom
Susan Polischuk Blum
Courtney Sandau
Elisabeth Lie
Hans Jørgen S Larsen
Janneche Utne Skaare
Derek C G Muir
Author Affiliation
Warnell School of Forest Resources, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-2152, USA. afisk@forestry.uga.edu
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2005 Dec 1;351-352:57-93
Date
Dec-1-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Arctic Regions
Birds
Canada
Environmental monitoring
Environmental Pollutants - analysis - toxicity
Fishes
Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated - analysis - toxicity
Mammals
Metals, Heavy - analysis - toxicity
Abstract
Anthropogenic contaminants have been a concern in the Canadian arctic for over 30 years due to relatively high concentrations of bioaccumulating and biomagnifying organochlorine contaminants (OCs) and toxic metals found in some arctic biota and humans. However, few studies have addressed the potential effects of these contaminants in Canadian arctic wildlife. Prior to 1997, biological effects data were minimal and insufficient at any level of biological organization. The present review summarizes recent studies on biological effects related to contaminant exposure, and compares new tissue concentration data to threshold effects levels. Weak relationships between cadmium, mercury and selenium burdens and health biomarkers in common eider ducks (Somateria mollissima borealis) in Nunavut were found but it was concluded that metals were not influencing the health of these birds. Black guillemots (Cepphus grylle) examined near PCB-contaminated Saglek Bay, Labrador, had enlarged livers, elevated EROD and liver lipid levels and reduced retinol (vitamin A) and retinyl palmitate levels, which correlated to PCB levels in the birds. Circulating levels of thyroid hormones in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) were correlated to PCB and HO-PCB plasma concentrations, but the impact at the population level is unknown. High PCB and organochlorine pesticide concentrations were found to be strongly associated with impaired humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in polar bears, implying an increased infection risk that could impact the population. In beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas), cytochromes P450 (phase I) and conjugating (phase II) enzymes have been extensively profiled (immunochemically and catalytically) in liver, demonstrating the importance of contaminants in relation to enzyme induction, metabolism and potential contaminant bioactivation and fate. Concentrations of OCs and metals in arctic terrestrial wildlife, fish and seabirds are generally below effects thresholds, with the possible exception of PCBs in burbot (Lota lota) in some Yukon lakes, Greenland shark (Somniosus microcephalus), glaucous and great black-backed gulls (Larus hyperboreus and L. marinus), and TEQs of dioxin-like chemicals in seabird eggs. PCB and DDT concentrations in several arctic marine mammal species exceed effects thresholds, although evidence of stress in these populations is lacking. There is little evidence that contaminants are having widespread effects on the health of Canadian arctic organisms, with the possible exception of polar bears. However, further research and better understanding of organohalogen exposure in arctic biota is needed considering factors such as tissue levels that exceed effects thresholds, exposure to "new" organohalogen contaminants of concern, contaminated regions, and climate change.
PubMed ID
16154621 View in PubMed
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Androgen control of vocal control region volumes in a wild migratory songbird (Junco hyemalis) is region and possibly age dependent.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature6827
Source
J Neurobiol. 1997 Apr;32(4):391-402
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-1997
Author
C C Gulledge
P. Deviche
Author Affiliation
Institute of Arctic Biology, University of Alaska Fairbanks 99775-7000, USA.
Source
J Neurobiol. 1997 Apr;32(4):391-402
Date
Apr-1997
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Factors
Androgens - pharmacology
Animals
Birds
Brain - drug effects - physiology
Male
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Vocalization, Animal - drug effects
Abstract
Previous laboratory studies have shown that photoperiodic adult songbirds experience seasonal variations in singing frequency that correlate with plasma androgen levels, as well as changes in the brain regions that control singing (vocal control regions). The present study investigates naturally occurring seasonal changes in the sizes of these regions in a wild migratory species (dark-eyed junco, Junco hyemalis), with samples from adolescence to post-breeding fall migration. In adult males, the volumes of the vocal control regions area X and the higher vocal center (HVC) were large during the breeding season when birds were singing and androgen levels were high, and decreased in size after the breeding season when singing had stopped and androgen levels were low. HVC volume in adolescent males caught in the fall (no singing), when plasma androgen levels were low, was smaller than in breeding adults, thereby following the seasonal pattern of change in plasma androgen levels. In adolescent males, however, area X volume was the same as in breeding adults. Thus, area X size in adolescent male juncos may be testosterone independent. The seasonal pattern of robust nucleus of the archistriatum volume was similar to that of the HVC. The volumes of neither the magnocellular nucleus of the anterior neostriatum nor the nucleus rotundus, a control region, differed seasonally. Castration of breeding adult males caused both area X and HVC volumes to decrease compared to castrated controls with testosterone replacement, indicating that maintenance of these two region volumes is testosterone dependent in adults.
PubMed ID
9087891 View in PubMed
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503 records – page 1 of 51.